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The State Duma ( rus, Госуда́рственная ду́ма, r=Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma ( rus, Госду́ма), is the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
of the
Federal Assembly of Russia The Federal Assembly ( rus, Федера́льное Собра́ние, r=Federalnoye Sobraniye, p=fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə sɐˈbranʲɪjə) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of the Russian Fed ...
, while the upper house is the
Federation Council The Federation Council (russian: Сове́т Федера́ции; ''Soviet Federatsii'', common abbreviation: Совфед (''Sovfed'') or ru , Сенат , translit = Senat , translation = Senate) is the upper house of the Federal Assem ...
. The
Duma A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind ...

Duma
headquarters are located in central
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the
Supreme Soviet The Supreme Soviet (russian: Верховный Совет, Verkhovny Sovet, Supreme Council) was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). ...
as a result of the new constitution introduced by
Boris Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin ( rus, links=no, Борис Николаевич Ельцин, a=ru-Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin.ogg, p=bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ ˈjelʲtsɨn; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian and former Soviet ...

Boris Yeltsin
in the aftermath of the
Russian constitutional crisis of 1993 The Russian constitutional crisis of 1993 (also known as the 1993 October Coup, Black October, the Shooting of the White House (Moscow), White House or Ukase 1400) was a War of Laws#Issues in a new Russia, political stand-off between the Presi ...
, and approved by the Russian people
in a referendum
in a referendum
. In the
2007 2007 was designated as the International Heliophysical YearImage:IHY logo.png, 200px, right The International Heliophysical Year is a United Nations, UN-sponsored scientifically driven international program of scientific collaboration to unde ...
and
2011 Russian legislative election Legislative elections were held in Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of t ...
s a full
party-list proportional representation Party-list proportional representation is a subset of proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportio ...
with 7%
electoral threshold The electoral threshold, or election threshold, is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature A legislature is an delibe ...
system was used, but this was subsequently repealed. The legislature's term length was initially 2 years in the 1993–1995 elections period, and 4 years in 1999–2007 elections period; since the 2011 elections the term length is 5 years.


History


Early history

The history of the Duma dates back to the Boyar dumas of Kievan Rus' and Muscovite Russia as well to Tsarist Russia. The State Duma was founded in 1905 after the violence and upheaval in the
Russian Revolution of 1905 The Russian Revolution of 1905,. also known as the First Russian Revolution,. was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker st ...
and was Russia's first elected parliament. The first two attempts by Tsar
Nicholas II Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov . ( 186817 July 1918), known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, . was the last Emperor of All Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until Abdication of Nicholas II ...
(1868-1918) to make it active were ineffective. Subsequently, each of these Dumas was dissolved after only a few months. The third Duma was the only one to last until the end of its five-year term. After the 1907 electoral reform, the third Duma, elected in November 1907, was largely made up of members of the upper classes, as radical influences in the Duma had almost entirely been removed. The establishment of the Duma after the
1905 Revolution The Russian Revolution of 1905,. also known as the First Russian Revolution,. was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, ...
was to herald significant changes to the previous Russian Imperial autocratic system. Furthermore, the Duma was later to have an important effect on Russian history, as it was one of the contributing factors in the
February Revolution The February Revolution ( rus, Февра́льская револю́ция, p=fʲɪvˈralʲskəjə rʲɪvɐˈlʲutsɨjə, tr. ), known in Soviet historiography Soviet historiography is the methodology of history History (from Greek , ...
of 1917, the first of two that year, which led to the abolition of autocracy in Russia and the overthrow of the Tsar.


