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Punjab (; ; ; ; also
romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and
historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loca ...
in
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
and
northern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on ...
. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. The geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time. In the 16th century
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
it referred to a relatively smaller area between the
Indus#REDIRECT Indus River
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus
and the
Sutlej The Sutlej or Satluj ( Punjabi: سُتلج) River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifi ...
rivers. In
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
, until the
Partition of India The partition of India was the division of British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcon ...

Partition of India
in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
,
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
,
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

Himachal Pradesh
,
Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the s ...

Chandigarh
, and
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
and the Pakistani regions of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
and
Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad Capital Territory ( ur, , translit=vafāqī dār-alhakūmat) is the only of . Located between and province. It includes the country's federal capital . The territory is represented in the constituencies , and . History In 1960, ...
. It bordered the
Balochistan Balochistan (; bal, بلوچِستان; also romanised as Baluchistan) is an arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Balochistan
and
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (; ps, خیبر پښتونخوا; ), often abbreviated as KP or KPK and formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province , conventional_long_name = North-West Frontier Province , common_name = NWFP , nation = British India ...
regions to the west,
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale ...

Kashmir
to the north, the
Hindi Belt The Hindi Belt is a linguistic region encompassing parts of northern, central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Di ...

Hindi Belt
to the east, and
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...

Rajasthan
and
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, ad ...

Sindh
to the south. The predominant ethnolinguistic group of the Punjab region is the
Punjabi people The Punjabis (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as ...

Punjabi people
, who speak the
Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also

*Aryan invasion theory (disambiguation) *Indo-Aryan tribes (disambigua ...
Punjabi language Punjabi (Shahmukhi: , Gurmukhi: , ; ; sometimes spelled Panjabi) is an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Punjabi people and native to the Punjab region of Pakistan and India. Punjabi is the 9th most widely spoken languag ...
.
Punjabi Muslims Punjabi Muslims ( pa, ) are adherents of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounce ...
are the majority in
West Punjab West Punjab ( pnb, ; ur, ) was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. The province covered an area of 205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi), including much of the current Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab province and the Islamabad Capital Territory, but ex ...

West Punjab
(Pakistan), while
Punjabi Sikhs , region2 = , pop2 = 700,000 , ref2 = , region3 = , pop3 = 500,000 , ref3 = , region4 = , pop4 = 450,500 , ref4 = , region5 = , pop5 =60,000-70,000 , ref5 = , region6 = , pop6 ...
and
Punjabi Hindus Punjabi Hindus are an Indo-Aryan people, Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic and religious group who are Punjabis from the Punjab region and follow Hinduism. While Punjabi Hindus are mostly found in India today, they have their roots in the wider Punjab ...
are the majority in
East Punjab East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab (British India), Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the Partition ...
(India). Other religious groups are
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
,
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion. It is one of the oldest Indian religions. The three main pillars of Jainism are ''Ahimsa in Jainism, ahiṃsā'' (non-violence), ''anekāntavāda'' (non-absolut ...

Jainism
,
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is an Iranian religions, Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian peoples, Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as ''Za ...
,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
, and Ravidassia. The Punjab region was the cradle for the
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
. The region had numerous migrations by the
Indo-Aryan peoples Indo-Aryan peoples refers to both the pastoralist Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern In ...
. The land was later invaded and contested by the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
,
Mauryans The Maurya Empire was a Greater India, geographically extensive Iron Age list of ancient great powers, historical power in South Asia based in Magadha, founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 BCE, and existing in loose-knit fashion until 185 BC ...
,
Indo-Greeks The Indo-Greek Kingdom, or Graeco-Indian Kingdom, also known historically as the Yavana Kingdom (Yavanarajya), was a Hellenistic period, Hellenistic-era Ancient Greece, Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regio ...
,
Indo-Scythians Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European languages, Indo-European ethnolinguistic group who are identified by their use of the Iranian ...
,
Kushans The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, ; Late Brahmi Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia b ...

Kushans
,
Macedonians Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
,
Ghaznavids The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa, غزنویان ''ġaznaviyān'') was a Persianate Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is fro ...
,
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
,
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...

Mongols
,
Timurids The Timurid dynasty ( fa, , chg, ), self-designated as Gurkani ( fa, , ''Gūrkāniyān'', chg, , ''Küregen''), was a Sunni Muslim Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of '' ...
,
Mughals The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. ...
,
Marathas The Maratha caste are a Marathi clan originally formed in the earlier centuries from the amalgamation of families from the peasant (Kunbi), shepherd ( Dhangar), pastoral (Gavli, Gawli), blacksmith (Lohar), Sutar (carpenter), Bhandari caste, Bh ...

Marathas
,
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...

Arabs
,
Pashtuns Pashtuns (, or ; ps, پښتانه, ; Pakhtuns or Pathans), historically known as Afghan (ethnonym), Afghans,, ''Afğân'' or Bactrian language, Bactrian Abgân - αβγανο are an Iranian peoples, Iranian ethnic group native to Central ...

Pashtuns
,
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
, and other peoples. Historic foreign invasions mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the
Majha Majha (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb o ...
region, which is also the bedrock of
Punjabi culture The culture of Punjab encompasses the spoken language, written literature, cuisine, science, technology, military warfare, architecture, traditions,sacrifices, values and history of the Punjabi people native to the northern part of the Indian subco ...
and traditions. The Punjab region is often referred to as the
breadbasket The breadbasket of a country or of a region is an area which, because of the richness of the soil Soil (often stylized as SOiL) is an American rock band that was formed in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map ...
in both India and Pakistan.


Etymology

The origin of the region's name can probably be traced to the ''
Mahabharata The ''Mahābhārata'' (; sa, महाभारतम्, ', ) is one of the two major of , the other being the '. It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the and the fates of the and the princes and their successors ...

Mahabharata
'', which calls one of the regions in . The later name for the region, ''pañjāb'' (English spelling: Punjab), is a Persian translation and is similarly composed of ; and . The word ''pañjāb'' thus means 'The Land of Five Waters', referring to the rivers
Jhelum Jhelum ( ur, , ) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River , name_other = Hydaspes, Bidaspes, Vitastā, Bihat, Wihat, Bihatab, Biyatta, Jailam , image = Jhelum River-Pakistan.jpg , image_size = , im ...

Jhelum
,
Chenab The Chenab River ( pa, چَنّھاں, translit=cannhāṉ; ur, , translit=canāb; ) is a major river that flows in and , and is one of the 5 major rivers of the region. It is formed by the union of two headwaters, Chandra and Bhaga, which ...

Chenab
, ,
Sutlej The Sutlej or Satluj ( Punjabi: سُتلج) River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifi ...

Sutlej
, and
Beas Beas is a riverfront town in the Amritsar district of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Punjab, India, Punjab. Beas lies on the banks of the Beas River. Beas town is mostly located in revenue boundary of Budha Theh wit ...

Beas
. All are
tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...
of the
Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including t ...

Indus River
, the Sutlej being the largest. The ancient
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
referred to the region as ''Pentapotamía'' ( el, Πενταποταμία), which has the same meaning as the Persian word.


History

The Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a historical and cultural link to Indo-Aryan peoples as well as partially to various indigenous communities. As a result of several invasions from
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
and the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
, many ethnic groups and religions make up the
cultural heritage Cultural heritage is the legacy of tangible and intangible heritage assetA heritage asset is an item that has value because of its contribution to a nation’s society, knowledge and/or culture. They are usually physical assets, but some countries ...
of the Punjab. In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
, the
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
, was located in the region.


Classical period

The epic battles described in the ''
Mahabharata The ''Mahābhārata'' (; sa, महाभारतम्, ', ) is one of the two major of , the other being the '. It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the and the fates of the and the princes and their successors ...

Mahabharata
'' are described as being fought in what is now the state of Haryana and historic Punjab. The
Gandhara Gandhāra was an ancient region in the Kabul Kabul (; ps, , translit=Kābəl, ; prs, , translit=Kābol, ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between ...

Gandhara
s,
Kambojas The Kambojas were a tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit literature, Sanskrit and Pali literature. The tribe coalesced to become one of the ''shodhasha'' (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) of ancient India mentione ...
, Trigartas, Andhra,
Pauravas The Pauravas were an ancient Indian dynasty in the northwest Indian subcontinent (present-day India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by po ...

Pauravas
,
Bahlikas The Bahlikas ( sa, बाह्लिक; ''Bāhlika'') were the inhabitants of Bahlika ( sa, बह्लिक, located in Bactria Bactria (Bactrian language, Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia. Bactria proper w ...
(
BactrianBactrian may refer to *Bactria Bactria ( Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanis ...
settlers of the Punjab),
Yaudheya Yaudheya or Yoddheya Gana (Yoddheya Republic) was an ancient militant confederation. The word Yaudheya is a derivative of the word from yodha meaning warriors.“Yaudheyas.” Ancient Communities of the Himalaya, by Dinesh Prasad. Saklani, Indus P ...
s, and others sided with the
Kauravas Kaurava is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. ...
in the great battle fought at
Kurukshetra Kurukshetra (, ) is a city in the Indian state of Haryana. It is also known as Dharmakshetra ("Realm of duty ") and as the "Land of the Bhagavad Gita". Legends According to the Puranas, Kurukshetra is a region named after King Kuru, the an ...

Kurukshetra
. According to DrFauja Singh and Dr.L.M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas, and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab." In 326 BCE,
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
invaded
Pauravas The Pauravas were an ancient Indian dynasty in the northwest Indian subcontinent (present-day India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by po ...

Pauravas
and defeated
King Porus Porus () or Poros (from Ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search ...
. His armies entered the region via the
Hindu Kush The Hindu Kush ( Dari, Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (, ). The language is natively spoken ...
in northwest Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of
Sagala Sagala, Sakala ( sa, साकला), or Sangala ( grc, Σάγγαλα) was a city in , which was the predecessor of the modern city of that is located in what is now 's northern province. The city was the capital of the and it was razed in ...
(present-day
Sialkot Sialkot (Urdu and pnb, ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the capital city of Sialkot District. It is Pakistan's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 13th largest city by population and is located in north-east Punja ...

Sialkot
in northeast Pakistan). In 305BCE the area was ruled by the
Maurya Empire The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human h ...
. In a long line of succeeding rulers of the area,
Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in So ...

Chandragupta Maurya
and
Ashoka Ashoka (; Brāhmi: 𑀅𑀲𑁄𑀓, ''Asoka'', IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit ...

Ashoka
stand out as the most renowned. The Maurya presence in the area was then consolidated in the
Indo-Greek Kingdom The Indo-Greek Kingdom, or Graeco-Indian Kingdom, also known historically as the Yavana Kingdom (Yavanarajya), was a Hellenistic period, Hellenistic-era Ancient Greece, Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regio ...
in 180BCE.
Menander I Menander I Soter ( grc, Μένανδρος Σωτήρ, ''Ménandros Sōtḗr'', ''Menandrauou Sotiros'', ‘Menander the Saviour’) (Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate ...
Soter Soter derives from the (''sōtēr''), meaning a , a deliverer; initial capitalised ; fully capitalised ; feminine Soteira (Σώτειρα) or sometimes Soteria (Σωτηρία). Soter was used as: * as a title of gods: Soter, Soter, Soter, ...

Soter
("Menander I the Saviour"; known as Milinda in Indian sources) is the most renowned leader of the era, he conquered Punjab and made Sagala the capital of his
Empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and ...
. Menander carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the region till his death in 130BCE. The neighbouring
Seleucid The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...

Seleucid
Empire rule came to an end around 12BCE, after several invasions by the
Yuezhi The Yuezhi (, ) were an ancient people first described in Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depe ...
and the Scythian people.


Medieval period


Early (600s to 1206)

In 711–713 CE, the 18-year-old Arab general
Muhammad bin Qasim Muhammad bin Qasim al-Thaqafi ( ar, محمد بن القاسم الثقفي, ''Muḥammad bin al-Qāsim al-Thaqafī''; 715), also known by the '' laqab'' (honorific epithet) of Imad ad-Din ( ar, عماد الدين, ''ʿImād al-Dīn''), was an A ...
of
Taif Taif ( ar, اَلطَّائِفُ, translit=aṭ-Ṭāʾif, lit=The circulated or encircled) is a city and governorate in the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia. Located at an elevation of in the slopes of the Hejaz Mountains, which themselves are pa ...
, a city in what is now
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
, came by way of the
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
with Arab troops to defeat
Raja Dahir Raja Dahir (; ''Raja Dahir''; 663 - 712 CE) was the last Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', ...
. BinQasim conquered parts of present-day
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, ad ...

Sindh
and southern Punjab for the
Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under ...
. The newly created state of
Sind Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admini ...
, encompassing part of Punjab, brought Islamic rule to the region for the first time. Sind would later be governed by the
Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the tit ...

Abbasid Caliphate
, before fragmenting into five smaller kingdoms, one of which was based in
Multan Multan (; ) is a city and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. Situated on the bank of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan's List of largest cities in Pakistan, 7th largest city and is the major cultural and ...

Multan
. The remainder of Punjab at this time was governed by the
Hindu Shahi The Hindu Shahis (also known as Hindūshāhs or Odi Shahis or Brahman Shahis) (843–1026 CE) were a dynasty that held sway over the Kabul Valley Kabul ( ps, کابل, translit=Kābəl; prs, کابل, translit=Kābol) is the capital and la ...
s and local
Rajputs Rajput (from Sanskrit ''raja-putra'', "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent. The term R ...

Rajputs
. In 1001,
Mahmud of Ghazni Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn ( fa, یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین; 2 November 971 – 30 April 1030), usually known as Mahmud of Ghazni ( fa, ) or Mahmud Ghaznavi was the fo ...

Mahmud of Ghazni
began a series of raids which culminated in establishing
Ghaznavid The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa, غزنویان ''Ġaznaviyān'') was a Persianate society, Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic peoples, Turkic ''mamluk'' origin, ruling, at its greatest extent, large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana ...
rule across the Punjab by 1026. The Ghaznavids, a
Persianate A Persianate society is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym Farsi (, ', ), is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subd ...
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
dynasty of
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
''
mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

mamluk
'' origin, reigned until 1186 when they were defeated and replaced by the
Ghurid dynasty The Ghurid dynasty (also spelled Ghorids; fa, سلسله غوریان; self-designation: , ''Shansabānī''), was a Persianate A Persianate society is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language Persian (), ...
, of
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia ...
descent from the
Ghor Ghōr (Dari Dari (, , ), or Dari Persian (, ), is a political term used for the various dialects of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a ...

Ghor
region of present-day central
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
.


Late (1206–1526)

Following the death of
Muhammad of Ghor Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad ( fa, معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was the Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to ...
in 1206, the Ghurid state fragmented and in northern India was replaced by the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see int ...
. The Delhi Sultanate ruled the Punjab for the next three hundred years, led by five unrelated dynasties, the
Mamluks Mamluk (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Stre ...
, Khalajis, Tughlaqs,
Sayyids ''Sayyid'' (, ; ar, سيد ; ; meaning 'Lord', 'Master'; Arabic plural: ; feminine: ; ) is an honorific title denoting people accepted as descendants of the Prophets in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad and his cousin and son-in-law Ali (A ...
and Lodis.


Modern period


Early (1526–1858)

In 1526, the Delhi Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the
Turko-Mongol The Turko-Mongol tradition was an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that dis ...
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
. The Mughals established prosperity, growth, and relative peace, particularly under the reign of
Jahangir Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim (Persian language, Persian: ), known by his imperial name, Jahangir (Persian language, Persian: ) (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor, who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627. His ...

Jahangir
. The period was also notable for the emergence of
Guru Nanak Gurū Nānak (Punjabi language, Punjabi pronunciation: , ; born as Nānak on 15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), also referred to as ('father Nānak'), was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh gurus, Sikh Gurus. His birt ...

Guru Nanak
(1469–1539), the founder of
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
. The Afghan forces of the
Durrani Empire The Durrani Empire ( ps, د درانيانو ټولواکمني), also called the Sadozai Kingdom and the Afghan Empire, was an Afghan Afghan ( Pashto/Persian language, Persian: ) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particul ...
(also known as the Afghan Empire), under the command of
Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 4 June 1772) (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian ...
, entered Punjab in 1749 and captured
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale ...

Kashmir
and Punja, with Lahore governed by
Pashtuns Pashtuns (, or ; ps, پښتانه, ; Pakhtuns or Pathans), historically known as Afghan (ethnonym), Afghans,, ''Afğân'' or Bactrian language, Bactrian Abgân - αβγανο are an Iranian peoples, Iranian ethnic group native to Central ...
. In 1758, Punjab came under the rule of
Marathas The Maratha caste are a Marathi clan originally formed in the earlier centuries from the amalgamation of families from the peasant (Kunbi), shepherd ( