EtymologyThe name ''Szeged'' might come from an old Hungarian language, Hungarian word for 'corner' (), pointing to the turn of the river Tisza that flows through the city. Others say it derives from the Hungarian word which means 'island'. Others still contend that means 'dark blond' () – a reference to the color of the water where the rivers Tisza and Mureș (river), Maros merge. The city has its own name in a number of foreign languages, usually by adding a suffix ''-in'' to the Hungarian name: Romanian language, Romanian ; German language, German or ; Serbian language, Serbian ; Ancient Greek, Greek (''Partiskon''); Italian language, Italian ; Latin language, Latin ; Latvian language, Latvian ; Lithuanian language, Lithuanian ; Polish language, Polish ; Croatian language, Croatian Segedin; Slovak language, Slovak and Czech language, Czech ; Turkish language, Turkish .
HistorySzeged and its area have been inhabited since ancient times. Ptolemy mentions the oldest known name of the city: ''Partiscum'' (Ancient Greek: Πάρτισκον)''.'' It is possible that Attila the Hun, Attila, king of the Huns had his seat somewhere in this area. The name Szeged was first mentioned in 1183, in a document of King Béla III. In the second century AD there was a Roman Empire, Roman trading post established on an island in the Tisza, and the foundations of the Szeged castle suggest that the structure may have been built over an even earlier fort. Today only one corner of the castle still remains standing. During the Mongol invasion of Europe, Mongol invasion the town was destroyed and its inhabitants fled to the nearby swamps, but they soon returned and rebuilt their town. In the 14th century, during the reign of Louis I of Hungary, Louis the Great, Szeged became the most important town of Southern Hungary, and – as the Military of the Ottoman Empire, Turkish armies got closer to Hungary – the strategic importance of Szeged grew. King Sigismund of Luxembourg had a city wall, wall built around the town. Szeged was raised to free royal town status in 1498. Szeged was first pillaged by the Military of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Army on 28 September 1526, but was occupied only in 1543, and became an administrative centre of the Ottomans (see Ottoman Hungary). The town was a sanjak centre first in Budin Province, Ottoman Empire, Budin Eyaleti (1543–1596), after in Eğri Eyaleti. The town was freed from Turkish rule on 23 October 1686, and regained the free royal town status in 1715. In 1719, Szeged received its coat of arms (still used today) from Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles III. During the next several years, Szeged grew and prospered. Piarists, Piarist monks arrived in Szeged in 1719 and opened a new grammar school in 1721. Szeged also held scientific lectures and theatrical plays. These years brought not only prosperity but also enlightenment. Between 1728 and 1744 Witch trials in the early modern period, witch trials were frequent in the town, with the Szeged witch trials of 1728–29 perhaps being the largest. The witch trials were instigated by the authorities, who decided on this measure to remove the problem of the public complaints about the drought and its consequences of famine and epidemics by laying the responsibility on people among them, which had fraternized with the Devil. In 1720, the ethnic Hungarians, Hungarian population of the town numbered about 13000 to 16000, while the number of the Serbs, Serb inhabitants was 1300. Szeged is known as the home of paprika, a spice made from dried, powdered capsicum fruits. Paprika arrived in Hungary in the second half of the 16th century as an ornamental plant. About 100 years later the plant was cultivated as an herb, and paprika as we know it. Szeged is also famous for their szekelygulyas, a goulash made with pork, sauerkraut and sour cream. And also famous for their halászlé, fish soup made of carp and catfish. The citizens of Szeged played an important part in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Lajos Kossuth delivered his famous speech here. Szeged was the last seat of the revolutionary government in July 1849. The Habsburg rulers punished the leaders of the town, but later Szeged began to prosper again; the railway reached it in 1854, and the town got its free royal town status back in 1860. Mark Pick's shop – the predecessor of today's Pick Salami Factory – was opened in 1869. Today the inner city of Szeged has wide avenues. This is mainly due to the great flood of 1879, which wiped away the whole town (only 265 of the 5723 houses remained and 165 people died). Emperor Franz Joseph visited the town and promised that "Szeged will be more beautiful than it used to be". He kept his promise, and during the next years a new, modern city emerged from the ruins, with palaces and wide streets.
During the 20th centuryAfter the Hungary in World War I, First World War Hungary lost its southern territories to Serbia, as a result Szeged became a city close to the border, and its importance lessened, but as it took over roles that formerly belonged to the now lost cities, it slowly recovered. Following the Loss of Transylvania to Romania, University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca), moved to Szeged in 1921 (see University of Szeged). In 1923 Szeged took over the role of Bishop, episcopal seat from Temesvár (now Timișoara, Romania). It was briefly occupied by the Romanian army during Hungarian-Romanian War of 1919, Hungarian-Romanian War in 1919. It also became a center for right-wing forces which would install Miklós Horthy as the country's new leader after the overthrow of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. During the 1920s the Jewish population of Szeged grew and reached its zenith. Szeged suffered heavily during Hungary in World War II, World War II. 6,000 inhabitants of the city were killed, In 1941, there were 4,161 Jews living in Szeged. After, March 19, 1944 Operation Margarethe, German occupation, they were confined to a Nazi ghettos, ghetto together with the Jews from surrounding villages. In June, 1944, the ghetto was liquidated. The Nazis murdered the larger part of the 8,500 and some were forced into Forced labour under German rule during World War II, forced labor in Strasshof Labor camp, Austria. Szeged was captured by Red Army, Soviet troops of the Steppe Front, 2nd Ukrainian Front on 11 October 1944 in the course of the Battle of Debrecen. During the communist era, Szeged became a centre of light industry and food industry. In 1965 Petroleum, oil was found near the city. In 1962, Szeged became the county seat of Csongrád-Csanád County, Csongrád. Whole new districts were built, and many nearby villages (e.g. Tápé, Szőreg, Kiskundorozsma, Szentmihálytelek, Gyálarét) were annexed to the city in 1973 (as was a tendency during the Hungarian People's Republic, Communist era). Today's Szeged is an important university town and a tourist attraction. The Szeged Symphony Orchestra (Szegedi Szimfonikus Zenekar) gives regular concerts at the Szegedi Nemzeti Színház.
GeographySzeged is situated near the southern border of , just to the south of the mouth of the Maros River, on both banks of the Tisza River, nearly in the centre of the Carpathian Basin. The Hungarian frontier with Serbia is just outside the town.
ClimateSzeged's climate is transitional between Oceanic climate, oceanic Köppen climate classification, Köppen "Köppen climate classification#GROUP C: Mild Temperate/mesothermal climates, Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate) and Humid continental climate, continental (Köppen ''Dfb''), with cold winters, hot summers, and fairly low precipitation. Due to the high hours of sunlight reported annually, Szeged is often called ''City of Sunshine'' ().
EducationThe city of Szeged has 62 kindergartens, 32 elementary schools and 18 high schools. The two most prominent high schools (''Ságvári Endre Gyakorló Gimnázium'' and ''Radnóti Miklós Kísérleti Gimnázium'') are in the top fifteen in the country. Szeged is the higher education centre of the and has built quite a reputation for itself. Thousands of students study here, many of whom are foreigners. The University of Szeged is according to the number of students the List of universities and colleges in Hungary, second largest and the List of universities and colleges in Hungary, 4th oldest university of Hungary being established in 1581. Ranked as the top university of the country o
DemographicsEthnic groups (2001 census): * Hungarians – 93.5% * Romani people, Romani – 0.7% * Germans – 0.5% * Serbs – 0.2% * Romanians – 0.2% * Croats – 0.1% * Slovaks – 0.1% * No answer (unknown) – 4.7% Religions (2001 census): * Roman Catholic – 54.5% * Calvinist – 6.7% * Lutheran – 1.6% * Greek Catholic – 0.6% * Others (Christian) – 1.3% * Others (non-Christian) – 0.4% * Atheist – 21.8% * No answer (unknown) – 13.1%
EconomySzeged is one of the centres of food industry in Hungary, especially known for its paprika and companies like Pick Szeged, Sole-Mizo, Bonafarm etc. Other notable companies having their headquarters in Szeged are AMSY International, RRE – Szeged, Optiwella, Generál Printing House, RotaPack, Sanex Pro, Agroplanta, Karotin, Florin, Quadrotex and SZEPLAST. Others, like Continental AG, ContiTech, Heidelberg Cement, Duna-Dráva Cement, Szatmári Malom and Europe Match, are not based in the city, but have production facilities there. The Hangár Expo and Conference Centre provides space for international exhibitions and conferences.
TransportSzeged is the most important transportation hub in the . Two motorways, M5 motorway (Hungary), M5 and M43 motorway (Hungary), M43, lie along the city border. Through the M5 motorway (Hungary), M5 Motorway Szeged is connected to Kecskemét, Kiskunfélegyháza and Budapest in the north direction and to Subotica, Novi Sad and Beograd, Belgrade in Serbia in the south direction. Thanks to the M43 motorway (Hungary), M43 Motorway – which splits from the M5 Motorway near Szeged – goes near Makó to Arad, Romania, Arad and Timișoara in Romania. In addition, there are other roads running from the city to Makó and Nagylak (Mainroad 43), to Röszke (Mainroad 5), to Kiskunfélegyháza (Mainroad 5), to Ásotthalom and Baja, Hungary, Baja (Mainroad 55) and to Hódmezővásárhely, Orosháza and Békéscsaba (Mainroad 47). The Budapest-Szeged-rail line is an important rail connection, as well as the Railwaylines 121 (to Makó), 135 (to Hódmezővásárhely), 136 (to Röszke) and 140 (to Kiskunfélegyháza). A tram-train system has been constructed and inagurated in November 2021, connecting Szeged with the neighbouring Hódmezővásárhely, thus creating the second most populous urban agglomeration in the country, after the capital. There was a proposal for its extension, even through the Serbian border, to Subotica. The city is also a common stop for national and international long-distance buses.
Motorways* M5 motorway (Hungary), M5 * M43 motorway (Hungary), M43
Railways* 121 (to Makó) * 135 (to Hódmezővásárhely) * 136 (to Röszke) * 140 (to Kiskunfélegyháza).
AirportSzeged Airport is the international airport of Szeged.
Public transportAs of May 2018 Szeged had 39 local bus lines – 15 in the city centre and 24 in the suburbs. While there were also 5 Trams in Szeged, tram lines.
SportThe most popular sport in the city is handball. The city has one well-known club the 2013–14 EHF Cup-winner SC Pick Szeged playing in the Nemzeti Bajnokság I (men's handball), Nemzeti Bajnokság I. The second most popular sport is Association football, football in the city. Szeged had several clubs playing in the top level Hungarian league, the Nemzeti Bajnokság I. These are Szegedi AK, Szegedi Honvéd SE. The only currently operating club, Szeged 2011 play in the Nemzeti Bajnokság II.
Association football clubs*Szeged 2011, currently competing in the 2018–19 Nemzeti Bajnokság III *Szegedi Egységes Oktatási Labdarúgó SC, currently competing in the 2018–19 Nemzeti Bajnokság III *Szegedi VSE, currently competing in the Csongrád county championship *Szegedi EAC, defunct *Szegedi AK, defunct *Szegedi Honvéd SE, defunct
PoliticsThe current mayor of Szeged is László Botka (Association for Szeged). The local Municipal Assembly, elected at the 2019 Hungarian local elections, 2019 local government elections, is made up of 33 members (1 Mayor, 23 Individual constituencies MEPs and 9 Compensation List MEPs) divided into this political parties and alliances:
List of mayorsList of City Mayors from 1990:
MediaThe city offers a wide range of media – television and radio stations, and print and online newspapers.
TV stations* Szeged TV * Tarjáni Kábeltévé Stúdió * TiszapART TV * Telin Televízió
Radio stations* "Rádió 88" FM 95,4 MHz * All in Party Radio * Rádió Mi, 89,9 MHz * Lánchíd Rádió, FM 100,2 MHz * MR1 Kossuth Rádió, FM 90,3 MHz * MR2 Petőfi Rádió, 104,6 MHz * MR3 Bartók Rádió, 105,7 MHz * Dankó Rádió, 93,1 MHz
Daily newspapers and news portals* Délmagyarország () * * *
Born in Szeged*Adrián Annus (1975), hammer thrower *Gábor Agárdy (1922–2006), actor *Béla Balázs (1884–1949), writer, poet, film critic *Zsolt Becsey (1964), politician *Joseph Csaky (1888–1971) sculptor *Krisztián Cser (1977) opera singer, physicist *Attila Czene (1974), Olympic champion medley swimmer *János Csonka (1852–1939), engineer, co-inventor of the carburetor *Mihály Erdélyi (1895–1979), operetta composer *Sophie Evans (actress), Sophie Evans (1976), adult movie star *Ivan Fellegi (1935), Chief Statistician of Canada *Rajmund Fodor (1976), Olympic champion water polo player *Jenő Huszka (1875–1960), composer *Éva Janikovszky (1926–2003), writer *Ferenc Joachim (1882–1964), painter *Gyula Juhász (poet), Gyula Juhász (1883–1937), poet *Esther Jungreis, Orthodox Jewish outreach speaker *Judith Karasz (1912–1977), photographer and Bauhaus graduate * (1857?), architect *Géza Maróczy (1870–1951), chess grand master *Anita Márton (1989), shot putter *Tamás Molnár (1975), Olympic champion water polo player *Nickolas Muray (born Miklós Mandl; 1892–1965), Hungarian-born American photographer and Olympic fencer *Róbert Nagy (speedway rider), Róbert Nagy (1967), speedway rider *László Paskai (1927–2015), Archbishop of Esztergom *Szilvia Peter Szabo (1982), singer *Willy Pogany (1882–1955), illustrator *György Sebők (1922–1999), pianist *Julius Stahel (1825–1912), American Civil War general and diplomat *Hanna Tetteh (1967), Foreign minister of the Republic of Ghana * (1983), singer *Attila Vajda (1983), Olympic champion canoer *Vilmos Zsigmond (1930), cinematographer
Lived in Szeged*Mihály Babits poet, writer *Lipót Fejér mathematician *Alfréd Haar mathematician *Attila József poet *László Kalmár mathematician *Dezső Kosztolányi poet, novelist *Leopold Löw rabbi, historian and Judaic scholar *Immanuel Löw rabbi, Judaic scholar, politician *Kálmán Mikszáth writer *Ferenc Móra writer, archaeologist *Miklós Radnóti poet *Frigyes Riesz mathematician *Albert Szent-Györgyi Nobel prize winner chemist and biologist *Béla Szőkefalvi-Nagy mathematician *Peter Leko chess grandmaster *Ferenc Fricsay conductor *Adele Zay (1848–1928), teacher and feminist
Twin towns – sister citiesSzeged is Sister city, twinned with: * Cambridge, England, United Kingdom (1987) * Darmstadt, Germany (1990) * Kotor Municipality, Kotor, Montenegro (2001) * Larnaca, Cyprus (1994) * Liège, Belgium (2001) * Łódź, Poland (2004) * Nice, France (1969) * Odessa, Ukraine (1957) * Parma, Italy (1988) * Pula, Croatia (2003) * Rakhiv, Ukraine (1939, renewed 1997) * Subotica, Serbia (1966, renewed 2004) * Târgu Mureș, Romania (1997) * Timișoara, Romania (1998) * Toledo, Ohio, Toledo, United States (1990) * Turku, Finland (1971) * Weinan, China (1999)
See also*Public transport in Szeged *Szeged Symphony Orchestra *National Theatre of Szeged