Recent history


1990s

Several generations and 75 years later after another revolutionary era, in the December 1993 elections pro-Yeltsin parties won 175 seats in the Duma versus 125 seats for the left bloc. The balance of power lay with the sixty-four deputies of the
ultranationalist Ultranationalism is "extreme nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common cul ...
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia LDPR — Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (russian: ЛДПР — Либерально-демократическая партия России, LDPR — Liberal'no-demokraticheskaya partiya Rossii) is a Right-wing populism, right-wing populist ...
. Only parties that won more than five percent of the vote were given party-list seats: eight passed the threshold in 1993. In addition to those eight parties, a pool of thirty-five deputies was entitled to form a registered group to reflect regional or sectoral interests. Business was governed by a steering committee, the Duma Council, consisting of one person from each party or group. The most important task was dividing up the chair positions in the Duma's twenty-three committees, which was done as part of a power-sharing "package" deal. Despite the fact that the 1993 Russian Constitution states that the State Duma is elected for four years, it was decided to elect the
first State Duma Legislative elections were held in the Russian Empire from 26 March to 20 April 1906 to elect the 497 members of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, State Duma. The elections returned a significant bloc of moderate socialists and deputies from ...
for two years. During the second half of the 1990s, the Duma became an important forum for lobbying by regional leaders and businessmen looking for tax breaks and legislative favors. The work of the leading committees, such as those for defense, foreign affairs, or budget, attracted a good deal of media attention and lobbying activity.


2000s

In the early 2000s, following the 1999 parliamentary elections, the pro-presidential Unity party and the
Communist Party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and part ...
were the leading forces in the State Duma. After the
2003 elections The following elections occurred in the year 2003. Africa * 2003 Beninese parliamentary election * 2003 Djiboutian parliamentary election * 2003 Guinean presidential election * 2003 Mauritanian presidential election * 2003 Nigerian parliamentary e ...
, a
Dominant-party system A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a political occurrence in which a single political party continuously dominates election results over running opposition Opposition may refer to: Arts and media * Opposition (Altars ...
was established in the State Duma with the pro-presidential
United Russia United Russia ( rus, links=, Единая Россия, Yedinaya Rossiya, (j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is a political party in Russia. United Russia is the largest party in Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or th ...
party. In all subsequent elections, United Russia has always received an absolute majority of seats (more than 226). After the 2007 elections, a four-party system was formed with a
United Russia United Russia ( rus, links=, Единая Россия, Yedinaya Rossiya, (j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is a political party in Russia. United Russia is the largest party in Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or th ...
,
Communist Party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and part ...
,
Liberal Democratic Party Several political party, political parties from around the world have been called the Liberal Democratic Party or Liberal Democrats. These parties usually follow a liberal democracy, liberal democratic ideology. Active parties Former parties ...
and
A Just Russia A, or a, is the first letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as rep ...

A Just Russia
. Other parties could not get enough votes to go to the State Duma. Only in 2016 elections, two other parties, Rodina and the
Civic Platform Civic Platform ( pl, Platforma Obywatelska, PO)The party is officially the Civic Platform of the Republic of Poland (''Platforma Obywatelska Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej''). is a political party in Poland. It is currently led by Donald Tusk Don ...
, were able to get one seat. In 2008, after the adoption of amendments to the Constitution, the term of the State Duma was increased from four to five years.


2010s

In 2014, the State Duma elected in 2011 took part in legally integrating recently annexed Crimea. A 2016 exposé by
Dissernet Dissernet (russian: Диссернет) is a volunteer community network working to clean Russian science of plagiarism. The core activity of the community is conducting examinations of Doctor of Philosophy, doctoral and habilitation (higher doctor ...
showed that one in nine members of the State Duma had obtained academic degrees with theses that were substantially plagiarized and likely ghostwritten. In 2018, it became known that the
State Duma building The building of Council of Labor and Defense (russian: Здание Совета труда и обороны, Zdaniye Soveta truda i oborony) is a state building located on Okhotny Ryad Street in central Moscow, Russia, 250 meters north of the Kr ...
will be reconstructed. In March 2019 it became known that the repair will begin in May 2019 and will end in September 2020. During this period, the State Duma was temporarily housed in the
House of Unions The House of the Unions (russian: Дом союзов) (also called ''Palace of the Unions'') is a historical building in the Tverskoy District in central Moscow, Russia. It is situated on the corner of Bolshaya Dmitrovka and Okhotny Ryad (street ...
. In addition, a draft of a new conference room, which would be an
amphitheatre An amphitheatre (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar an ...

amphitheatre
, was presented. Following the results of the 2021 election, in addition to the four main parties, the New People party was also elected to the State Duma. Thus, for the first time since 1999, a five-party State Duma was formed.


Powers of the State Duma

The State Duma has special powers enumerated by the
Constitution of Russia The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on . Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the ea ...
. They are: * Consent to the appointment of the
Prime Minister of Russia The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, also known as the prime minister, is the head of the Russian government, the chief executive of the Russian Cabinet The government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian ...
. * Hearing annual reports from the Government of the Russian Federation on the results of its work, including on issues raised by the State Duma. * Deciding the
issue of confidence
issue of confidence
in the
Government of the Russian Federation The government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister of Russia, Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. ...
. * Appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the
Central Bank of Russia The Central Bank of the Russian Federation (russian: Центральный банк Российской Федерации, Tsentral'nyy bank Rossiyskoy Federatsii), also known as the Bank of Russia (russian: Банк России, Bank Rossii) ...
. * Appointment and dismissal of the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber. * Appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for
Human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
, who shall act according to federal constitutional law. * Announcement of
amnesty Amnesty (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
. * Bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for his
impeachment Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...

impeachment
(requires a two-thirds majority). The State Duma adopts decrees on issues relating to its authority by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.


Election

The legal framework that is used to elect Duma differed over the years. Save to parliamentary election of 2007 and election of 2011 the mixed system of
parallel voting Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral syste ...
was used to elect Duma. The system was restored back in February 2014 from a
party-list proportional representation Party-list proportional representation is a subset of proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportio ...
system enacted in 2003 with an increased threshold of 7% which was lowered this time to 5%.


Constituencies

According to the law adopted in 2014 the Russian territory is divided into constituencies which are used for elections of single candidates per constituency. The entire Russia however is treated as a single constituency for the party-lists ballots.


Procedures


Bills and Laws

Bills of the State Duma are adopted by a majority of the total number of deputies of the State Duma, unless another procedure is envisaged by the Constitution. All bills are first approved by the State Duma and are further debated and approved (or rejected) by the Federation Council. Relatively few
roll call vote Deliberative assembly, Deliberative assemblies – bodies that use parliamentary procedure to arrive at Decision making, decisions – use several methods of voting on motion (parliamentary procedure), motions (formal proposal by members of a delib ...
s have been published that identify individual deputies' votes. The votes of individuals are recorded only if the voting is open and the electronic method is used. While not all votes are officially roll call votes, every time a deputy electronically votes a computer registers the individual deputy's vote.


Membership

Any Russian citizen who is age 21 or older is eligible to participate in the election may be elected deputy to the State Duma. However, that same person may not be a deputy to the Federation Council. In addition, a State Duma deputy cannot hold office in any other representative body of state power or bodies of local self-government. The office as deputy of the State Duma is a full-time and professional position. Thus, deputies to the State Duma may not be employed in the civil service or engage in any activities for remuneration other than teaching, research or other creative activities.


Chairmen of the State Duma

* (1994–1996) *
Gennadiy Seleznyov Gennadiy Nikolayevich Seleznyov (russian: Геннадий Николаевич Селезнёв; 6 November 1947 – 19 July 2015) was a Russian politician, the Chairman of the State Duma from 1996 to 2003. Journalist Born at Serov (town), Sero ...
(1996–2003) *
Boris Gryzlov Boris Vyacheslavovich Gryzlov (also spelled Grizlov; russian: Борис Вячеславович Грызлов, ; born December 15, 1950), is a Russian politician. He was Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia), Interior Minister from 2001 to 2003 ...

Boris Gryzlov
(2003–2011) *
Sergey Naryshkin Sergey Yevgenyevich Naryshkin ( rus, Серге́й Евге́ньевич Нары́шкин, p=sʲɪrˈɡʲej jɪˈvɡʲenʲɪvʲɪtɕ nɐˈrɨʂkʲɪn; born 27 October 1954) is a Russian official, politician, businessman and the Director of S ...
(2011–2016) *
Vyacheslav Volodin Vyacheslav Viktorovich Volodin (russian: Вячеслав Викторович Володин; born 4 February 1964) is a Russian politician who has served as the 10th Chairman of the State Duma since 5 October 2016. He is a former aide to Pre ...
(since 2016)


List of State Duma convocations


Historical composition


Latest election


References


External links

* {{Coord, 55, 45, 27, N, 37, 36, 55, E, source:kolossus-svwiki, display=title 1993 establishments in Russia Federal Assembly (Russia) Government of Russia
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
Tverskoy District