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) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang =
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France ** French language, a French language which originated in France, and its various dialects ** French people, a nation and ethnic group identified with Fr ...
, capital =
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
, CapCoord = , largest_city =
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
, largest_metro =
Greater Montreal Greater Montreal is the most populous metropolitan area in Quebec and the second most populous in Canada after Greater Toronto. In 2015, Statistics Canada identified Montreal's Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) as with a population of 4,027,100. ...
, government_type =
Constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchies differ from absolute monarchies (in which a monarch holds absolute ...
, governing_body =
Government of Quebec The provincial government of Quebec (french: gouvernement provincial du Québec) is the body responsible for the administration of the Canadian province of Quebec. A constitutional monarchy, the Crown is the corporation sole, assuming distinct role ...
, Premier =
François Legault Joseph Léo François Legault (; born May 26, 1957) is a Canadian politician serving as Premier of Quebec since 2018; the 32nd since Confederation. A member of the Coalition Avenir Québec (CAQ), he has led the party since its founding in 2011. Le ...
, PremierParty = CAQ , Viceroy = J. Michel Doyon , ViceroyType = Lieutenant Governor , Legislature = National Assembly of Quebec , area_rank = 2nd , area_total_km2 = 1542056 , area_land_km2 = 1365128 , area_water_km2 = 176928 , PercentWater = 11.5 , population_demonym = in English: Quebecer or Quebecker,
in French: Québécois ( m)The term '' Québécois'' (feminine: ''Québécoise''), which is usually reserved for francophone Quebecers, may be rendered in English without both e-acute (''é''): ''Quebecois'' (fem.: ''Quebecoise''). (''Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage''; ; p. 335) Québécoise ( f) , population_rank = 2nd , population_total = 8164361 , population_ref = , population_as_of =
2016 2016 was designated as: * International Year of Pulses by the sixty-eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly. * International Year of Global Understanding (IYGU) by the International Council for Science (ICSU), the International So ...
, population_est = 8575779 , pop_est_as_of = 2020 Q4 , pop_est_ref = , DensityRank = 5th , Density_km2 = 6.0 , GDP_year = 2015 , GDP_total = C$380.972 billion , GDP_rank = 2nd , GDP_per_capita = C$46,126 , GDP_per_capita_rank = 10th , HDI_year = 2018 , HDI = 0.908Very high , HDI_rank = 5th , AdmittanceOrder = 1st, with
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , largest_city ...
,
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French , capital = Halifax , l ...
,
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton , largest_city = Moncton , largest_metro = Great ...
, AdmittanceDate = July 1, 1867 , Nationalday = June 24 , HouseSeats = 78 , SenateSeats = 24 , timezone1_location = most of the province , timezone1 =
Eastern Time Zone The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing part or all of 23 states in the eastern part of the United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama and Colombia, mainland Ecuador, Peru, and a small port ...
, utc_offset1 = -05:00 , timezone1_DST = , utc_offset1_DST = -04:00 , timezone2_location = Magdalen Islands and Listuguj Mi'gmaq First Nation , timezone2 =
Atlantic Time Zone The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC−04:00. During part of the year, some portions of t ...
, utc_offset2 = -04:00 , timezone2_DST = , utc_offset2_DST = -03:00 , timezone3_location = east of the Natashquan River , timezone3 =
Atlantic Time Zone The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC−04:00. During part of the year, some portions of t ...
, utc_offset3 = -04:00 , timezone3_DST = , utc_offset3_DST = , PostalAbbreviation = QC , PostalCodePrefix = G, H, J , iso_code = CA-QC , website = www.quebec.ca , flower =
Blue flag iris ''Iris versicolor'' is also commonly known as the blue flag, harlequin blueflag, larger blue flag, northern blue flag, and poison flag, plus other variations of these names, and in Britain and Ireland as purple iris. It is a species of ''Iris'' ...
, tree =
Yellow birch ''Betula alleghaniensis'', the yellow birch, golden birch, or swamp birch, is a large and important lumber species of birch native to northeastern North America. Its vernacular names refer to the golden color of the tree's bark. The name ''Betula ...
, bird =
Snowy owl The snowy owl (''Bubo scandiacus''), also known as the polar owl, the white owl and the Arctic owl, is a large, white owl of the true owl family. Snowy owls are native to the Arctic regions of both North America and the Palearctic, breeding most ...
Quebec (, sometimes ; french: link=no, Québec )According to the
Canadian government The Government of Canada (french: gouvernement du Canada) is the body responsible for the federal administration of Canada. A constitutional monarchy, the Crown is the corporation sole, assuming distinct roles: the executive, as the ''Crown-in-Co ...
, Québec (with the
acute accent The acute accent, , is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts. Uses History An early precursor of the acute accent was the apex, used in Latin inscriptions to mark lon ...
) is the official name in
Canadian French Canadian French (french: français canadien) is the French language as it is spoken in Canada. It includes multiple varieties, the most prominent being Quebec French. Formerly ''Canadian French'' referred solely to Quebec French and the closely ...
and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in
Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada. According to the 2016 census, English was the first language of more than 19.4 million Canadians or 58.1% of the total population; the remainde ...
; the name i
one of 81 locales of pan-Canadian significance with official forms in both languages
. The official name of the capital is Québec in both official languages. The Government of Quebec renders both names as ''Québec'' in both languages.
is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...

Canada
. The
House of Commons of Canada The House of Commons of Canada (french: Chambre des communes du Canada, link=no) is the lower chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Canada, which also comprises the sovereign (represented by the governor general as ''ex officio'' viceroy) and th ...
passed a symbolic motion in 2006, in quasi-unanimity, recognizing the " Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". Quebec is bordered to the west by
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , largest_city ...
,
James Bay James Bay (french: Baie James, cr, Wînipekw) is a large body of water located on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada. Both bodies of water extend from the Arctic Ocean, of which James Bay is the southernmost part. It borders the Canadian pr ...
and
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: ''Kangiqsualuk ilua'' or ''Tasiujarjuaq'' french: baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of . It is located north of Onta ...
; to the north by
Hudson Strait The Hudson's Bay Company ships ''Prince of Wales'' and bartering with the Inuit off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson Strait; by Robert Hood (1819) Hudson Strait links the Atlantic Ocean and Labrador Sea to Hudson Bay in Canada. This strait lies ...
and
Ungava Bay Ungava Bay (French: ''baie d'Ungava'', Inuktitut (syllabics/Roman) ᐅᖓᕙ ᑲᖏᖅᓗᒃ/''ungava kangiqluk'') is a bay in northeastern Canada separating Nunavik (far northern Quebec) from Baffin Island. Although not geographically apparent, it ...
; to the east by the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence , image = Baie de la Tour.jpg , alt = , caption = Gulf of Saint Lawrence from Anticosti National Park, Quebec , image_bathymetry = Golfe Saint-Laurent en.png , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry ...

Gulf of Saint Lawrence
and
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland and the continental region of Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of . In 2018, the ...
; and to the south by
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton , largest_city = Moncton , largest_metro = Great ...
,
Maine Maine () is a state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast; and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest, respectively ...
,
New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hamps ...
,
Vermont Vermont () is a state in the New England region of the United States. It borders the states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, and New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont is the on ...
and
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * ''Ne ...
. Quebec is Canada's largest province by area. The climate in the south is four-seasons
continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * ''Continental'' (album), an album by Saint Etienne * ...
with cold and snowy winters, and hot humid summers. In the north, the winters are long and
tundra In physical geography, tundra () is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term ''tundra'' comes through Russian (') from the Kildin Sámi word (') meaning "uplands", "treeless mount ...
dominates. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada. Most of its population lives in urban areas near the
Saint Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow ...
between
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
and
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
. Approximately half of residents live in the
Greater Montreal Greater Montreal is the most populous metropolitan area in Quebec and the second most populous in Canada after Greater Toronto. In 2015, Statistics Canada identified Montreal's Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) as with a population of 4,027,100. ...
Area. The
Nord-du-Québec Nord-du-Québec (; en, Northern Quebec) is the largest, but the least populous, of the seventeen administrative regions of Quebec, Canada. With nearly of land area, and very extensive lakes and rivers, it covers much of the Labrador Peninsula and ...

Nord-du-Québec
region is sparsely populated and mostly inhabited by
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of Canadian indigenous peoples, distinct from the Inuit and Métis. Traditionally the First Nations lived south of the tree line, and mainly south of the Arctic Circle. There ...
. Quebec is the only province to have a predominantly
French-speaking French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spoken in Gaul, and more specifically in No ...
population. The province's
variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
of French is called
Québécois French Quebec French (french: français québécois ; also known as Québécois French or Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers. Quebec French is used in everyday communication, a ...
and the province possesses 14 regional accents deriving from it. In 2016, 79.1% of residents were
francophones This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken. French-based creoles are considered separate languages for the purpose of this art ...
, while 8.9% were
anglophones#REDIRECT English-speaking world ...

anglophones
and 12% were
allophones In phonology, an allophone (; from the Greek , ''állos'', "other" and , ''phōnē'', "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or ''phones'', or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language. For ex ...
. Most allophones and anglophones live on the
island of Montreal upright=1.15, Ireland (left) and Great Britain (right), are large islands of north-west Europe image:Small Island in Lower Saranac Lake.jpg, A small island in Lower Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks, New York state, U.S. Bangchuidao Isla ...
. Altogether, 94.6% of Quebec's population reported knowledge of French, which is the province's sole
official language An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government (judiciary, legislature ...
. Quebec is renowned for its unique and vibrant culture. The province has its own celebrities, and produces its own
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expanded to incl ...
,
music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common e ...
,
films A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These image ...
,
TV shows This is a list of television shows and articles. By genre or characteristic See List of TV genres. *Action series *Anthology series *Award shows *Children's television shows *List of animated television series *List of comedy television series *L ...
,
festivals A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. A festival constitutes typi ...
,
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include material ...
, songs, art and more. Quebec also has its own cuisine and
national symbols A national symbol is a symbol of any entity considering and manifesting itself to the world as a national community: the sovereign states but also nations and countries in a state of colonial or other dependence, (con)federal integration, or even ...
. Quebec is well-known for its comedy shows, producing most -72%- of the world's
maple syrup Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before winter; th ...

maple syrup
, and making
hockey Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to manoeuvre a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick. There are many types of hockey such as bandy, field hockey, ice hockey and rink hockey. In most of ...
popular in Canada.«Producteurs et productrices acéricoles du Québec"
(consulted 2020-04-14)
Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Québécois political culture mostly differs on a
federalist The term ''federalist'' describes several political beliefs around the world. It may also refer to the concept of parties, whose members or supporters called themselves ''Federalists''.http://m-w.com/dictionary/federalist. History Europe In Eur ...
-vs-
nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people),Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity, 2010. pp. 9, 25–30; especially with the aim of gaining and ...
continuum instead of a
left Left may refer to: Music * ''Left'' (Hope of the States album), 2006 * ''Left'' (Monkey House album), 2016 * ''Left'' (Sharlok Poems album) Direction * Left (direction), the relative direction opposite of right *Left-handedness Politics * Left ...
-vs-
right Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory. ...
continuum.
Parti Québécois The Parti Québécois (; ; PQ) is a sovereignist and social democratic provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. The PQ advocates national sovereignty for Quebec involving independence of the province of Quebec from Canada and establishing a ...
governments A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
held referendums on
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate authority over other people in order to establish a law or change an existing law. In polit ...
in
1980 Events January * January 4 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter proclaims a grain embargo against the USSR with the support of the European Commission. * January 6 – Global Positioning System time epoch begins at 00:00 UTC. * January 7 – U.S. ...
and
1995 1995 was designated as: * United Nations Year for Tolerance * World Year of Peoples’ Commemoration of the Victims of the Second World War This was the first year that the Internet was entirely privatized, with the United States government ...
. The 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, and only failed by 0.6%. See drop-down essay on "History Since 1960" Between 1534 and 1763, Quebec was called ''
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...
'' and it was the most developed colony in
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain ...
. Following the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) was a global conflict, "a struggle for global primacy between Britain and France", which also had a major impact on the Spanish Empire. In Europe, the conflict arose from issues left unresolved by the War of ...
, Quebec became a
British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony administered by the Government of the United Kingdom (the Crown). There was usually a Governor, appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the ''Home'' (UK) Government, with or ...
in the
British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. It remained as such from 1763 to 1867, first as the
Province of Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = French , capital = Quebec City , CapCoord = , largest_city ...
(1763-1791), then as
Lower Canada The Province of Lower Canada (french: province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841). It covered the southern portion of the current Province of Quebec and ...
(1791-1841) before becoming
Canada East Canada East (french: links=no, Canada-Est) was the northeastern portion of the United Province of Canada. Lord Durham's Report investigating the causes of the Upper and Lower Canada Rebellions recommended merging those two colonies. The new col ...
(1841-1867) as a result of the
Lower Canada Rebellion The Lower Canada Rebellion (french: rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War () in French, is the name given to the armed conflict in 1837–38 between rebels and the colonial government of Lower Canada (now souther ...
. It was, finally, incorporated into the
Confederation of Canada#REDIRECT Canadian Confederation {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
in 1867. Until the early 1960s, the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international ...

Catholic Church
played a large role in the development of social and cultural institutions in Quebec. However, in the 1960s, the
Quiet Revolution The Quiet Revolution (french: Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Québec, characterized by the effective secularization of government, the creation of a state-run w ...
increased the role of the
government of Quebec The provincial government of Quebec (french: gouvernement provincial du Québec) is the body responsible for the administration of the Canadian province of Quebec. A constitutional monarchy, the Crown is the corporation sole, assuming distinct role ...
in controlling political, social and future developments of the state of Quebec.https://www.usherbrooke.ca/crifuq/fileadmin/sites/crifuq/contributions/MERCIER_REMYSEN_CAJOLET2017.pdf Quebec society's cohesion and specificity is based on three of its unique
statutoryA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules and the reulation whichhas to be followed by each citizen in the county. A statute ...
documents: the
Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms The ''Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms'' (french: Charte des droits et libertés de la personne) is a statutory bill of rights and human rights code passed by the National Assembly of Quebec on June 27, 1975. It received Royal Assent from Lie ...
, the
Charter of the French Language The ''Charter of the French Language'' (french: link=no, La charte de la langue française), (the Charter) also known in English as Bill 101 or Law 101 (''french: link=no, Loi 101''), is a law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the ...
and the
Civil Code of Quebec The ''Civil Code of Quebec'' (CCQ, french: Code civil du Québec) is the civil code in force in the Canadian province of Quebec, which came into effect on January 1, 1994. It replaced the ''Civil Code of Lower Canada'' (french: Code civil du Bas- ...
. Furthermore, unlike in the
rest of Canada English Canada, in general, refers to the population within Canada, whether of British origin or otherwise, that speaks English. The term ''English Canada'' can also be used for one of the following: #Describing all the provinces of Canada that h ...
,
law in Quebec Quebec law is unique in Canada because Quebec is the only province in Canada to have a juridical legal system (pertaining to the administration of justice) under which civil matters are regulated by French-heritage civil law. Public law, criminal la ...
is mixed.
Private law#REDIRECT Private law#REDIRECT Private law {{R from other capitalization ...
{{R from other capitalization ...
is exercised under a civil law system, and
public law Public law is the part of law that governs relationships between legal persons and a government, between different institutions within a state, between different branches of governments, and relationships between persons that are of direct conce ...
is exercised under a
common law#REDIRECT common law#REDIRECT common law {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
system. Quebec's economy is diversified and
post-industrial In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy. The term was originated by Alain Touraine and is closely related to simi ...
. Sectors of the
knowledge economy The knowledge economy (or the knowledge-based economy) is an economic system in which the production of goods and services is based principally on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to a rapid pace of advancement in technical and sc ...
such as
aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace engineering consists of aeronautics and astronaut ...
,
information and communication technologies Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, ...
,
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...
and the
pharmaceutical industry The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications to be administered (or self-administered) to patients, with the aim to cure them, vaccinate them, or alleviate the symptoms ...
play leading roles. Quebec's substantial
natural resource , Malaysia is an example of undisturbed natural resource. Waterfalls provide spring water for humans, animals and plants for survival and also habitat for marine organisms. The water current can be used to turn turbines for hydroelectric generati ...
s, notably exploited in
hydroelectricity Hydroelectricity, or hydroelectric power, is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity,http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/GSR_20 ...
,
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, playing, using, conserving and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands. The s ...
and
mining Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized commodity that is of economic interest to the min ...
, have also long been a mainstay. The province's 2018 output was CA$439.3 billion, 19.65% of Canada's
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation ...
.


Etymology and boundary changes

The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin or
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people in what is currently southern Canada and the northern Midwestern United States. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surp ...
word ''kébec'' meaning "where the river narrows", originally referred to the area around
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
where the
Saint Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow ...
narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included ''Québecq'' (Levasseur, 1601) and ''Kébec'' (Lescarbot, 1609). French explorer
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain () (c. 13 August 1567Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – 25 December 1 ...
chose the name ''Québec'' in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain ...
. The province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province" ("The beautiful province"). The
Province of Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = French , capital = Quebec City , CapCoord = , largest_city ...
was founded in the
Royal Proclamation of 1763 A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 "proclamation line" is the border between the red and the pink areas. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III on 7 October 1763. It followed the Treaty of Paris (1763), which form ...

Royal Proclamation of 1763
after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the
French colony From the 16th to the 17th centuries, the First French colonial empire stretched from a total area at its peak in 1680 to over , the second largest empire in the world at the time behind only the Spanish Empire. During the 19th and 20th centurie ...
of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...
to Britain after the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) was a global conflict, "a struggle for global primacy between Britain and France", which also had a major impact on the Spanish Empire. In Europe, the conflict arose from issues left unresolved by the War of ...
. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The
Quebec Act The ''Quebec Act 1774'' (french: Acte de Québec), formally known as the ''British North America (Quebec) Act 1774'', was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Q ...
of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the
Great Lakes upright=1.3, Location in North America The Great Lakes, also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, are a series of large interconnected freshwater lakes in the upper mid-east region of North America that connec ...

Great Lakes
and the
Ohio River The Ohio River is a long river in the United States. It is located in the Midwestern and Southern United States, flowing southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illi ...

Ohio River
Valley and south of
Rupert's Land Rupert's Land (french: Terre de Rupert), or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 yea ...
, more or less restoring the borders previously existing under French rule before the
Conquest of 1760 Conquest is the act of military subjugation of an enemy by force of arms. Military history provides many examples of conquest: the Roman conquest of Gaul, the Mauryan conquest of Afghanistan and of vast areas of the Indian subcontinent, the Spa ...
. The
Treaty of Paris (1783) The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, officially ended the American Revolutionary War. The treaty set the boundaries ...
ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the
Constitutional Act of 1791 From 1896 known as The ''Clergy Endowments (Canada) Act 1791'', the statute passed at Westminster in the 31st year of George III, and itemised as chapter 31 (31 Geo 3 c 31), was commonly known as the Constitutional Act 1791 (). It was an Act of ...
, the territory was divided between
Lower Canada The Province of Lower Canada (french: province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841). It covered the southern portion of the current Province of Quebec and ...
(present-day Quebec) and
Upper Canada The Province of Upper Canada (french: link=no, province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America, formerly part of the P ...
(present-day
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , largest_city ...
), with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become
Canada East Canada East (french: links=no, Canada-Est) was the northeastern portion of the United Province of Canada. Lord Durham's Report investigating the causes of the Upper and Lower Canada Rebellions recommended merging those two colonies. The new col ...
and
Canada West The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, in the Report on the Af ...
after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, in the Report on the Af ...
. This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at
Confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
in 1867. Each became one of the first four
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside ...
. In 1870, Canada purchased
Rupert's Land Rupert's Land (french: Terre de Rupert), or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 yea ...
from the
Hudson's Bay Company The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; french: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson ''CBH'') is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada and the United States. In 2 ...
and over the next few decades the
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the Monarch, the Senate, and the House of Commons. By constitutional convention, th ...
transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local
aboriginal peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ''indigenous'' was first, in its modern contex ...
. This was followed by the addition of the
District of Ungava The District of Ungava was a regional administrative district of Canada's Northwest Territories from 1895 to 1920, although it effectively ceased operation in 1912. It covered the northern portion of what is today Quebec, the interior of Labrador, ...
through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska (United States). The Inuit languages are part of the Inu ...
to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland and the continental region of Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of . In 2018, the ...
was established by the British
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories, some Commonwealth countries and a few UK bodies. Established on 13 August 1833 to hear appeals formerly heard by the King-in-Counc ...
. Quebec officially disputes this boundary.


Geography

Located in the eastern part of Canada, and (from a historical and political perspective) part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...
or
Texas Texas (, ) is a state in the South Central region of the United States. It is the second largest U.S. state by both area (after Alaska) and population (after California). Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansa ...

Texas
, most of which is very sparsely populated. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate (latitude and altitude), and the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the
Appalachians The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period. They once reached elevations similar to those ...
are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the
Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield (french: Bouclier canadien ), also called the Laurentian Plateau, is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geologic shield) that forms the ancient geologic core of the North American cont ...

Canadian Shield
occupies most of central and northern Quebec.


Hydrography

Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of
fresh water Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. Though the term specifical ...
, occupying 12% of its surface. It has 3% of the world's renewable
fresh water Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. Though the term specifical ...
, whereas it has only 0.1% of its population. More than half a million lakes, including 30 with an area greater than , and 4,500 rivers pour their torrents into the Atlantic Ocean, through the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence , image = Baie de la Tour.jpg , alt = , caption = Gulf of Saint Lawrence from Anticosti National Park, Quebec , image_bathymetry = Golfe Saint-Laurent en.png , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry ...

Gulf of Saint Lawrence
and the Arctic Ocean, by
James James is a common English language surname and given name: * James (name), the typically masculine first name James * James (surname), various people with the last name James James or James City may also refer to: People * King James (disambiguati ...
, Hudson, and Ungava bays. The largest inland body of water is the
Caniapiscau Reservoir The Caniapiscau Reservoir () is a reservoir on the upper Caniapiscau River in the Côte-Nord administrative region of the Canadian province of Quebec. It is the largest body of water in Quebec and the second largest reservoir in Canada. The Can ...
, created in the realization of the
James Bay Project The James Bay Project (french: projet de la Baie-James) refers to the construction of a series of hydroelectric power stations on the La Grande River in northwestern Quebec, Canada by state-owned utility Hydro-Québec, and the diversion of neighbou ...
to produce hydroelectric power. Lake Mistassini is the largest natural lake in Quebec. The
Saint Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow ...
has some of the world's largest sustaining inland Atlantic ports at
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
(the province's largest city),
Trois-Rivières Trois-Rivières (, ) is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour. It is part ...
, and
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
(the capital). Its access to the Atlantic Ocean and the interior of North America made it the base of early French exploration and settlement in the 17th and 18th centuries. Since 1959, the
Saint Lawrence Seaway The Saint Lawrence Seaway (french: la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North Ameri ...

Saint Lawrence Seaway
has provided a navigable link between the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes. Northeast of Quebec City, the river broadens into the world's largest
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environmen ...
, the feeding site of numerous species of whales, fish, and seabirds. The river empties into the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence , image = Baie de la Tour.jpg , alt = , caption = Gulf of Saint Lawrence from Anticosti National Park, Quebec , image_bathymetry = Golfe Saint-Laurent en.png , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry ...

Gulf of Saint Lawrence
. This marine environment sustains fisheries and smaller ports in the Lower Saint Lawrence (''Bas-Saint-Laurent''), Lower North Shore (''Côte-Nord''), and Gaspé (''Gaspésie'') regions of the province. The
Saint Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow ...
with its
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environmen ...

estuary
forms the basis of Quebec's development through the centuries. Other notable rivers include the Ashuapmushuan, Chaudière,
Gatineau Gatineau (; ) is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River, immediately across from Ottawa, Ontario, and is part of Canada's National Capital Region. As of 2016, Gatineau is the fourth-largest city ...
, Manicouagan,
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian ) is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec, and forms the core of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan a ...
, Richelieu, Rupert, Saguenay, Saint-François, and Saint-Maurice.


Topography

Quebec's highest point at metres is Mont d'Iberville, known in English as
Mount Caubvick Mount Caubvick (known as Mont D'Iberville in Quebec) is a mountain located in Canada on the border between Labrador and Quebec in the Selamiut Range of the Torngat Mountains. It is the highest point in mainland Canada east of the Rockies. The moun ...
, located on the border with
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland and the continental region of Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of . In 2018, the ...
in the northeastern part of the province, in the
Torngat Mountains The Torngat Mountains are a mountain range on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Newfoundland and Labrador and eastern Quebec. They are part of the Arctic Cordillera.
. The most populous
physiographic Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography. Physical geography is the branch of natural science which deals with the processes and patterns in the natural environment such as the atmosphere, hydrospher ...
region is the Saint Lawrence Lowland. It extends northeastward from the southwestern portion of the province along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River to the Quebec City region, limited to the North by the
Laurentian Mountains The Laurentian Mountains (French: ''Laurentides'') are a mountain range in southern Quebec, Canada, north of the St. Lawrence River and Ottawa River, rising to a highest point of at Mont Raoul Blanchard, northeast of Quebec City in the Laurentides ...
and to the South by the
Appalachians The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period. They once reached elevations similar to those ...
. It mainly covers the areas of the
Centre-du-Québec Centre-du-Québec (, ''Central Quebec'') is a region of Quebec, Canada. The main centres are Drummondville, Victoriaville, and Bécancour. It has a land area of and a 2016 Census population of 242,399 inhabitants. Description left, 250px, Open far ...
, Laval,
Montérégie Montérégie () is an administrative region in the southwest part of Quebec. It includes the cities of Boucherville, Brossard, Granby, Longueuil, Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Saint-Hyacinthe, Sorel-Tracy, and Vaudreuil-Dorion ...
and
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
, the southern regions of the
Capitale-Nationale Capitale-Nationale (; en, National Capital region) is one of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec. It is anchored by the provincial capital, Quebec City, and is largely coextensive with that city's metropolitan area. It has a land area of 18,797 ...
,
Lanaudière Lanaudière (, ) is one of the seventeen administrative regions of Quebec, Canada, situated immediately to the northeast of Montreal. It has a total population (2016 Census) of 494,796 inhabitants, an increase of 4.9% over the 2011 census. Geograph ...
,
Laurentides The Laurentides () is a region of Quebec. While it is often called the Laurentians in English, the region includes only part of the Laurentian mountains. It has a total land area of and its population was 589,400 inhabitants as of the 2016 Census. ...
,
Mauricie Mauricie () is a traditional and current administrative region of Quebec. La Mauricie National Park is contained within the region, making it a prime tourist location. The region has a land area of 35,860.05 km² (13,845.64 sq mi) and a populat ...
and includes
Anticosti Island Anticosti Island (french: Île d'Anticosti; moe, Notiskuan; mic, Natigostec) is an island in the Minganie Regional County Municipality, in administrative region of Côte-Nord, the province of Quebec, Canada. This island is located at the outlet o ...
, the
Mingan Archipelago The Mingan Archipelago is an archipelago located east of Quebec, Canada. It consists of a chain of about 40 islands. Starting but 124 miles from the end of the road along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River (Le Fleuve), the Mingan Archipelago ...
, and other small islands of the
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests The Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests are a temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregion of Eastern Canada, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) categorization system. Setting Located on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest ...
ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than a biogeographic realm. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of la ...
. Its landscape is low-lying and flat, except for isolated
igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lav ...
outcrops near Montreal called the
Monteregian Hills The Monteregian Hills (french: Collines Montérégiennes) is a linear chain of isolated hills in Montreal and Montérégie, between the Laurentians and the Appalachians. Etymology The first definition of the Monteregian Hills came about in 1903 w ...
, formerly covered by the waters of
Lake Champlain , native_name_lang = , image = Champlainmap.svg , caption = Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = New York/Vermont in the United States; and Quebec in Canada , coords = , type = , inf ...

Lake Champlain
. The Oka hills also rise from the plain. Geologically, the lowlands formed as a
rift valley A rift valley is a linear shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault. A rift valley is formed on a divergent plate boundary, a crustal extension or spreading apart of the surf ...
about 100 million years ago and are prone to infrequent but significant earthquakes. The most recent layers of
sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at the Earth's surface, followed by cementation. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause these particles to ...
were formed as the seabed of the ancient
Champlain Sea The Champlain Sea (french: Mer de Champlain) was a temporary inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, created by the retreating glaciers during the close of the last glacial period. The Sea once included lands in what are now the Canadian provinces of Quebec ...

Champlain Sea
at the end of the
last ice ageLast ice age may refer to: * Last Glacial Period, the most recent glacial period of the current major ice age * Little Ice Age, a hundred years of relative cold in the Middle Ages after what historians term the Medieval Warm Period * Quaternary glac ...
about 14,000 years ago. The combination of rich and easily arable soils and Quebec's relatively warm climate makes this valley the most prolific agricultural area of Quebec province.
Mixed forests Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions. These forests ...
provide most of Canada's springtime
maple syrup Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before winter; th ...

maple syrup
crop. The rural part of the landscape is divided into narrow rectangular tracts of land that extend from the river and date back to settlement patterns in 17th century New France. More than 95% of Quebec's territory lies within the
Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield (french: Bouclier canadien ), also called the Laurentian Plateau, is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geologic shield) that forms the ancient geologic core of the North American cont ...

Canadian Shield
. It is generally a quite flat and exposed mountainous terrain interspersed with higher points such as the
Laurentian Mountains The Laurentian Mountains (French: ''Laurentides'') are a mountain range in southern Quebec, Canada, north of the St. Lawrence River and Ottawa River, rising to a highest point of at Mont Raoul Blanchard, northeast of Quebec City in the Laurentides ...
in southern Quebec, the
Otish Mountains The Monts Otish (Otish Mountains) are a range of tall hills in the geographic centre of Quebec, Canada, north of Lac Mistassini and Manicouagan Reservoir. Within the tall hills is the Réserve faunique des Lacs-Albanel-Mistassini-et-Waconichi. F ...
in central Quebec and the
Torngat Mountains The Torngat Mountains are a mountain range on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Newfoundland and Labrador and eastern Quebec. They are part of the Arctic Cordillera.
near
Ungava Bay Ungava Bay (French: ''baie d'Ungava'', Inuktitut (syllabics/Roman) ᐅᖓᕙ ᑲᖏᖅᓗᒃ/''ungava kangiqluk'') is a bay in northeastern Canada separating Nunavik (far northern Quebec) from Baffin Island. Although not geographically apparent, it ...
. The topography of the Shield has been shaped by glaciers from the successive ice ages, which explains the glacial deposits of boulders, gravel and sand, and by sea water and post-glacial lakes that left behind thick deposits of clay in parts of the Shield. The Canadian Shield also has a complex hydrological network of perhaps a million lakes, bogs, streams and rivers. It is rich in the forestry, mineral and hydro-electric resources that are a mainstay of the Quebec economy.
Primary industries The primary sector of the economy includes any industry involved in the extraction and production of raw materials, such as farming, logging, hunting, fishing, and mining. The primary sector tends to make up a larger portion of the economy in dev ...
sustain small cities in regions of
Abitibi-Témiscamingue Abitibi-Témiscamingue () is an administrative region located in western Québec, Canada, along the border with Ontario. It became part of the province in 1898. It has a land area of and its population was 146,717 people as of the 2016 Census. Th ...
,
Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean (, ) is a region in Quebec, Canada. It contains the Saguenay Fjord, the estuary of the Saguenay River, stretching through much of the region. It is also known as Sagamie in French, from the first part of "Saguenay" and the ...
, and
Côte-Nord Côte-Nord (, French for "North Coast" (land area ) is the second largest administrative region by land area in Quebec, Canada, after Nord-du-Québec. It covers much of the northern shore of the Saint Lawrence River estuary and the Gulf of Saint L ...
. The
Labrador Peninsula The Labrador Peninsula, or Quebec-Labrador Peninsula, is a large peninsula in eastern Canada. It is bounded by the Hudson Bay to the west, the Hudson Strait to the north, the Labrador Sea to the east, and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the southea ...
is covered by the Laurentian Plateau (or
Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield (french: Bouclier canadien ), also called the Laurentian Plateau, is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geologic shield) that forms the ancient geologic core of the North American cont ...

Canadian Shield
), dotted with mountains such as
Otish Mountains The Monts Otish (Otish Mountains) are a range of tall hills in the geographic centre of Quebec, Canada, north of Lac Mistassini and Manicouagan Reservoir. Within the tall hills is the Réserve faunique des Lacs-Albanel-Mistassini-et-Waconichi. F ...
. The
Ungava Peninsula The Ungava Peninsula of Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, is bounded by Hudson Bay to the west, Hudson Strait to the north, and Ungava Bay to the east. This peninsula is part of the Labrador Peninsula, and covers about . Its northernmost point is Cape Wols ...
is notably composed of D'Youville mountains, Puvirnituq mountains and Pingualuit crater. While low and medium altitude peak from western Quebec to the far north, high altitudes mountains emerge in the
Capitale-Nationale Capitale-Nationale (; en, National Capital region) is one of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec. It is anchored by the provincial capital, Quebec City, and is largely coextensive with that city's metropolitan area. It has a land area of 18,797 ...
region to the extreme east, along its longitude. In the
Labrador Peninsula The Labrador Peninsula, or Quebec-Labrador Peninsula, is a large peninsula in eastern Canada. It is bounded by the Hudson Bay to the west, the Hudson Strait to the north, the Labrador Sea to the east, and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the southea ...
portion of the Shield, the far northern region of
Nunavik Nunavik (; iu, ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, part of the Nord-du-Québec region and nearly coterminous with Kativik. Covering a land area of north of the 55th parallel, it is the homeland of the Inuit of ...
includes the
Ungava Peninsula The Ungava Peninsula of Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, is bounded by Hudson Bay to the west, Hudson Strait to the north, and Ungava Bay to the east. This peninsula is part of the Labrador Peninsula, and covers about . Its northernmost point is Cape Wols ...
and consists of flat
Arctic Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic ( or ) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, ...

Arctic
tundra In physical geography, tundra () is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term ''tundra'' comes through Russian (') from the Kildin Sámi word (') meaning "uplands", "treeless mount ...
inhabited mostly by the
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska (United States). The Inuit languages are part of the Inu ...
. Further south lie the
subarctic The sub-Arctic zone is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, the Shetland Islands, and the Cairngorms. Generally, subarctic region ...
taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and la ...
of the
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga The Eastern Canadian Shield taiga is an ecoregion of Canada as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) categorization system. Setting Located in northeastern Canada, this ecoregion covers a large part of northern Quebec and most of Labrador, reac ...
ecoregion and the
boreal forest Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and la ...
of the
Central Canadian Shield forests The Central Canadian Shield forests are a taiga ecoregion of Eastern Canada, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) categorization system. Setting This ecoregion consists of rolling hills, lakes, bogs and rocky outcrops covering a large curved ...
, where
spruce A spruce is a tree of the genus ''Picea'' , a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth. ''Picea'' is the sole genus in the subfamily P ...
, , and trees provide raw materials for Quebec's
pulp and paper frame, International Paper is the world's largest pulp and paper maker. The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products. The pulp is fed to a pa ...
and
lumber Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types ...
industries. Although the area is inhabited principally by the
Cree The Cree ( cr, Néhinaw, script=Latn, , etc.; french: link=no, Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America. In Canada, over 350,000 people are Cree or have Cree ancestry. The major proportion of Cree in Canada live north ...
,
Naskapi The Naskapi (Nascapi, Naskapee, Nascapee) are a Cree ethnic group and people native to the historical country St'aschinuw (ᒋᑦ ᐊᔅᒋᓄᐤ, meaning 'our nclusiveland'), which is located in northern Quebec and Labrador, neighbouring Nuna ...
, and
Innu The Innu / Ilnu ("man", "person") or Innut / Innuat / Ilnuatsh ("people"), formerly called Montagnais from the French colonial period (French for "mountain people", English pronunciation: ), are the Indigenous inhabitants of territory in the no ...
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of Canadian indigenous peoples, distinct from the Inuit and Métis. Traditionally the First Nations lived south of the tree line, and mainly south of the Arctic Circle. There ...
, thousands of temporary workers reside at Radisson to service the massive James Bay Project, James Bay Hydroelectric Project on the La Grande River, La Grande and Eastmain River, Eastmain rivers. The southern portion of the shield extends to the Laurentian Mountains, Laurentians, a mountain range just north of the Saint Lawrence Lowland, that attracts local and international tourists to ski hills and lakeside resorts. The Chaudière-Appalaches, Appalachian region of Quebec has a narrow strip of ancient mountains along the southeastern border of Quebec. The
Appalachians The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period. They once reached elevations similar to those ...
are actually a huge chain that extends from Alabama to Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland. In between, it covers in Quebec near , from the Montérégie hills to the Gaspé Peninsula. In western Quebec, the average altitude is about 500 metres, while in the Gaspé Peninsula, the Appalachian peaks (especially the Chic-Choc) are among the highest in Quebec, exceeding 1000 metres.


Climate

In general, the climate of Quebec is cold and humid. The climate of the province is largely determined by its latitude, maritime and elevation influences. According to the Köppen climate classification, Quebec has three main climate regions. Southern and western Quebec, including most of the major population centres and areas south of 51oN, have a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb'') with four distinct seasons having warm to occasionally hot and humid summers and often very cold and snowy winters. The main climatic influences are from western and northern Canada and move eastward, and from the southern and central United States that move northward. Because of the influence of both storm systems from the core of North America and the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation is abundant throughout the year, with most areas receiving more than of precipitation, including over of snow in many areas. During the summer, severe weather patterns (such as tornadoes and severe thunderstorms) occur occasionally. Most of central Quebec, ranging from 51 to 58 degrees North has a subarctic climate (Köppen ''Dfc''). Winters are long, very cold, and snowy, and among the coldest in eastern Canada, while summers are warm but very short due to the higher latitude and the greater influence of Arctic air masses. Precipitation is also somewhat less than farther south, except at some of the higher elevations. The northern regions of Quebec have an Climate of the Arctic, arctic climate (Köppen ''ET''), with very cold winters and short, much cooler summers. The primary influences in this region are the Arctic Ocean currents (such as the Labrador Current) and continental air masses from the High
Arctic Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic ( or ) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, ...

Arctic
. The four calendar seasons in Quebec are spring, summer, autumn and winter, with conditions differing by region. They are then differentiated according to the insolation, temperature, and precipitation of snow and rain. At Quebec City, the length of the daily sunshine varies from 8:37 hrs in December to 15:50 hrs in June; the annual variation is much greater (from 4:54 to 19:29 hrs) at the northern tip of the province. From temperate zones to the northern territories of the Far North, the brightness varies with latitude, as well as the Aurora, Northern Lights and midnight sun. Quebec is divided into four climatic zones: arctic, subarctic, humid continental and East maritime. From south to north, average temperatures range in summer between and, in winter, between . In periods of intense heat and cold, temperatures can reach in the summer and during the Quebec winter, They may vary depending on the Humidex or Wind chill. The all time record high was and the all time record low was . The all-time record of the greatest precipitation in winter was established in winter 2007–2008, with more than five metres of snow in the area of Quebec City, while the average amount received per winter is around three metres. March 1971, however, saw the "Eastern Canadian Blizzard of March 1971, Century's Snowstorm" with more than in Montreal to in RCAF Station Mont Apica, Mont Apica of snow within 24 hours in many regions of southern Quebec. Also, the winter of 2010 was the warmest and driest recorded in more than 60 years.


Wildlife

The large land wildlife is mainly composed of the white-tailed deer, the moose, the muskox, the reindeer, caribou (reindeer), the American black bear and the polar bear. The average land wildlife includes the cougar, the coyote, the eastern wolf, the bobcat, the Arctic fox, the fox, etc. The small animals seen most commonly include the eastern grey squirrel, the snowshoe hare, the groundhog, the skunk, the raccoon, the chipmunk and the North American beaver, Canadian beaver. Biodiversity of the estuary and gulf of
Saint Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow ...
consists of an aquatic mammal wildlife, of which most goes upriver through the estuary and the Saguenay–St. Lawrence Marine Park until the Île d'Orléans, ''Île d'Orléans'' (French for Orleans Island), such as the blue whale, the beluga (whale), beluga, the minke whale and the harp seal (earless seal). Among the Nordic marine animals, there are two particularly important to cite: the walrus and the narwhal. Inland waters are populated by small to large fresh water fish, such as the largemouth bass, the American pickerel, the walleye, the ''Acipenser oxyrinchus'', the muskellunge, the Atlantic cod, the Arctic char, the brook trout, the ''Microgadus tomcod'' (tomcod), the Atlantic salmon, the rainbow trout, etc. Among the birds commonly seen in the southern inhabited part of Quebec, there are the American robin, the house sparrow, the red-winged blackbird, the mallard, the common grackle, the blue jay, the American crow, the black-capped chickadee, some New World warbler, warblers and swallows, the European starling, starling and the rock pigeon, the latter two having been introduced in Quebec and are found mainly in urban areas. Avian fauna includes birds of prey like the golden eagle, the peregrine falcon, the snowy owl and the bald eagle. Sea and semi-aquatic birds seen in Quebec are mostly the Canada goose, the double-crested cormorant, the northern gannet, the European herring gull, the great blue heron, the sandhill crane, the Atlantic puffin and the common loon. Many more species of land, maritime or avian wildlife are seen in Quebec, but most of the Quebec-specific species and the most commonly seen species are listed above. Some livestock have the title of "Québec heritage breed", namely the Canadian horse, the Chantecler (chicken), Chantecler chicken and the Canadienne cattle, Canadian cow. Moreover, in addition to food certified as "organic", Charlevoix lamb is the first local Quebec product whose geographical indication is protected. Livestock production also includes the pig breeds Landrace, Duroc and Yorkshire and many breeds of sheep and cattle. The Wildlife Foundation of Quebec and the Data Centre on Natural Heritage of Quebec (CDPNQ)(French acronym) are the main agencies working with officers for wildlife conservation in Quebec.


Vegetation

Given the geology of the province and its different climates, there is an established number of large areas of vegetation in Quebec. These areas, listed in order from the northernmost to the southernmost are: the
tundra In physical geography, tundra () is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term ''tundra'' comes through Russian (') from the Kildin Sámi word (') meaning "uplands", "treeless mount ...
, the
taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and la ...
, the Boreal forest of Canada, Canadian boreal forest (coniferous), Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, mixed forest and Deciduous forest. On the edge of the
Ungava Bay Ungava Bay (French: ''baie d'Ungava'', Inuktitut (syllabics/Roman) ᐅᖓᕙ ᑲᖏᖅᓗᒃ/''ungava kangiqluk'') is a bay in northeastern Canada separating Nunavik (far northern Quebec) from Baffin Island. Although not geographically apparent, it ...
and
Hudson Strait The Hudson's Bay Company ships ''Prince of Wales'' and bartering with the Inuit off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson Strait; by Robert Hood (1819) Hudson Strait links the Atlantic Ocean and Labrador Sea to Hudson Bay in Canada. This strait lies ...
is the
tundra In physical geography, tundra () is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term ''tundra'' comes through Russian (') from the Kildin Sámi word (') meaning "uplands", "treeless mount ...
, whose flora is limited to a low vegetation of lichen with only less than 50 growing days a year. The tundra vegetation survives an average annual temperature of . The tundra covers more than 24% of the area of Quebec. Further south, the climate is conducive to the growth of the Boreal forest of Canada, Canadian boreal forest, bounded on the north by the
taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and la ...
. Not as arid as the
tundra In physical geography, tundra () is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term ''tundra'' comes through Russian (') from the Kildin Sámi word (') meaning "uplands", "treeless mount ...
, the
taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and la ...
is associated with the sub-Arctic regions of the
Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield (french: Bouclier canadien ), also called the Laurentian Plateau, is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geologic shield) that forms the ancient geologic core of the North American cont ...

Canadian Shield
and is characterized by a greater number of both plant (600) and animal (206) species, many of which live there all year. The
taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and la ...
covers about 20% of the total area of Quebec. The Boreal forest of Canada, Canadian boreal forest is the northernmost and most abundant of the three forest areas in Quebec that straddle the
Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield (french: Bouclier canadien ), also called the Laurentian Plateau, is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geologic shield) that forms the ancient geologic core of the North American cont ...

Canadian Shield
and the upper Saint Lawrence Lowlands, lowlands of the province. Given a warmer climate, the diversity of organisms is also higher, since there are about 850 plant species and 280 vertebrates species. The Boreal forest of Canada, Canadian boreal forest covers 27% of the area of Quebec. The mixed forest is a transition zone between the Boreal forest of Canada, Canadian boreal forest and deciduous forest. By virtue of its transient nature, this area contains a diversity of habitats resulting in large numbers of plant (1000) and vertebrates (350) species, despite relatively cool temperatures. The ecozone mixed forest covers 11.5% of the area of Quebec and is characteristic of the Laurentides, Laurentians, the Chaudière-Appalaches, Appalachians and the eastern Saint Lawrence Lowlands, lowlands forests. The third most northern forest area is characterized by deciduous forests. Because of its climate (average annual temperature of ), it is in this area that one finds the greatest diversity of species, including more than 1600 vascular plants and 440 vertebrates. Its relatively long growing season lasts almost 200 days and its fertile soils make it the centre of agricultural activity and therefore of urbanization of Quebec. Most of Quebec's population lives in this area of vegetation, almost entirely along the banks of the St. Lawrence. Deciduous forests cover approximately 6.6% of the area of Quebec. The total forest area of Quebec is estimated at . From the
Abitibi-Témiscamingue Abitibi-Témiscamingue () is an administrative region located in western Québec, Canada, along the border with Ontario. It became part of the province in 1898. It has a land area of and its population was 146,717 people as of the 2016 Census. Th ...
to the Côte-Nord, North Shore, the forest is composed primarily of conifers such as the ''Abies balsamea'', the jack pine, the Picea glauca, white spruce, the Picea mariana, black spruce and the Larix laricina, tamarack. Some species of deciduous trees such as the Betula alleghaniensis, yellow birch appear when the river is approached in the south. The deciduous forest of the Saint Lawrence Lowlands is mostly composed of deciduous species such as the Acer saccharum, sugar maple, the Acer rubrum, red maple, the Fraxinus americana, white ash, the Fagus grandifolia, American beech, the Juglans cinerea, butternut (white walnut), the Ulmus americana, American elm, the Tilia americana, basswood, the Carya cordiformis, bitternut hickory and the Quercus rubra, northern red oak as well as some conifers such as the eastern white pine and the Thuja occidentalis, northern whitecedar. The distribution areas of the Betula papyrifera, paper birch, the Populus tremuloides, trembling aspen and the Sorbus, mountain ash cover more than half of Quebec territory.


History


Prehistory and Protohistory


Indigenous peoples

At the time of first European contact and later colonization, Algonquian peoples, Algonquian, Iroquois and
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska (United States). The Inuit languages are part of the Inu ...
nations controlled what is now Quebec. Their lifestyles and cultures reflected the land on which they lived. Algonquians organized into seven political entities lived nomadic lives based on hunting, gathering, and fishing in the rugged terrain of the Canadian Shield (James Bay Cree,
Innu The Innu / Ilnu ("man", "person") or Innut / Innuat / Ilnuatsh ("people"), formerly called Montagnais from the French colonial period (French for "mountain people", English pronunciation: ), are the Indigenous inhabitants of territory in the no ...
, Algonquin people, Algonquins) and Appalachian Mountains (Mi'kmaq people, Mi'kmaq, Abenaki people, Abenaki). St. Lawrence Iroquoians, a branch of the Iroquois, lived more settled lives, growing corn, beans and squash in the fertile soils of the St. Lawrence Valley. They appear to have been later supplanted by the Mohawk people, Mohawk nation. The Inuit continue to fish and hunt whale and Pinniped, seal in the harsh Arctic climate along the coasts of Hudson and Ungava Bay. These people traded fur and food and sometimes warred with each other.


European explorations

Around 1522–1523, the Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano persuaded King Francis I of France to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay (China). In 1534, Breton people, Breton explorer Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I. It was the first province of New France. However, initial French attempts at settling the region met with failure. French fishing fleets, however, continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances with Aboriginal people of Canada, First Nations that would become important once France began to occupy the land.
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain () (c. 13 August 1567Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – 25 December 1 ...
was part of a 1603 expedition from France that travelled into the St. Lawrence River. In 1608, he returned as head of an exploration party and founded Quebec City with the intention of making the area part of the French colonial empire. Champlain's ''Habitation de Québec'', built as a permanent fur trade, fur trading outpost, was where he would forge a trading, and ultimately a military alliance, with the Algonquin people, Algonquin and Wyandot people, Huron nations. First Nations traded their furs for many French goods such as metal objects, guns, alcohol, and clothing.


New France (1608-1765)


Settlements and colonial companies (1608-1663)

Coureurs des bois, voyageurs and Catholic missionaries used river canoes to explore the interior of the North American continent. They established fur trading forts on the
Great Lakes upright=1.3, Location in North America The Great Lakes, also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, are a series of large interconnected freshwater lakes in the upper mid-east region of North America that connec ...

Great Lakes
(Étienne Brûlé 1615),
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: ''Kangiqsualuk ilua'' or ''Tasiujarjuaq'' french: baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of . It is located north of Onta ...
(Pierre-Esprit Radisson, Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, Groseilliers 1659–60),
Ohio River The Ohio River is a long river in the United States. It is located in the Midwestern and Southern United States, flowing southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illi ...

Ohio River
and Mississippi River (Robert Cavelier de La Salle, La Salle 1682), as well as the Saskatchewan River and Missouri River (Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de la Vérendrye, de la Verendrye 1734–1738). After 1627, King Louis XIII of France allowed the Company of New France to introduced the Seigneurial system of New France, seigneurial system and forbade settlement in
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain ...
by anyone other than Roman Catholics. In 1629 there was the surrender of Quebec, without battle, to English privateers led by David Kirke during the Anglo-French War (1627–29), Anglo-French War. However, Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had already ended; he worked to have the lands returned to France. As part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War (1627–1629), Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII of France, Louis XIII paying his wife's dowry. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1632), Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. New France became a Royal Province in 1663 under King Louis XIV of France with a Sovereign Council of New France, Sovereign Council that included intendant of New France, intendant Jean Talon. The population grew slowly under French rule, thus remained relatively low as growth was largely achieved through natural births, rather than by immigration. To encourage population growth and to redress the severe imbalance between single men and women, King Louis XIV sponsored the passage of approximately 800 young French women (known as ''les filles du roi'') to the colony. Most of the French were farmers ("Canadiens" or "Habitants"), and the rate of population growth among the settlers themselves was very high.


The Conquest of New France (1754-1760)

Authorities in
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain ...
became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from the Ohio Country, Ohio Valley. They began construction of a series of fortifications to protect the area. In 1754, George Washington launched a surprise attack on a group of Canadian soldiers sleeping in the early morning hours. It came at a time when no declaration of war had been issued by either country. This frontier aggression known as the Battle of Jumonville Glen, Jumonville affair set the stage for the French and Indian War (a US designation; in Canada it is usually referred to as the Seven Years' War, although French Canadians often call it ''La guerre de la Conquête'' ["The War of Conquest"]) in North America. By 1756, France and Britain were battling the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) was a global conflict, "a struggle for global primacy between Britain and France", which also had a major impact on the Spanish Empire. In Europe, the conflict arose from issues left unresolved by the War of ...
worldwide. In 1758, the Kingdom of Great Britain, British mounted an attack on New France by sea and took the French fort at Louisbourg (community), Louisbourg. On September 13, 1759, the British forces of General James Wolfe defeated those of French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm on the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Plains of Abraham outside Quebec City.


British military regime (1760-1763)

While awaiting the results of the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) was a global conflict, "a struggle for global primacy between Britain and France", which also had a major impact on the Spanish Empire. In Europe, the conflict arose from issues left unresolved by the War of ...
that was still being fought in Europe, New France was put under a :fr:Régime militaire britannique en Nouvelle-France, British military regime and under the British governor James Murray (British Army officer, born 1721), James Murray. In 1763, the Seven Years' War concluded with the Treaty of Paris (1763). With the exception of the small islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, located off the coast of Newfoundland, France ceded its North American possessions to Great Britain through in favour of gaining the island of Guadeloupe for its then-lucrative sugar cane industry. The British Royal Proclamation of 1763 renamed
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...
(part of New France) as the
Province of Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = French , capital = Quebec City , CapCoord = , largest_city ...
.


British North America (1763-1867)


Province of Quebec (1763-1791)

With unrest growing in the colonies to the south, which would one day grow into the American Revolution, the British were worried that the French-speaking Canadians might also support the growing rebellion. At that time, French-speaking Canadians formed the vast majority of the population of the province of Quebec (more than 99%) and British immigration was not going well. To secure the allegiance of the approximately 90,000 French-speaking Canadians to the British crown, first Governor James Murray (Quebec governor), James Murray and later Governor Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, Guy Carleton promoted the need for change. There was also a need to compromise between the conflicting demands of the French-speaking Canadian subjects and those of newly arrived British subjects. These efforts by the colonial governors eventually resulted in enactment of the
Quebec Act The ''Quebec Act 1774'' (french: Acte de Québec), formally known as the ''British North America (Quebec) Act 1774'', was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Q ...
of 1774. The Quebec Act provided the people of Quebec their first Charter of Rights and paved the way to later official recognition of the French language and French culture. The act also allowed the French speakers, known as Canadiens, to maintain French civil law and sanctioned freedom of religion, allowing the Roman Catholic Church to remain, one of the first cases in history of state-sanctioned freedom of religious practice.


=Effects of the American Revolution

= Although the
Quebec Act The ''Quebec Act 1774'' (french: Acte de Québec), formally known as the ''British North America (Quebec) Act 1774'', was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Q ...
was unrelated to the events in Boston Tea Party, Boston of 1773, and was not regarded as one of the Intolerable Acts, Coercive Acts, the timing of its passage led British colonists to the south to believe that it was part of the program to punish them. The Quebec Act offended a variety of interest groups in the British colonies. Land speculators and settlers objected to the transfer of western lands previously claimed by the colonies to a non-representative government. Many feared the establishment of Catholicism in Quebec, and that the French Canadians were being courted to help oppress British Americans. On June 27, 1775, General George Washington and his Continental Army Invasion of Canada (1775), invaded Canada in an attempt to conquer Quebec. British reinforcements came up the St. Lawrence in May 1776, and the Battle of Trois-Rivières turned into a disaster for the Americans. The army withdrew to Ticonderoga. Although some help was given to the Americans by the locals, Governor Carleton punished American sympathizers, and public support of the American cause came to an end. In 1778, Frederick Haldimand took over for Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, Guy Carleton as governor of Quebec. The arrival of 10,000 Loyalists at Quebec in 1784 destroyed the political balance that Haldimand (and Carleton before him) had worked so hard to achieve. The swelling numbers of English encouraged them to make greater demands for recognition with the colonial government. See drop-down essay on "Early European Settlement and the Formation of the Modern State" To restore stability to his largest remaining North American colony, King George III sent Carleton back to Quebec to remedy the situation.W.J.Eccles France in America p.246 In ten years, Quebec had undergone a dramatic change. What worked for Carleton in 1774 was not likely to succeed in 1784. Specifically, there was no possibility of restoring the previous political balance – there were simply too many English people unwilling to reach a compromise with the 145,000 Canadiens or their colonial governor. The situation called for a more creative approach to problem solving.


Lower Canada (1791-1840)

Loyalists soon petitioned the government to be allowed to use the British legal system they were used to in the American colonies. The creation of Upper and Lower Canada in 1791 allowed most Loyalists to live under British laws and institutions, while the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain their familiar French civil law and the Catholic religion. Therefore, Governor Haldimand (at the suggestion of Carleton) drew Loyalists away from
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
and
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
by offering free land on the northern shore of Lake Ontario to anyone willing to swear allegiance to George III. The Loyalists were thus given land grants of per person. Basically, this approach was designed with the intent of keeping French and English as far apart as possible. Therefore, after the separation of the Province of Quebec,
Lower Canada The Province of Lower Canada (french: province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841). It covered the southern portion of the current Province of Quebec and ...
and
Upper Canada The Province of Upper Canada (french: link=no, province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America, formerly part of the P ...
were formed, each with its own government.


=The Lower Canada Rebellion (1837-1838)

= In 1837, residents of Lower Canada – led by Louis-Joseph Papineau and Robert Nelson (insurrectionist), Robert Nelson – formed an armed resistance group to seek an end to the unilateral control of the British governors. They made a Declaration of Rights with equality for all citizens without discrimination and a Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada in 1838. Their actions resulted in rebellions in both Lower and
Upper Canada The Province of Upper Canada (french: link=no, province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America, formerly part of the P ...
. An unprepared British Army had to raise militia force; the rebel forces scored a victory in Battle of Saint-Denis (1837), Saint-Denis but were soon defeated.


Province of Canada (1840-1867)

After the rebellions, John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, Lord Durham was asked to undertake a study and prepare a Report on the Affairs of British North America, report on the matter and to offer a solution for the British Parliament to assess. Following Durham's report, the British government merged the two colonial provinces into one
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, in the Report on the Af ...
in 1840 with the Act of Union 1840, Act of Union. The two colonies remained distinct in administration, election, and law. In 1848, Baldwin and LaFontaine, allies and leaders of the Reformist party, were asked by James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, Lord Elgin to form an administration together under the new policy of responsible government. The French language subsequently regained legal status in the Legislature.


Canadian province (1867-today)


Confederation of Canada (1867)

In the 1860s, the delegates from the colonies of British North America (Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland) met in a series of conferences to discuss self-governing status for a new confederation. The first Charlottetown Conference took place in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, followed by the Quebec Conference, 1864, Quebec Conference in Quebec City which led to a delegation going to London, England, to put forth a proposal for a national union. As a result of those deliberations, in 1867 the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the British North America Acts, providing for the Confederation of most of these provinces. The former
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, in the Report on the Af ...
was divided into its two previous parts as the provinces of
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , largest_city ...
(Upper Canada) and Quebec (Lower Canada).
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton , largest_city = Moncton , largest_metro = Great ...
and
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French , capital = Halifax , l ...
joined Ontario and Quebec in the new Canada, Dominion of Canada. The other provinces then joined Confederation, one after the other: Manitoba and the Northwest Territories in 1870, British Columbia in 1871, Prince Edward Island in 1873, Yukon in 1898, Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905, Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland in 1949 and finally Nunavut in 1999.


World War I (1914-1918)

When Great Britain declared war on August 4, 1914, Canada was automatically involved as a dominion. About 6,000 volunteers from Quebec participated on the European front. Although reaction to conscription was favourable in English Canada the idea was deeply unpopular in Quebec. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 did much to highlight the divisions between French and English-speaking Canadians in Canada.


World War II (1939-1945)

During World War II, the participation of Quebec was more important but led to the Conscription Crisis of 1944 and opposition. Many Quebecers fought against the axis powers between 1939 to 1945 with the involvement of many francophone regiments such as Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal, le Régiment de la Chaudière and many more.


Grande Noirceur (1944-1959)

The conservative government of Maurice Duplessis and his Union Nationale (Quebec), Union Nationale dominated Quebec politics from 1944 to 1959 with the support of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international ...

Catholic Church
. Pierre Trudeau and other liberals formed an intellectual opposition to Duplessis's regime, setting the groundwork for the
Quiet Revolution The Quiet Revolution (french: Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Québec, characterized by the effective secularization of government, the creation of a state-run w ...
under Jean Lesage's Quebec Liberal Party, Liberals.


Modern Quebec (1960-today)


Quiet Revolution (1960-1980)

The Quiet Revolution was a period of dramatic social and political change that saw the decline of Anglo supremacy in the Quebec economy, the decline of the Roman Catholic Church's influence, the formation of Hydroelectricity, hydroelectric companies under Hydro-Québec and the emergence of a Quebec sovereignty movement, pro-sovereignty movement under former Liberal minister René Lévesque.


=Debate over sovereignity and first referendum

= Beginning in 1963, a paramilitary group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade-long programme of propaganda and terrorism that included bombings, robberies and attacks directed primarily at English institutions, resulting in at least five deaths. In 1970, their activities culminated in events referred to as the October Crisis when James Cross, the British trade commissioner to Canada, was kidnapped along with Pierre Laporte, a provincial minister and Vice-Premier. Laporte was strangled with his own rosary beads a few days later. In their published Manifesto, the militants stated: "In the coming year Robert Bourassa, Bourassa will have to face reality; 100,000 revolutionary workers, armed and organized." At the request of Premier Robert Bourassa, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoked the ''War Measures Act''. In 1977, the newly elected
Parti Québécois The Parti Québécois (; ; PQ) is a sovereignist and social democratic provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. The PQ advocates national sovereignty for Quebec involving independence of the province of Quebec from Canada and establishing a ...
government of René Lévesque introduced the
Charter of the French Language The ''Charter of the French Language'' (french: link=no, La charte de la langue française), (the Charter) also known in English as Bill 101 or Law 101 (''french: link=no, Loi 101''), is a law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the ...
. Often known as Bill 101, it defined French as the only official language of Quebec in areas of provincial jurisdiction. Lévesque and his party had run in the 1970 and 1973 Quebec elections under a platform of separating Quebec from the rest of Canada. The party failed to win control of Quebec's National Assembly both times – though its share of the vote increased from 23 percent to 30 percent – and Lévesque was defeated both times in the Electoral district (Canada), riding he contested. In the 1976 election campaign, he softened his message by promising a referendum (plebiscite) on sovereignty-association rather than outright separation, by which Quebec would have independence in most government functions but share some other ones, such as a common currency, with Canada. On November 15, 1976, Lévesque and the Parti Québécois won control of the provincial government for the first time. The question of sovereignty-association was placed before the voters in the 1980 Quebec referendum. During the campaign, Pierre Trudeau promised that a vote for the "no" side was a vote for reforming Canada. Trudeau advocated the patriation of Canada's Constitution from the United Kingdom. The existing constitutional document, the British North America Act, could only be amended by the United Kingdom Parliament upon a request by the Canadian parliament. Sixty percent of the Quebec electorate voted against the proposition for sovereignty-association. Polls showed that the overwhelming majority of English and immigrant Quebecers voted against, and that French Quebecers were almost equally divided, with older voters less in favour and younger voters more in favour. After his loss in the referendum, Lévesque went back to Ottawa to start negotiating a new constitution with Trudeau, his minister of Justice Jean Chrétien and the nine other provincial premiers. Lévesque insisted Quebec be able to veto any future constitutional amendments. The negotiations quickly reached a stand-still. Quebec is the only province not to have assented to the patriation of the Constitution of Canada, Canadian constitution in 1982.


Constitutional debate (1980-1990)

In subsequent years, two attempts were made to gain Quebec's approval of the constitution. The first was the Meech Lake Accord of 1987, which was finally abandoned in 1990 when the province of Manitoba did not pass it within the established deadline. (Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland premier Clyde Wells had expressed his opposition to the accord, but, with the failure in Manitoba, the vote for or against Meech never took place in his province.) This led to the formation of the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois party in Ottawa under the leadership of Lucien Bouchard, who had resigned from the federal cabinet. The second attempt, the Charlottetown Accord of 1992, also failed to gain traction. This result caused a split in the Parti libéral du Québec, Quebec Liberal Party that led to the formation of the new Action démocratique du Québec, Action démocratique (Democratic Action) party led by Mario Dumont and Jean Allaire.


Second referendum and afterwards (1995-today)

On October 30, 1995, with the
Parti Québécois The Parti Québécois (; ; PQ) is a sovereignist and social democratic provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. The PQ advocates national sovereignty for Quebec involving independence of the province of Quebec from Canada and establishing a ...
back in power since 1994, a 1995 Quebec referendum, second referendum on sovereignty took place. This time, it was rejected by a slim majority (50.6 percent NO to 49.4 percent YES). Given the province's heritage and the preponderance of French (unique among the Canadian provinces), there has been debate in Canada regarding the unique status (''statut particulier'') of Quebec and its people, wholly or partially. Prior attempts to amend the Canadian constitution to acknowledge Quebec as a "distinct society" – referring to the province's uniqueness within Canada regarding law, language, and culture – have been unsuccessful; however, the federal government under Prime Minister Jean Chrétien would later endorse recognition of Quebec as a distinct society. On October 30, 2003, the National Assembly of Quebec voted unanimously to affirm "that the people of Québec form a nation". On November 27, 2006, the House of Commons of Canada, House of Commons passed a Québécois nation motion, symbolic motion moved by Prime Minister Stephen Harper declaring "that this House recognize that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada." However, there is considerable debate and uncertainty over what this means. The debate over the status of Quebec is a highly animated one to this day.


Government and politics

The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, Lieutenant Governor represents the Queen of Canada and acts as the province's head of state. The head of government is the Premier of Quebec, premier (called ''premier ministre'' in French) who leads the largest party in the unicameral National Assembly of Quebec, National Assembly, or ''Assemblée Nationale'', from which the Executive Council of Quebec is appointed. Until 1968, the Quebec legislature was bicameral, consisting of the Legislative Council of Quebec, Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly of Quebec, Legislative Assembly. In that year, the Legislative Council was abolished and the Legislative Assembly was renamed the National Assembly. Quebec was the last province to abolish its legislative council. The government of Quebec awards an order of merit called the National Order of Quebec. It is inspired in part by the French Légion d'honneur, Legion of Honour. It is conferred upon men and women born or living in Quebec (but non-Quebecers can be inducted as well) for outstanding achievements. The government of Quebec takes the majority of its revenue through a progressive tax, progressive income tax, a 9.975% sales tax and various other taxes (such as carbon, corporate and capital gains taxes), Equalization payments in Canada, equalization payments from the federal government, transfer payments from other provinces and direct payments. By some measures Quebec is the highest taxed province; a 2012 study indicated that "Quebec companies pay 26 per cent more in taxes than the Canadian average". A 2014 report by the Fraser Institute indicated that "Relative to its size, Quebec is the most indebted province in Canada by a wide margin".


Civic Values

The Governmnent of Quebec cites 5 statements which represent the key values of Québécois society: *Quebec is a francophone society *Quebec is a democratic society *Women and men are equal *Québécois have rights and responsibilities *Quebec is a laïque society


Administrative subdivisions

Quebec has subdivisions at the regional, supralocal and local levels. Excluding administrative units reserved for Aboriginal lands, the primary types of subdivision are: At the regional level: *17 Regions of Quebec, administrative regions. At the supralocal level: *86 regional county municipality, regional county municipalities or RCMs (''municipalités régionales de comté'', ''MRC''); *2 Metropolitan Community (Quebec), metropolitan communities (''communautés métropolitaines''). At the local level: *1,117 Local government in Quebec, local municipalities of various types of municipalities in Quebec, types; *11 Urban agglomerations of Quebec, agglomerations (''agglomérations'') grouping 42 of these local municipalities; *within 8 local municipalities, 45 List of boroughs in Quebec, boroughs (''arrondissements'').


Political parties

There are 22 official political parties in Quebec: #Alliance Provinciale #Bloc Pot #Changement intégrité pour notre Québec #Citoyens au pouvoir du Québec #Coalition Avenir Québec #Droit des sans droits #Équipe autonomiste #Nouveau Parti démocratique du Québec #Parti 51 #Conservative Party of Quebec #Parti culinaire #Parti équitable #Parti libéral du Québec #Parti libre #Parti marxiste-léniniste du Québec #Parti nul #Parti québécois #Parti vert du Québec #Québec cosmopolitain #Québec en marche #Québec solidaire #Voie du Peuple Among these, four have seats in the National Assembly of Quebec, National Assembly in 2020: the Coalition avenir Québec (CAQ), the Parti libéral du Québec (PLQ), the Parti québécois (PQ) and Québec solidaire (QS).


Law

Quebec law is the set of laws which are applied on the Québécois territory. Quebec law is under the shared responsibility of the Government of Canada, federal government and the Government of Quebec, provincial government. According to the Constitution of Canada, each of these two government are responsible for enacting law when it falls under their sphere of competence. As such, the federal government is responsible for criminal law, foreign affairs and laws relating to the regulation of canadian commerce and telecomunications. The provincial government is responsible for private law, the :fr:Système judiciaire du Québec, administration of justice and several social domains (healthcare, education, etc.). Quebec law is influenced by two judicial traditions: the civil law and
common law#REDIRECT common law#REDIRECT common law {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. Generally, private law is exercised under civil law, and
public law Public law is the part of law that governs relationships between legal persons and a government, between different institutions within a state, between different branches of governments, and relationships between persons that are of direct conce ...
is exercised under common law. However, since the two have always been very influencial in Quebec law, with much crossover, the Québécois judicial system is considered to be mixed. The presence of the civil law tradition goes all the way back to the days of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain ...
, when the French king Louis XIV imposed the Custom of Paris in New France, Custom of Paris in Canada (New France), ''Canada''. When the Canada colony was ceded by France to the United Kingdom, following the Conquest of New France (1758–1760), Conquest of New France in the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) was a global conflict, "a struggle for global primacy between Britain and France", which also had a major impact on the Spanish Empire. In Europe, the conflict arose from issues left unresolved by the War of ...
, the United Kingdom first tried to impose English law. However, the British changed their minds and enacted the
Quebec Act The ''Quebec Act 1774'' (french: Acte de Québec), formally known as the ''British North America (Quebec) Act 1774'', was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Q ...
in 1774 which permitted the use of civil law for private relations between individuals in the entirety of the
Province of Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = French , capital = Quebec City , CapCoord = , largest_city ...
. Quebec law comes from the four classic sources of law: legislation, case law, doctrine and customary law. Legislation is the primary source in Quebec law. However, because private law is mostly exercised under a civilist tradition, case law is also a strong source.. Quebec law is made up of the Constitution of Canada, the laws of the Quebec Legislature and the rules related to legislating.


Positive law

Quebec law can be divided into 2 spheres: private law and public law. Private law concerns the relations between individuals, while public law deals with the rules that govern the Québécois government. Private law in Quebec affects all relationships between individuals (natural person, natural or Juridical person, juridicial persons) and is largely under the jurisdiction of the Parliament of Quebec. The
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the Monarch, the Senate, and the House of Commons. By constitutional convention, th ...
also influences Quebec private law, in particular through its power over banks, bankruptcy, marriage, divorce and maritime law. The '':fr:Droit civil du Québec, Droit civil du Québec'' is the primary component of Quebec's private law and is Codification (law), codified in the
Civil Code of Quebec The ''Civil Code of Quebec'' (CCQ, french: Code civil du Québec) is the civil code in force in the Canadian province of Quebec, which came into effect on January 1, 1994. It replaced the ''Civil Code of Lower Canada'' (french: Code civil du Bas- ...
. The Civil Code of Quebec is the primary text delimiting Jus commune in Quebec and includes the principles and rules of law governing Legal person, legal persons, property law, family law, Law of obligations, obligations, :fr:Responsabilité civile au Québec, civil liability, conflict of laws, etc. For historical reasons, the '':fr:Droit civil du Québec, Droit civil du Québec'' has been strongly influenced by the Institutional System, civil law of France. Public law in Quebec is largely derived from the common law tradition. Quebec constitutional law is the area of law that governs the rules surrounding the Quebec government, the Parliament of Quebec and Quebec's various courts. Quebec constitutional law is governed in large part by the Constitution of Canada, in particular by the Constitution Act of 1867, but also by various acts of the Parliament of Quebec. Quebec administrative law is the area of law that governs relations between individuals and the Quebec public administration. Quebec also has some jurisdiction over criminal law, but in a limited fashion, since the Parliament of Canada is responsible for criminal law. Quebec criminal law nevertheless includes a wide range of offenses (:fr:Code de la sécurité routière, Code de la sécurité routière, :fr:Code du travail (Québec), Code du travail, etc.). Finally, Quebec, like the federal government, has tax law power. Certain portions of Quebec law are considered mixed. This is the case, for example, with human rights and freedoms which are governed by the
Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms The ''Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms'' (french: Charte des droits et libertés de la personne) is a statutory bill of rights and human rights code passed by the National Assembly of Quebec on June 27, 1975. It received Royal Assent from Lie ...
, a Charter which applies to both government and citizens.


Demographics

In the Canada 2016 Census, 2016 census, Quebec had a population of 8,164,361 living in 3,531,663 of its 3,858,943 total dwellings, a 3.3% change from its 2011 population of 7,903,001. With a land area of , it had a population density of in 2016. In 2013, Statistics Canada estimated the province's population to be 8,155,334. At 1.69 children per woman, Quebec's 2011 fertility rate is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.61, and is higher than it was at the turn of the 21st century. It is below the fertility rate#Related parameters, replacement fertility rate of 2.1, which contrasts with its fertility rates before 1960, which were among the highest of any industrialized society. The number of international adoptions in Quebec is the highest of all provinces of Canada. In 2001, 42% of international adoptions in Canada were carried out in Quebec. Life expectancy in Quebec reached a new high in 2011, with an expectancy of 78.6 years for men and 83.2 years for women; this ranked as the third-longest life expectancy among Canadian provinces, behind those of British Columbia and
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. ''Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to dual responses.
Only groups with 1.5 percent or more of respondents are shown. Origins in this table are self-reported and respondents were allowed to give more than one answer.''
The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 108,425 (1.5 percent) including 65,085 First Nations, North American Indians (0.9 percent), 27,985 Métis people (Canada), Métis (0.4 percent), and 10,950
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska (United States). The Inuit languages are part of the Inu ...
(0.15 percent). There is a significant undercount, as many of the largest Indian bands regularly refuse to participate in Canadian censuses for political reasons regarding the question of aboriginal sovereignty. In particular, the largest Mohawk nation, Mohawk Iroquois reserves (Kahnawake, Akwesasne and Kanesatake) were not counted. Almost 9% of the population of Quebec belongs to a visible minority group. This is a lower percentage than that of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, and Manitoba but higher than that of the remaining five provinces. Most visible minorities in Quebec live in or near
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
. ''Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905). Only groups with more than 0.5 percent of respondents are shown.''


Population centres


Religion

Quebec is unique among the provinces in its overwhelmingly Roman Catholic population, though recently with a low church attendance. This is a legacy of colonial times when only Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain ...
. The 2001 census showed the population to be 90.3 percent Christian (in contrast to 77 percent for the whole country) with 83.4 percent Catholic Church in Canada, Catholic (including 83.2 percent Roman Catholic); 4.7 percent Protestant Christian (including 1.2 percent Anglican, 0.7 percent United Church of Canada, United Church; and 0.5 percent Baptist); 1.4 percent Eastern Orthodox, Orthodox Christian (including 0.7 percent Greek Orthodox); and 0.8 percent other Christian; as well as 1.5 percent Muslim; 1.3 percent Jewish; 0.6 percent Buddhist; 0.3 percent Hindu; and 0.1 percent Sikh. An additional 5.8 percent of the population said they had no religious affiliation (including 5.6 percent who stated that they had no religion at all).
''Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580)''


Language

The official language of Quebec is French language, French. Quebec is the only Canadian province whose population is mainly Francophone; 6,102,210 people (78.1% of the population) recorded it as their sole native language in the 2011 Census, and 6,249,085 (80.0%) recorded that they spoke it most often at home. Knowledge of French is widespread even among those who do not speak it natively; in 2011, about 94.4% of the total population reported being able to speak French, alone or in combination with other languages. Canada is home to between 32 and 36 regional French accents and Quebec :fr:Francais québécois, houses 14 of these. All of them descend from the same New France, French of New France but have appeared due to prolonged isolation from other francophones. There are 10 accents on the mainland; they are the regional accents of Gaspesia, Gaspé, Bas-Saint-Laurent, Saguenay, Quebec, Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean, Quebec City, Québec-Charlevoix, Beauce, Quebec, Beauce, the Eastern Townships, Mauricie, Mauricie-Haute-Mauricie, Greater Montreal Area, Greater Montréal, Montreal East, Eastern Montréal-Laval, Quebec, Laval and Rouyn-Noranda. There are 4 accents off the mainland, 1 on the Isle-aux-Coudres, and 3 on the Magdalen Islands, Îles-de-la-Madeleine: the accents of ''Villages Medelinots'', ''Havre-aux-Maisons'' and ''Havre-Aubert''. A considerable number of Quebec residents consider themselves to be bilingual in French and English. In Quebec, about 42.6% of the population (3,328,725 people) report knowing both languages; this is the highest proportion of bilinguals in any Canadian province. The federal electoral district of Lac-Saint-Louis (electoral district), Lac-Saint-Louis, located in the Bilingual belt, Bilingual Belt, is the most bilingual area in the province with 72.8% of its residents claiming to know English and French, according to the 2011 census. In contrast, in the rest of Canada, in 2006, only about 10.2 percent (2,430,990) of the population had a knowledge of both of the country's official languages. In 2011, 599,230 people (7.7% of the population) declared English language, English to be their native language and 767,415 people (9.8%) used it most often as their home language. English-speaking Quebecers are entitled to services in English in the areas of justice, health, and education; services in English are offered in municipalities in which more than half the residents have English as their mother tongue. In 2011, Allophone (Quebec), allophones made up 12.3% of the population, and 7.1% used their native languages most often at home. In 2011, the most common mother tongue languages in the province were as follows: (''Figures shown are for single-language responses only''.) Following these languages were French-based creole languages, Creoles (0.8%), Chinese (0.6%), Greek (0.5%), Portuguese (0.5%), Romanian (0.4%), Vietnamese (0.3%), and Russian (0.3%). In addition, 152,820 (2.0%) reported having more than one native language. English is not an official language in Quebec law. However, both English and French are required by the Constitution Act, 1867 for the enactment of laws and regulations, and any person may use English or French in the National Assembly and the courts. The books and records of the National Assembly must also be kept in both languages.


Aboriginals

The Aboriginals of Quebec have inhabited Quebec for several millennia. Each community possesses its own social structure, culture and territorial entity. In 2003, the Aboriginal population of Quebec numbered 159,905 people. However, because federal law only recognized children of Aboriginal fathers until the 1980s, the actual number may be higher. Adding in Métis would also increase the count further. All the ethnicities living primarily south of the 55th parallel north, 55th parallel are collectively referred to by Québécois as “Amerindians”, “Indians”, “First Nations” or, obsolete, “Redskins”. The ten Amerindian ethnic groups in Quebec are linked to two linguistic groups. The Algonquian languages, Algonquian family is made up of eight ethnic groups: the Abenaki, the Algonquins, the Attikameks, the Cree, Crees, the Wolastoqiyik, the Mi'kmaq, Micmacs, the Innu and the
Naskapi The Naskapi (Nascapi, Naskapee, Nascapee) are a Cree ethnic group and people native to the historical country St'aschinuw (ᒋᑦ ᐊᔅᒋᓄᐤ, meaning 'our nclusiveland'), which is located in northern Quebec and Labrador, neighbouring Nuna ...
s. These last two formed, until 1978, a single ethnic group: the Innu. The Iroquoian family is made up of the Huron-Wendat Nation, Huron-Wendat and the Mohawks. Only the Mohawks were part of the Iroquois Confederacy (''Haudenosaunee''), along with five other Indigenous groups from New York State and
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , largest_city ...
. The eleventh indigenous ethnic group in Quebec, the
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska (United States). The Inuit languages are part of the Inu ...
(or, obsolete, the Eskimos), belong to the Eskimo–Aleut languages, Inuit-Aleut family. The Inuit live mainly in Nouveau Québec (
Nunavik Nunavik (; iu, ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, part of the Nord-du-Québec region and nearly coterminous with Kativik. Covering a land area of north of the 55th parallel, it is the homeland of the Inuit of ...
) and make up the majority of the population living north of the 55th parallel. Of these indigenous peoples, so-called “nomadic” tribes exist, specifically the tribes of Algonquian cultures (eg: the Algonquins, the Cree and the Innu), as well as more “sedentary” ones, specifically the tribes of Iroquoian traditions (eg: the Iroquois and the Hurons-Wendat). The more sedentary groups are the ones who developed more complex forms of social organization. Traditionally, nomadic tribes follow the migration of herds of animals that serve as prey, such as bison, moose or Pinniped, seals. The way of life of the Algonquian and Inuit tribes is dictated by the obligations of hunting and fishing. The traditions of the Iroquoian tribes, producers of the Three Sisters (corn, beans and squash (vegetable), squash), are instead developed around a matriarchal structure derived from the “long cabin” called a longhouse which houses within it several families under the authority of one dean.


Relations with Québécois

Although they represent today approximately 3% of the Quebec population, the indigenous peoples of Quebec have contributed a lot to Québécois society thanks to their ideals of respect for flora, fauna, nature and the environment as well as thanks to their values ​​of hospitality, generosity and sharing. Economically, through the fur trade and the development of relationships with settlers, including coureurs des bois, merchants, cartographers and :fr:Missions jésuites en Nouvelle-France, Jesuit fathers. In addition to contributing to :fr:Toponymie québécoise, Quebec toponymy, indigenous peoples also contributed through their more advanced knowledge than settlers in the following areas: holistic medicine, the functioning of human biology, remedies for several diseases, curing scurvy at settlers' arrival (its thought this was done with a cure made from , white cedar or ''anneda''), winter clothing (:fr:Tannage amérindien, tanning), architecture that insulates against the cold, means of faster transport on snow (snowshoes and dogsled) and on water (canoes, kayaks and rabaskas), :fr:Acérciculture, ''l'acériculture'' (the process of making
maple syrup Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before winter; th ...

maple syrup
), sports (lacrosse and ice fishing), moose and caribou hunting, trapping, the territory and its components, watersheds and their watercourses and natural resources. When Europeans arrived in America in the sixteenth century, the Algonquian-speaking peoples and the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, Iroquoians of the St. Lawrence made allies with the French colonists for the purpose of trade. The first connection was made with the arrival of Jacques Cartier when he set foot in Gaspé and met Donnacona, chief of the village of Stadacona, Stadaconé (today, the city of Quebec City, Québec), in 1534. Moreover, the legend of the Kingdom of Saguenay prompted Francis I of France, King Francis I to finance new trips to the New World.


Rights of indigenous peoples

In the
Royal Proclamation of 1763 A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 "proclamation line" is the border between the red and the pink areas. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III on 7 October 1763. It followed the Treaty of Paris (1763), which form ...

Royal Proclamation of 1763
, issued by King George III, the aboriginals were stated to have an indisputable right to their lands. However, quickly following the proclamation and after the peace treaties with New France and France concluded, the British Crown decided to institute territorial treaties which allowed British authorities to proceed with the total extinction of the land titles of the aboriginal groups. Entirely under Government of Canada, federal tutelage and direction, aboriginal rights were enunciated in the Indian Act and adopted at the end of the 19th century. This act confines the aboriginals within the Indian reserves created for them. The Indian Act is still in effect today. In 1975, the Cree, Inuits and the Quebec government agreed to an agreement called the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement that would extended aboriginal rights beyond Indian reserves, and to over two-thirds of the Québécois territory. Because this extension was enacted without the participation of the Government of Canada, federal government, the extended aboriginal rights only exist in Quebec. In 1978, the
Naskapi The Naskapi (Nascapi, Naskapee, Nascapee) are a Cree ethnic group and people native to the historical country St'aschinuw (ᒋᑦ ᐊᔅᒋᓄᐤ, meaning 'our nclusiveland'), which is located in northern Quebec and Labrador, neighbouring Nuna ...
s joined the agreement when the Northeastern Quebec Agreement was signed. As a result, these three ethnic groups were able to break away from their subjugation to the Indian Act. In recent times, discussions have been underway for several years with the Montagnais of the
Côte-Nord Côte-Nord (, French for "North Coast" (land area ) is the second largest administrative region by land area in Quebec, Canada, after Nord-du-Québec. It covers much of the northern shore of the Saint Lawrence River estuary and the Gulf of Saint L ...
and
Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean (, ) is a region in Quebec, Canada. It contains the Saguenay Fjord, the estuary of the Saguenay River, stretching through much of the region. It is also known as Sagamie in French, from the first part of "Saguenay" and the ...
for the potential creation of a similar autonomy in two new distinct territories that would be called ''Innu Assi'' and ''Nitassinan''. Moreover, in January 2010, an agreement between Quebec City and Montagnais granted the Mashteuiatsh Band Council the ability to plan out development in the entire Ashuapmushuan Wildlife Reserve, which is located on the ''Nitassinan'' of the community of the Pekuakamiulnuatsh.


Political institutions

*The :fr:Assemblée des Premières Nations du Québec et du Labrador, Assemblée des Premières Nations du Québec et du Labrador *The Grand Council of the Crees * The Makivik Corporation


Acadians

The subject of :fr:Acadiens au Québec, Acadians in Quebec is an important one as more than a million Québécois are of Acadian ascent, with roughly 4.8 million Québécois possessing one or multiple Acadian ancestors in their geneology tree. Furthermore, more than a million Québécois wear a patronym of Acadian origin. All of this is because a large number of Acadians had fled Acadia to take refuge in Quebec during the Great Upheaval. Quebec houses an Acadian community spread out accross several regions. Nowadays, Acadians mainly live on the Magdalen Islands and in Gaspesia, but about thirty other communities are present elsewhere in Quebec, mostly in the
Côte-Nord Côte-Nord (, French for "North Coast" (land area ) is the second largest administrative region by land area in Quebec, Canada, after Nord-du-Québec. It covers much of the northern shore of the Saint Lawrence River estuary and the Gulf of Saint L ...
and
Centre-du-Québec Centre-du-Québec (, ''Central Quebec'') is a region of Quebec, Canada. The main centres are Drummondville, Victoriaville, and Bécancour. It has a land area of and a 2016 Census population of 242,399 inhabitants. Description left, 250px, Open far ...
regions. An Acadian community in Quebec can be called a "Cadie" or "Petite Cadie", and some cities and villages use the demonym "Cadien". The ''Festival Acadien des Îles-de-la-Madeleine'' is a festival which occurs every year in memory of the founders of the first villages on the Magdalen Islands. The festival is held in :fr:Île du Havre Aubert, Havre-Aubert for about two weeks. There, Québécois and Acadians from all corners of Quebec and other neighboring lands mingle to celebrate Acadian culture. The town of Bonaventure, Quebec, Bonaventure, in Gaspesia, also houses the fr:Musée acadien du Québec, Acadian Museum of Quebec which features permanent exhibitions on Acadians in Quebec, like ''Une Acadie québécoise'' and ''Secrets d'Acadiens, les coulisses de la rue Grand-Pré''. In 2002, on National Acadian Day, the :fr:Commission de la Capitale Nationale du Québec, ''Commission de la capitale nationale du Québec'' unveiled a monument to Acadians entitled "Towards the Light". The monument symbolizes and explains the predominant role that the Acadians and their descendants played in the history of Quebec. The Premier of Quebec, Bernard Landry, declared at this unveiling that: "Between the Québécois people and the Acadian people, there is more than friendship, there is kinship".


Economy

Quebec has an Developed country, advanced, market economy, market-based, and open economy. In 2009, its gross domestic product (GDP) of US$32,408 per capita at purchasing power parity puts the province at par with Japan, Italy and Spain, but remains lower than the Canadian average of US$37,830 per capita. The economy of Quebec is ranked the 37th largest economy in the world just behind Greece and 28th for the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The economy of Quebec represents 20.36% of the List of Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product, total GDP of Canada. Like most industrialized countries, the economy of Quebec is based mainly on the services sector. Quebec's economy has traditionally been fuelled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and average productivity. The provincial GDP in 2010 was C$319,348 billion, which makes Quebec the second largest economy in Canada. The provincial debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 50.7% in fiscal year 2012–2013, and is projected to decline to 33.8% in 2023–2024. The credit rating of Quebec is currently Credit rating, Aa2 according to the Moody's agency. In June 2017 Standard & Poor's, S&P rated Quebec as an AA- credit risk, surpassing Ontario for the first time. Quebec's economy has undergone tremendous changes over the last decade. Firmly grounded in the
knowledge economy The knowledge economy (or the knowledge-based economy) is an economic system in which the production of goods and services is based principally on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to a rapid pace of advancement in technical and sc ...
, Quebec has one of the highest growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) in Canada. The knowledge sector represents about 30.9% of Quebec's GDP. Quebec is experiencing faster growth of its R&D spending than other Canadian provinces. Quebec's spending in R&D in 2011 was equal to 2.63% of GDP, above the European Union average of 1.84% and will have to reaches the target of devoting 3% of GDP to research and development activities in 2013 according to the Lisbon Strategy. The percentage spent on research and technology (R&D) is the highest in Canada and higher than the averages for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the G7 countries. Approximately 1.1 million Quebecers work in the field of science and technology. Quebec is also a major player in several leading-edge industries including
aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace engineering consists of aeronautics and astronaut ...
, information technologies and software and multimedia. Approximately 60% of the production of the Canadian aerospace industry are from Quebec, where sales totalled C$12.4 billion in 2009. Quebec is one of North America's leading high-tech player. This vast sector encompassing approximately 7,300 businesses and employ more than 145,000 people. Pauline Marois has recently unveiled a two billion dollar budget for the period between 2013 to 2017 to create about 115,000 new jobs in knowledge and innovation sectors. The government promises to provide about 3% of Quebec's GDP in research and development (R&D). About 180 000 Quebeckers work in different field of information technology. Approximately 52% of Canadian companies in these sectors are based in Quebec, mainly in Montreal and Quebec City. There are currently approximately 115 telecommunications companies established in the province, such as Motorola and Ericsson. About 60 000 people currently working in computer software development. Approximately 12 900 people working in over 110 companies such as IBM, CMC, and Matrox. The multimedia sector is also dominated by the province of Quebec. Several companies, such as Ubisoft settled in Quebec since the late 1990s. The mining industry accounted for 6.3% of Quebec's GDP. It employs about 50,000 people in 158 companies. The pulp and paper industries generate annual shipments valued at more than $14 billion. The forest products industry ranks second in exports, with shipments valued at almost $11 billion. It is also the main, and in some circumstances only, source of manufacturing activity in more than 250 municipalities in the province. The forest industry has slowed in recent years because of the United States – Canada softwood lumber dispute, softwood lumber dispute. This industry employs 68,000 people in several regions of Quebec. This industry accounted for 3.1% of Quebec's GDP. Agri-food industry plays an important role in the economy of Quebec, with meat and Dairy products being the two main sectors. It accounts for 8% of the Quebec's GDP and generate $19.2 billion. This industry generated 487,000 jobs in agriculture, fisheries, manufacturing of food, beverages and tobacco and food distribution.


Natural resources

The abundance of natural resources gives Quebec an advantageous position on the world market. Quebec stands out particularly in the mining sector, ranking among the top ten areas to do business in mining. It also stands for the exploitation of its forest resources. Quebec is remarkable for the natural resources of its vast territory. It has about 30 mines, 158 exploration companies and fifteen primary processing industries. Many metallic minerals are exploited, the principals are gold, iron, copper and zinc. Many other substances are extracted including titanium, asbestos, silver, magnesium, nickel and many other metals and industrial minerals. However, only 40% of the mineral potential of Quebec is currently known. In 2003, the value of mineral exploitation reached Quebec 3.7 billion Canadian dollars. Moreover, as a major centre of exploration for diamonds, Quebec has seen, since 2002, an increase in its mineral explorations, particularly in the Northwest as well as in the
Otish Mountains The Monts Otish (Otish Mountains) are a range of tall hills in the geographic centre of Quebec, Canada, north of Lac Mistassini and Manicouagan Reservoir. Within the tall hills is the Réserve faunique des Lacs-Albanel-Mistassini-et-Waconichi. F ...
and the
Torngat Mountains The Torngat Mountains are a mountain range on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Newfoundland and Labrador and eastern Quebec. They are part of the Arctic Cordillera.
. The vast majority (90.5%) of Quebec's forests are publicly owned. Forests cover more than half of Quebec's territory, for a total area of nearly . The Quebec forest area covers seven degrees of latitude. More than a million lakes and rivers cover Quebec, occupying 21% of the total area of its territory. The aquatic environment is composed of 12.1% of fresh water and 9.2% of saltwater (percentage of total QC area).


Tourism

The tourism industry is a major economic pillar in Quebec, being the 5th largest export class. The Ministry of Tourism (Quebec), Ministry of Tourism ensures the development of this industry under the commercial name "Bonjour Québec". The Institut de tourisme et d'hôtellerie du Québec also educates and trains professionals for this field. The tourism industry provides employement to over 400,000 people. These employees work in the more than 29,000 tourism-related businesses in Quebec, most of which are restaurants or hotels. 70% of tourism-related businesses are located in or close to
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
or Quebec City, Québec. It is estimated that, in 2010, Quebec welcomed 25.8 million tourists. Of this number, 76.1% came from Quebec, 12.2% from the rest of Canada, 7.7% from the United States and 4.1% from other countries. Those from other countries mostly came from France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Mexico or Japan. In 2010, it was tourists from France who sojourned the longest (14.9 days on average) and it was tourists from Mexico who spent the most per day (176$ on average). Annually, tourists spend more than 6.7 billion dollars in the different spheres of Quebec's tourism industry. Quebec possesses 21 tourism regions and their development is taken care of by an autonomous network of regional tourism associations. Finally, Quebec is the theatre where many international events take place. These events often include sports competitions (ex. Canadian Grand Prix, Rogers Cup, etc.) and festivals (ex. Quebec Winter Carnival, Montreal International Jazz Festival, Festival d'été de Québec, etc.). As a land of contrasts and grandiosity, a panoply of attractions, activities and landscapes welcomes those who visit Quebec. Whether it is the metropolitan life of Montreal, to the historied quarters of Old Quebec, Vieux-Québec, the charming coasts of Bas-Saint-Laurent, the picturesque Mont-Tremblant settlement, or the ephemeral discovery of Percé Rock, among many others, any who visit Quebec will find something to spark their innate sense of wonder and soothe their soul.


Annual Budget

For the 2017-2018 period, Quebec's budget was 103,7 billion dollars. This budget planned to provide 3 billion dollars more to the healthcare sector over 2 years.


National Companies

Bombardier Inc, Bombardier, Desjardins Group, Desjardins, the National Bank of Canada, the Jean Coutu Group, Transcontinental (company), Transcontinental média, Quebecor, the Metro Inc., Métro food retailers, Hydro-Québec, the Société des alcools du Québec, the Bank of Montreal, Saputo Inc, Saputo, the Cirque du Soleil, the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, the Normandin restaurants and the Vidéotron group represent briefly some of the most important national Québécois companies.


Quebec's place in the Canadian economy

*Quebec produces most of Canada's
hydroelectricity Hydroelectricity, or hydroelectric power, is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity,http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/GSR_20 ...
and is the 2nd biggest hydroelectricity producer in the world *Quebec is the 3rd most attractive province for investment from the mining industry *Quebec is in 2nd place for child care services *Quebec is in 1rst place for the highest amount of milk produced and biggest amount of farms engaged in the dairy industry *Quebec is the province with the most syndicates *Quebec is in 8th place for the general performance of its healthcare system *For tourism in Canada, Quebec is the 2nd most important province, receiving 21,5% of tourists' spending *Quebec has the most registered electric vehicles of any Canadian province


Science and technology

The government of Quebec has launched the Stratégie québécoise de la recherche et de l'innovation (SQRI) in 2007 which aims to promote development through research, science and technology. The government hopes to create a strong culture of innovation in Quebec for the next decades and to create a sustainable economy. The spending on research and development reached some 7.824 billion dollars in 2007, roughly the equivalent of 2.63% of Quebec's GDP. Quebec is ranked, as of March 2011, 13th in the world in terms of investment in research and development. The research and development expenditures will be more than 3% of the province's GDP in 2013. The R&D expenditure in Quebec is higher than the average G7 and OECD countries. Science and technology are key factors in the economic position of Quebec. More than one million people in Quebec are employed in the science and technology sector. Quebec is considered as one of world leaders in Basic research, fundamental scientific research, having produced ten Nobel Prize, Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry, or medicine. It is also considered as one of the world leaders in sectors such as aerospace, information technology, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, and therefore plays a significant role in the world's scientific and technological communities. Quebec is also active in the development of its energy industries, including renewable energy such as hydropower and wind power. Quebec has had over 9,469 scientific publications in the sector of medicine, biomedical research and engineering since the year 2000. Overall, the province of Quebec count about 125 scientific publications per 100,000 inhabitants in 2009. The contribution of Quebec in science and technology represent approximately 1% of the researches worldwide since the 1980s to 2009. Between 1991 to 2000, Quebec produced more scientific papers per 100,000 inhabitants than the United States and Germany. The Canadian Space Agency was established in Quebec due to its major role in this research field. A total of four Quebecers have been in space since the creation of the CSA: Marc Garneau, Julie Payette, and David Saint-Jacques as CSA astronauts, plus Guy Laliberté as a private citizen who paid for his trip. Quebec has also contributed to the creation of some Canadian artificial satellites including SCISAT-1, ISIS (satellite), ISIS, Radarsat-1 and Radarsat-2. The province is one of the world leaders in the field of space science and contributed to important discoveries in this field. One of the most recent is the discovery of the complex extrasolar planets system HR 8799. HR 8799 is the first direct observation of an exoplanet in history. Olivier Daigle and Claude Carignan, astrophysicists from Université de Montréal have invented an astronomical camera approximately 500 times more powerful than those currently on the market. It is therefore considered as the most sensitive camera in the world. The Mont Mégantic Observatory was recently equipped with this camera. Quebec ranks among the world leaders in the field of life science. William Osler, Wilder Penfield, Donald Olding Hebb, Donald Hebb, Brenda Milner, and others made significant discoveries in medicine, neuroscience and psychology while working at McGill University in Montreal. Quebec has more than 450 biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies which together employ more than 25,000 people and 10,000 highly qualified researchers. Montreal is ranked 4th in North America for the number of jobs in the pharmaceutical sector.


Education

The education system of Quebec differs from those of other Canadian provinces. From the establishement of Canada (New France), ''Canada'' in the 16th century up to the
Quiet Revolution The Quiet Revolution (french: Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Québec, characterized by the effective secularization of government, the creation of a state-run w ...
in the 1960s, the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international ...

Catholic Church
was in charge of the education system of Quebec. Today, this education system is administered by the :fr:Ministère de l'Éducation, Ministère de l'Éducation and the :fr:Ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur (Québec), Ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur of the government of Quebec. It has five levels: first :fr:Éducation préscolaire, primaire et secondaire au Québec, preschool, then primary school, then secondary school, then College education in Quebec, CEGEP and finally :fr:Enseignement universitaire au Québec, university. Attached to these levels are the options to also attend professional development opportunities, Andragogy, classes for adults and continuing education. For every level of teaching, there exists a public network and private network. The public network is financed by taxes while the private options must be payed for by the student. In 2020, school boards were replaced by school service centres. All universities in Quebec exist by virtue of laws adopted by the National Assembly of Quebec in 1967 during the
Quiet Revolution The Quiet Revolution (french: Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Québec, characterized by the effective secularization of government, the creation of a state-run w ...
. Their financing mostly comes from public taxes, but the laws under which they operate grants them more autonomy than other levels of education. Teachers are represented by province-wide unions that negotiate province-wide working conditions with local school service centres and the government of Quebec. School work and tests are normally graded using one of two methods (or both simultaneously): a percentage-based 0 to 100% correct system (60% correct is usually the minimum passing grade), or, a letter grade system going from A (best) down to B, C, D and finally, F (failure).


Infrastructure


Transportation

Development and security of land transportation in Canada are provided by the ministère des Transports du Québec. Other organizations, such as the Canadian Coast Guard and Nav Canada, provide the same service for the sea and air transportation. The ''Commission des transports du Québec'' works with the freight carriers and the public transport. The ''réseau routier québécois'' (Quebec road network) is managed by the Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec (SAAQ) (Quebec Automobile Insurance Corporation) and consists of about of highways and national, regional, local, collector and forest roads. In addition, Quebec has almost 12,000 bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, culverts and other structures such as the Quebec Bridge, the Laviolette Bridge and the Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine Bridge–Tunnel. In the waters of the St. Lawrence there are eight deep-water ports for the transhipment of goods. In 2003, 3886 cargo and 9.7 million tonnes of goods transited the Quebec portion of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Concerning rail transport, Quebec has of railways integrated in the large North American network. Although primarily intended for the transport of goods through companies such as the Canadian National (CN) and the Canadian Pacific (CP), the Quebec railway network is also used by inter-city passengers via Via Rail Canada and Amtrak. In April 2012, plans were unveiled for the construction of an railway running north from Sept-Îles, Quebec, Sept-Îles, to support mining and other resource extraction in the Labrador Trough. The upper air network includes 43 airports that offer scheduled services on a daily basis. In addition, the Government of Quebec owns airports and heliports to increase the accessibility of local services to communities in the Basse-Côte-Nord and northern regions. Various other transport networks crisscross the province of Quebec, including hiking trails, snowmobile trails and bike paths; the Route Verte, Green Road being the largest with nearly in length.


Energy

Quebec has been described as a potential clean energy superpower. The energy balance of Quebec has undergone a large shift over the past 30 years. In 2008, electricity ranked as the main form of energy used in Quebec (41.6%), followed by oil (38.2%) and natural gas (10.7%). Quebec is the fourth largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world after China, Brazil and the United States and relies almost exclusively (96% in 2008) on this source of renewable energy for its electricity needs.


Culture

Quebec has developed its own unique culture from its historic
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain ...
roots. Its culture also symbolizes a distinct perspective: being a French-speaking nation surrounded by a bigger English-speaking culture. Quebecois nationalism has been one expression of this perspective. The culture has also been influenced
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of Canadian indigenous peoples, distinct from the Inuit and Métis. Traditionally the First Nations lived south of the tree line, and mainly south of the Arctic Circle. There ...
, United Kingdom, the British, United States, Americans, other French-speaking North Americans like the Acadians and Franco-Ontarians, English-speaking Canadians and some immigrants. Quebec is the centre of French America. Montreal's cabarets rose to the forefront of the city's cultural life during the Prohibition era of Canada and the United States in the 1920s. The cabarets radically transformed the artistic scene, greatly influencing the live entertainment industry of Quebec. The Quartier Latin, Montreal, Quartier Latin (English: Latin Quarter) of Montreal, and Vieux-Québec (English: Old Quebec) in Quebec City, are two hubs of activity for today's artists. Life in the cafés and "terrasses" (outdoor restaurant terraces) reveals a Latin influence in Quebec's culture, with the théâtre Saint-Denis in Montréal and the Capitole de Québec theatre in Quebec City being among the principal attractions. A number of governmental and non-government organizations support cultural activity in Quebec. The Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec (CALQ) is an initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Communications (Quebec). It supports creation, innovation, production, and international exhibits for all cultural fields of Quebec. The Société de développement des entreprises culturelles (SODEC) works to promote and fund individuals working in the cultural industry. The Prix du Québec is an award given by the government to confer the highest distinction and honour to individuals demonstrating exceptional achievement in their respective cultural field. Other Québécois awards include the Athanase David Awards (Literature), Félix Awards (Music), Gémeaux Awards (Television and film), Jutra Awards (Cinema), Masques Awards (Theatre), Olivier Guimond Awards (Humour) and the Opus Awards (Concert music).


Society

On February 8, 2007, Quebec Premier Jean Charest announced the setting up of a ''Bouchard-Taylor Commission, Commission tasked with consulting Quebec Society on the matter of arrangements regarding cultural diversity''. The Premier's press release reasserted the three fundamental values of Quebec society: Furthermore, Quebec is a free and democratic society that abides by the rule of law. Quebec society bases its cohesion and specificity on a set of statements, a few notable examples of which include: * The ''Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms'' * The ''
Charter of the French Language The ''Charter of the French Language'' (french: link=no, La charte de la langue française), (the Charter) also known in English as Bill 101 or Law 101 (''french: link=no, Loi 101''), is a law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the ...
'' * The ''
Civil Code of Quebec The ''Civil Code of Quebec'' (CCQ, french: Code civil du Québec) is the civil code in force in the Canadian province of Quebec, which came into effect on January 1, 1994. It replaced the ''Civil Code of Lower Canada'' (french: Code civil du Bas- ...
''


Music and dance

Traditional music is imbued with many dances, such as the jig, the quadrille, the Reel (dance), reel and line dancing, which developed in the festivities since the early days of colonization. Various instruments are more popular in Quebec's culture: harmonica (music-of-mouth or lip-destruction), fiddle, Spoon (musical instrument), spoons, jaw harp and accordion. The ''podorythmie'' is a characteristic of traditional Quebec music and means giving the rhythm with the feet. Quebec traditional music is currently provided by various contemporary groups seen mostly during Christmas and New Year's Eve celebrations, National Holiday (Quebec), Quebec National Holiday and many local festivals. Being a modern cosmopolitan society, today, all types of music can be found in Quebec. From folk music to hip-hop, music has always played an important role in Quebercers culture. From La Bolduc in the 1920s–1930s to the contemporary artists, the music in Quebec has announced multiple songwriters and performers, pop singers and crooners, music groups and many more. Quebec's most popular artists of the last century include the singers Félix Leclerc (1950s), Gilles Vigneault (1960s–present), Kate and Anna McGarrigle (1970s–present) and Céline Dion (1980s–present). The
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of Canadian indigenous peoples, distinct from the Inuit and Métis. Traditionally the First Nations lived south of the tree line, and mainly south of the Arctic Circle. There ...
and the
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska (United States). The Inuit languages are part of the Inu ...
of Quebec also have their own traditional music. From Quebec's musical repertoire, the song ''A La Claire Fontaine'' was the anthem of the
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain ...
, Patriote movement, Patriots and French Canadian, then replaced by ''O Canada''. Currently, the song ''Gens du pays'' is by far preferred by many Quebecers to be the national anthem of Quebec. The ADISQ, Association québécoise de l'industrie du disque, du spectacle et de la vidéo (ADISQ) was created in 1978 to promote the music industry in Quebec. The Orchestre symphonique de Québec and the Orchestre symphonique de Montréal are respectively associated with the Opéra de Québec and the Opéra de Montreal whose performances are presented at the Grand Théâtre de Québec and at Place des Arts. The ''Ballets Jazz de Montreal'', the ''Grands Ballets'' and La La La Human Steps are three important professional troupes of contemporary dance.


Film, television, and radio

The Cinémathèque québécoise has a mandate to promote the film and television heritage of Quebec. Similarly, the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), a federal Crown corporation, provides for the same mission in Canada. In a similar way, the Association of Film and Television in Quebec (APFTQ) promotes independent production in film and television. While the Association of Producers and Directors of Quebec (APDQ) represents the business of filmmaking and television, the Association of Community Radio Broadcasters of Quebec (ARCQ) (French acronym) represents the independent radio stations. Several movie theatres across Quebec ensure the dissemination of Quebec cinema. With its cinematic installations, such as the ''Cité du cinéma'' and ''Mel's'' studios, the city of
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
is home to the filming of various productions. The State corporation Télé-Québec, the federal Crown corporation Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, CBC, general and specialized private channels, networks, independent and community radio stations broadcast the various Téléroman, Quebec téléromans, the national and regional news, interactive and spoken programmations, etc. Les Rendez-vous du cinéma québécois is a festival surrounding the ceremony of the Jutra Awards Night that rewards work and personalities of Quebec cinema. The Artis and the Gemini Awards gala recognize the personalities of television and radio industry in Quebec and French Canada. The ''Film Festival of the 3 Americas'',
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
, the ''Festival of International Short Film'', Saguenay, Quebec, Saguenay, the Montreal World Film Festival, World Film Festival and the Festival du Nouveau Cinéma, Festival of New Cinema, Montreal, are other annual events surrounding the film industry in Quebec.


Literature and theatre

From New France, Quebec literature was first developed in the travel accounts of explorers such as Jacques Cartier, Jean de Brébeuf, the Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce de Lahontan, Baron de Lahontan, Baron de La Hontan and Nicolas Perrot, describing their relations with indigenous peoples. The ''Moulin à paroles'' traces the great texts that have shaped the history of Quebec since its foundation in 1534 until the era of modernity. The first to write the history of Quebec, since its discovery, was the historian François-Xavier Garneau. This author will be part of the current of patriotic literature (also known as the "poets of the country" and literary identity) that will arise after the Lower Canada Rebellion, Patriots Rebellion of 1837–1838. Many List of Quebec writers, Quebec poets and prominent authors marked their era and today remain anchored in the collective imagination, like, among others, Philippe Aubert de Gaspé, Octave Crémazie, Honoré Beaugrand, Émile Nelligan, Lionel Groulx, Gabrielle Roy, Hubert Aquin, Michel Tremblay, Marie Laberge, Fred Pellerin and Gaston Miron. The American Literary Regionalism, regional novel from Quebec is called ''Terroir'' novel and is a literary tradition specific to the province. It includes such works as ''The Old Canadians'', ''Maria Chapdelaine'', ''Séraphin: un homme et son péché, Un homme et son péché'', ''Le Survenant'', etc. There are also many successful plays from this literary category, such as ''Les Belles-sœurs'' and ''Broue (Brew)''. Among the theatre troupes are the Jean Duceppe, Compagnie Jean-Duceppe, the ''Théâtre La Rubrique'' at the Pierrette-Gaudreault venue of the Institut of arts in Saguenay, the Théâtre Le Grenier, etc. In addition to the network of cultural centres in Quebec, the venues include the Monument-National and the ''Rideau Vert'' (green curtain) Theatre in
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
, the ''Trident'' Theatre in
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
, etc. The National Theatre School of Canada and the Conservatoire de musique et d'art dramatique du Québec form the future players. Popular French-language contemporary writers include Louis Caron, Suzanne Jacob, Yves Beauchemin, and Gilles Archambault. Mavis Gallant, born in Quebec, lived in Paris from the 1950s onward. Well-known English-language writers from Quebec include Leonard Cohen, Mordecai Richler, and Neil Bissoondath.


Fine arts

First influenced since the days of New France by Catholicism, with works from ''Frère Luc'' (Brother Luke) and more recently from Ozias Leduc and Guido Nincheri, art of Quebec has developed around the specific characteristics of its landscapes and cultural, historical, social and political representations. Thus, the development of Quebec masterpieces in painting, printmaking and sculpture is marked by the contribution of artists such as Louis-Philippe Hébert, Cornelius Krieghoff, Alfred Laliberté, Marc-Aurèle Fortin, Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté, Jean Paul Lemieux, Clarence Gagnon, Adrien Dufresne, Alfred Pellan, Jean-Philippe Dallaire, Charles Daudelin, Arthur Villeneuve, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Paul-Émile Borduas and Marcelle Ferron. The Fine arts of Quebec are displayed at the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, Quebec National Museum of Fine Arts, the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal, Montreal Museum of Contemporary Art, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, the Quebec ''Salon des métiers d'art'' and in many art galleries. While many works decorate the public areas of Quebec, others are displayed in foreign countries such as the sculpture ''Embâcle'' (Jam) by Charles Daudelin on ''Québec Place'' in Paris and the statue ''Québec Libre!'' (free Quebec!) by Armand Vaillancourt in San Francisco. The École des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, Montreal School of Fine Arts forms the List of Canadian artists, painters, printmakers and sculptors of Quebec. Various buildings reflect the architectural heritage that characterizes Quebec, such as religious buildings, city halls, houses of large estates, and other locations throughout the province.


Circus and street art

Several circus troupes were created in recent decades, the most important being without any doubt the Cirque du Soleil. Among these troops are contemporary, travelling and on-horseback circuses, such as Les 7 Doigts de la Main, Cirque Éloize, Cavalia, ''Kosmogonia'', ''Saka'' and Cirque ''Akya''. Presented outdoors under a tent or in venues similar to the Casino de Montréal, Montreal Casino, the circuses attract large crowds both in Quebec and abroad. In the manner of touring companies of the Renaissance, the clowns, street performers, minstrels, or troubadours travel from city to city to play their comedies. Although they may appear randomly from time to time during the year, they are always visible in the cultural events such as the Winterlude in Gatineau, the Quebec Winter Carnival, the Gatineau Hot Air Balloon Festival, the Quebec City Summer Festival, the Just for Laughs Festival in Montreal and the Festival of New France in Quebec. The École nationale de cirque, National Circus School and the ''École de cirque de Québec'' were created to train future Contemporary circus artists. For its part, ''Tohu, la Cité des Arts du Cirque'' was founded in 2004 to disseminate the circus arts.


Heritage

The Cultural Heritage Fund is a program of the Quebec government for the conservation and development of Quebec's heritage, together with various laws. Several organizations ensure that same mission, both in the social and cultural traditions in the countryside and heritage buildings, including the ''Commission des biens culturels du Québec'', the ''Quebec Heritage Fondation'', the ''Conservation Centre of Quebec'', the ''Centre for development of living heritage'', the ''Quebec Council of living heri tage'', the ''Quebec Association of heritage interpretation'', etc. Several sites, houses and historical works reflect the cultural heritage of Quebec, such as the Village Québécois d'Antan, the Val-Jalbert, Québec, historical village of Val-Jalbert, the Fort Chambly, the national home of the Patriots, the Chicoutimi pulp mill (Pulperie de Chicoutimi), the Lachine Canal and the Victoria Bridge (Montreal), Victoria Bridge. Strongly influenced by the presence of the Catholic Church, the development of the religious history of Quebec is provided by organizations like the Council of the religious heritage of Quebec. Since 2007, the government promotes, with the various players in the field, the conclusion of agreements on the use of property belonging to episcopal factories and corporations to establish "''partnerships in financing the restoration and renovation of religious buildings''". As of December 2011, there are 190 List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec, National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec. These sites were designated as being of national historic significance. Various museums tell the cultural history of Quebec, like the Musée de la civilisation, Museum of Civilization, the Musée de l'Amérique française, Museum of French America, the McCord Museum or the Montreal Museum of Archaeology and History in Pointe-à-Callière, displaying artifacts, paintings and other remains from the past of Quebec. Many literary works reproduce the daily lives of the past, following the social and cultural traditions of Quebec television series reproducing the old days such as the trilogy of Pierre Gauvreau (''Le Temps d'une paix'', ''Cormoran'' and ''Le Volcan tranquille''), ''La Famille Plouffe'', ''Les Belles Histoires des pays d'en haut, Les Belles Histoires des Pays-d'en-Haut'', ''La Petite Patrie'', ''Entre chien et loup'', '' Les Filles de Caleb'', ''Blanche'', ''Au nom du père et du fils'', ''Marguerite Volant'', ''Nos Étés'' or ''Musée Éden'', among others.


Cuisine

The traditional Quebecois cuisine descends from 16th century French cuisine, the fur trade and a history of hunting. French settlers populating North America were interested in a new cuisine to confront the climate and the needs arising from the work of colonization. It has many similarities with Acadian cuisine. Quebec's cuisine has also been influenced by learning from First Nation, by English cuisine and by American cuisine. Quebec is most famous for its Tourtière, Pâté Chinois, Poutine, St. Catherine's taffy among others. "Le temps des sucres" is a period during springtime when many Quebecers go to the Sugar house, cabane à sucre for a traditional meal. Traditional dishes are also the star of :fr:Le temps des fêtes, "Le temps des fêtes", a period which covers the winter holidays. Quebec is the biggest
maple syrup Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before winter; th ...

maple syrup
producer on the planet. 72% of the maple syrup sold on the international market (and 90% of the maple syrup sold in Canada) originates from Quebec. Quebec has a long history of developing and perfecting the craft of :fr:l'acériculture, l'acériculture, and creating new List of foods made from maple, maple-derived products. Quebec has produced beer since the beginning of colonization especially with the emergence of spruce beer. Quebec also produces a great number of high-quality wines including ice wine and ice cider. Because of the climate and available resources, it is only since the 1980s that these drinks can be produced in industrial quantities. Today there are nearly a hundred breweries and companies, including Unibroue, Molson Coors, Labatt and many others. Quebec has produced cheese for centuries. Most of the first cheeses were soft cheeses, but after the Conquest of New France, hard cheese began to be created as well. The first cheese-making school in North America was established in Saint-Denis-de-Kamouraska in 1893. It was at this moment that the monks of La Trappe of Oka began to produce the famous Oka cheese. Today there are over 700 different cheeses in Quebec.


Sports

Sports in Quebec constitutes an essential dimension of Quebec culture. The practice of sports and outdoor activities in Quebec was influenced largely by its geography and climate. Ice hockey remains the national sport. This sport, which was played for the first time on March 3, 1875, at the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal and promoted over the years by numerous achievements, including the centenary of the Montreal Canadiens, still raises passions. Other major sports include Canadian football with the Montreal Alouettes, soccer with Club de Foot Montréal, the Canadian Grand Prix, Grand Prix du Canada Formula 1 racing with drivers such as Gilles Villeneuve and Jacques Villeneuve, and professional baseball with the former Montreal Expos. During its history, Quebec has hosted several major sporting events; including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the Fencing World Championships in 1967, track cycling in 1974, and the Transat Québec-Saint-Malo race created for the first time in 1984. Québec athletes have performed well at the Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics over recent years. They won 12 of Canada at the 2018 Winter Olympics, Canada's 29 medals at the most recent 2018 Winter Olympics, Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang (2018); they won 12 of the Canada at the 2014 Winter Olympics, 27 Canadian medals in 2014 Winter Olympics, Sochi (2014); and 9 of the Canada at the 2010 Winter Olympics, 26 Canadian medals in 2010 Winter Olympics, Vancouver (2010).


Folklore and legends

When the early settlers arrived from France in the 17th century, they brought with them popular tales from their homeland. Adapted to fit the traditions of rural Quebec by transforming the European hero into Ti-Jean, a generic rural habitant, they eventually spawned many other tales. Many were passed on through generations by what French speaking Québécois refer to as ''Les Raconteurs'', or storytellers. Almost all of the stories native to Quebec were influenced by Christianity, Christian dogma and superstitions. The Devil, for instance, appears often as either a person, an animal or monster, or indirectly through Demonic acts. Other forms of folklore include superstitions associated with objects, events and dreams. Various tales and stories are told through oral tradition, such as, among many more, the legends of the ''Bogeyman'', the ''Chasse-galerie'', the ''Black Horse of Trois-Pistoles'', the ''Complainte de Cadieux'', the ''Marie-Josephte Corriveau, Corriveau'', the ''dancing devil of Saint-Ambroise'', the ''Édouard Beaupré, Giant Beaupré'', the ''monsters of the lakes Lake Pohenegamook, Pohénégamook'' and ''Lake Memphremagog, Memphremagog'', of ''Quebec Bridge'' (called the Devil's Bridge), the ''Rocher Percé'' and of ''Rose Latulipe'', for example. Quebec's French-speaking populace has the second largest body of folktales in Canada (the first being
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of Canadian indigenous peoples, distinct from the Inuit and Métis. Traditionally the First Nations lived south of the tree line, and mainly south of the Arctic Circle. There ...
). The ''Association Quebecoise des Loisirs Folkloriques'' is an organization committed to preserving and disseminating Quebec's folklore heritage. It produces a number of publications and recordings, as well as sponsoring other activities.


Institutions

Quebec's rich heritage of culture and history can be explored through a network of museums, which include the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal, the Musée de la civilisation and the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec. Many of Quebec's artists have been educated in universities' arts faculties and specialized art schools. Notable schools include the Conservatoire de musique et d'art dramatique du Québec, the National Theatre School of Canada, École nationale de théâtre du Canada and the École nationale de cirque. Finally, many public institutions have been created following the
Quiet Revolution The Quiet Revolution (french: Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Québec, characterized by the effective secularization of government, the creation of a state-run w ...
to catalogue and further develop Québécois culture. Notable public agencies include the Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, the Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec and Télé-Québec.


Architecture

Image:Maison Routhier.JPG, ''Maison Routhier'' in Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, Sainte-Foy. This kind of Canadien-style house remains a symbol of Canadien nationalism. Québécois architecture is characterized by its unique Canadien-style buildings as well as the juxtaposition of a variety of styles reflective of Quebec's history. When walking in any city or town, one can come accross buildings with styles congruent to Classical architecture, Classical, Neo-Gothic, Roman architecture, Roman, Neo-Renaissance, Greek Revival architecture, Greek Revival, neo-classical architecture, Neo-Classical, Québécois Neo-Classical, victorian architecture, Victorian, Second Empire architecture, Second Empire, modern architecture, Modern, post-modern architecture, Post-modern or Skyscrapers. Canadien-style houses and barns were developed by the first settlers of New France who settled along the banks of the St. Lawrence River. These buildings are rectangular one-storey structures with an extremely tall and steep roof, sometimes almost twice as tall as the house below. It is thought that this roof design may have been developed to prevent the accumulation of snow. They were usually built out of wood, but the surviving ones are almost all built out of stone. Canadien-style churches also developed. Each new village would build its own church, often being inspired by the churches of Québec and Montreal in the process. These churches long served as landmarks while traversing rural Quebec and were built in the center of the town. Quebec is often said to possess the most beautiful churches in North America.


National symbols

In 1939, the
government of Quebec The provincial government of Quebec (french: gouvernement provincial du Québec) is the body responsible for the administration of the Canadian province of Quebec. A constitutional monarchy, the Crown is the corporation sole, assuming distinct role ...
unilaterally ratified its Coat of arms of Quebec, coat of arms to reflect History of Quebec, Quebec's political history: French rule (gold lily on blue background), followed by British rule (lion on red background), followed by Canadian rule (maple leaves), and with Quebec's motto below "Je me souviens". Je me souviens ("I remember") was first carved under the coat of arms of Quebec's Parliament Building (Quebec), Parliament Building in 1883. ''Je me souviens'' is an official part of the coat of arms and has been the official licence plate motto since 1978, replacing the previous one: ''La belle province'' ("the beautiful province"). The expression '':fr:La Belle Province, La belle province'' is still used as a nickname for the province. The fleur-de-lis, one of Quebec's most common symbols, is an ancient symbol of the French monarchy and was first shown in Quebec on the shores of Gaspésie in 1534 when Jacques Cartier arrived in Quebec for the first time. St. John the Baptist, Saint-Jean-Baptiste, the patron saint of Canadiens, is honoured every 24th of June during National Holiday (Quebec), Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Finally, the Great Seal of Quebec is used to authenticate documents issued by the governmnent of Quebec. When
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain () (c. 13 August 1567Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – 25 December 1 ...
founded Québec City in 1608, his ship hoisted the ''French merchant flag'', which consisted of a white cross on a blue background. Later on, at the Battle of Carillon, in 1758, the Flag of Carillon was flown. This flag inspired the first members of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society to create the ''Carillon Sacré-Coeur'' flag, which consisted of a white cross on an azur background with white fleur-de-lis in each corner and a Sacred Heart#Sacred Heart imagery, Sacred Heart surrounded by Maple leaf, maple leaves in the centre. The ''Carillon Sacré-Coeur'' and ''French merchant flag'' went on to be the major inspirations for Québécois when creating Quebec's current flag in 1903, called the ''Fleurdelisé''. The ''Fleurdelisé'' replaced the Union Jack on Quebec's Parliament Building (Quebec), Parliament Building on January 21, 1948, and it has flown there ever since. Three new official symbols were adopted in the late 1900s: *''Iris versicolor'', the floral emblem of Quebec since 1999. It was chosen because it blooms around the time of Quebec's Fête nationale. *The snowy owl, the avian emblem of Quebec since 1987. It was selected by the Québécois government to symbolize Quebec's winters and northern climate. *The yellow birch, the tree emblem of Quebec since 1993. It was picked to emphasize the importance Québécois give to the forests. The tree is admired for its diverse uses, its commercial value and its autumn colours.


Fête nationale ("National Holiday")

In 1977, the Quebec Parliament declared June 24, the day of , to be Quebec's National Holiday. , or , honours French Canada's patron saint, John the Baptist. On this day, the song "Gens du pays", by Gilles Vigneault, is often heard. This song is commonly regarded as Quebec's unofficial anthem. Festivities occur on June 23 and 24 all over Quebec. In big cities like
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
or
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
, shows are organized in main public spaces (such as on the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, or in Maisonneuve Park in Montreal) where several of the most popular Québécois artists sing until late at night.


National Patriots' Day

National Patriots' Day, a statutory holiday in Quebec, celebrates the patriots that fought in the
Lower Canada Rebellion The Lower Canada Rebellion (french: rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War () in French, is the name given to the armed conflict in 1837–38 between rebels and the colonial government of Lower Canada (now souther ...
against British forces. ''Le Vieux de '37'' ("The Old Man of '37") is an illustration by Henri Julien that depicts a patriot of this rebellion. ''Le Vieux de '37'' is one of the best known symbols of the rebellion and is sometimes added at the centre of Patriote flags.


Unrecognized symbols

In 1998, the Montreal Insectarium sponsored a poll to choose an official insect for Quebec. The Limenitis arthemis, white admiral butterfly (''Limenitis arthemis'') won with 32% of the 230 660 votes. However, the white admiral was never accepted by the governmnent of Quebec as an official symbol.


External relationships

Quebec and
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton , largest_city = Moncton , largest_metro = Great ...
are the only Canadian provinces that are fully-fledged members of the international Francophonie organisation. Quebec also has a history of many political partnerships with
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , largest_city ...
. Foreign country-wise, Quebec's closest economic and military partner is the United States of America (see Canada–United States relations). Products of American culture like songs, movies, fashion, food and more strongly affect Culture of Quebec, Québécois culture. Quebec also has a long and historied relationship with both the United Kingdom and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...
.


Quebec Government Offices

Quebec possesses a network of 32 offices in 18 countries. These offices serve the purpose of representing Quebec in the country in which it is situated and they are overseen by Quebec's Ministry of International Relations (Quebec), Ministry of International Relations. Quebec, like other Canadian provinces, also maintains representatives in some Canadian embassies and consulates general. As of 2019, the Government of Quebec has delegates-general (Agent-general, agents-general) in Brussels, London, Mexico City, Munich, New York City, Paris and Tokyo; delegates to Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and Rome; and offices headed by directors offering more limited services in Barcelona, Beijing, Dakar, Hong Kong, Mumbai, São Paulo, Shanghai, Stockholm, and Washington DC, Washington. In addition, there are the equivalent of Consul (representative)#honorary consul, honorary consuls, titled ''antennes'', in Berlin, Philadelphia, Qingdao, Seoul, and California's Silicon Valley. Québec also has a delegate for the Francophonie, a representative to UNESCO and a particular participation in the Organization of American States.


Francophonie

Quebec maintains relations with the Canada, Canadian and international francophonie. In 1987 and 2011, the :fr:Sommet de la francophonie, Sommet de la francophonie, an annual meeting of heads of states from member states of the Francophonie, took place in Quebec. Quebec, being the center of French America, would like to do its part to promote the French language in the Americas. The :fr:Jeux de la francophonie canadienne, Jeux de la francophonie canadienne, an francophone canadian sports event which takes place every 3 years, has taken place in Quebec twice since its inception in 1999.


Quebec's representation in Canada

Quebec has at its disposal a network of representation in Canada. Its composed of two bureaux, one is in Moncton and the other is in Ontario. The bureau in Ontario covers Ontario and Western Canada, while the bureau in Moncton covers Atlantic Canada. One station chief leads each respective bureau. The purpose of these bureaux is to ensure an institutional presence of the government of Quebec near the other governments of Canada."Bureaux du Québec au Canada"
(consulted April 2021)


See also

* Index of Quebec-related articles * Outline of Quebec * *


References


Notes


Journals

* * *


Further reading


English

* * Bergeron, Léandre (1975). ''The History of Québec: a Patriote's [sic] Handbook'', trans. from the 5th French ed. by Baila Markus and rev. by the author. Updated ed. New Canada Publications. * Bergeron, Léandre (1974). ''Why There Must Be a Revolution in Québec''. Toronto: New Canada Publications. 0-919600-16-6 * * * * Gairdner, William D. ''Constitutional Crack-up: Canada and the Coming Showdown with Québec''. London: Stoddart Publishing Co., 1994. ''N.B''.: On verso of t.p.: "A brief version ... appeared in the revised edition of the author's ''The Trouble with Canada''." * * * * * * * McRoberts, Kenneth, and Dale Posgate (1984). ''Québec: Social Change and Political Crisis''. Toronto, Ont.: McClelland and Stewart. Rev. and updated, including a post-Referendum epilogue, 1984, cop. 1980. x, 325 p. ''N.B''.: The revision statement is from the front cover of the book. * * * Roussopoulos, Dimitrios I, compiler (1974). ''Québec and Radical Social Change''. First ed. Montréal, Qué.: Black Rose Books. pbk. * * *


French

* * * Bergeron, Léandre (1970). ''Petit manuel d'histoire du Québec''. [Montréal]: Éditions Québécoises. Without ISBN * Bergeron, Léandre and Pierre Landry (2008). ''Petit manuel d'histoire du Québec, 1534–2008''. Trois-Pistoles, Qué.: Éditions Trois-Pistoles. ''N.B''.: This ed. is a major revision, very considerably enlarged, rewritten this time in collaboration, and updated, of the 1970 text of the work, thus constituting essentially almost a different work than the original. * * * Comeau, Robert, ed. (1969). ''Économie québécoise'', in series, ''Les Cahiers de l'Université du Québec''. Sillery, Qué.: Presses de l'Université du Québec. 495 p. * Commission politique et constitutionnelle (1967). ''États généraux du Canada français: exposés de base et documents de travail''. Montréal: Éditions de l'Action nationale. * Desautels, Guy, et al. (1978). ''Pour l'autodétermination du Québec: plaidoyer marxiste''. Éditions Nouvelles frontières. Sans ISBN * Duguay, Raoul (1971). ''Musiciens du Québec''. Montréal: Éditions du Jour. 331 p. ''N.B''.: The emphasis is on "classical" then- contemporary composers and on those of "musique actuelle". * * ''Les Écossais du Québec''. Montréal: Conseil québécois du Chardon, [1999]. ''N.B''.: This is primarily a descriptive cultural and commercial directory of the Scottish community of Québec. * Gagnon, Henri (1979). ''Fermatures d'usines, ou bien liberation nationale''. Saint-Lambert, Qué.: [s.n.]: Presses de Payette et Simms, imprim[eur]; distribution, Éditions Héritage. Without ISBN * * * * La Rochelle, Louis (1982). ''En flagrant délit de pouvoir: chroniques des événements poliltiques, de Maurice Duplessis à René Lévesque''. Montréal, Qué: Boreal Express. * * * * * Morf, Gustave (1970). ''Le Terrorisme québécois''. Montréal, Éditions de l'Homme. 219, [3] p. * Parizeau, Jacques (1997). ''Pour un Québec souverain''. [Montréal]: V.L.B. éditeur. * Pelletier, Réal, ed. ''Une Certaine Révolution tranquille: 22 juin [19]60-[19]75''. Montréal: La Presse, 1975. 337 p., ill. chiefly with b&w port. photos. Without ISBN * Pilon, Robert, Isabelle Lamoureux, and Gilles Turcotte (1991). ''Le Marché de la radio au Québec: document de reference''. [Montréal]: Association québécoise de l'industrie du dique, du spectacle et de la video. unpaged. ''N.B''.: Comprises: Robert Pilon's and Isabelle Lamoureux' ''Profil du marché de radio au Québec: un analyse de Média-culture''. – Gilles Turcotte's ''Analyse comparative de l'écoute des principals stations de Montréal: prepare par Info Cible''. * Rivière, Sylvain (2007). ''Léandre Bergeron, né en exil''. Trois-Pistoles, Qué.: Éditions Trois-Pistoles. ''N.B''.: Collection of essays on various Québec subjects, including a biography of L. Bergeron. * Trudel, Jean (1969). ''Profil de la sculpture québécoise, XVIIe-XIXe siècle[s]''. Québec, QC.: Ministère des affaires culturelles, Musée du Québec. 140 p., ill. with photos, mostly b&w. Without ISBN or SBN *


External links


Government of QuebecBonjour Québec
Quebec government official tourist site
CBC Digital Archives – Quebec Elections: 1960–1998
* {{Authority control Quebec, 1867 establishments in Canada Eastern Canada Provinces of Canada States and territories established in 1867 French-speaking countries and territories Populated places established in 1534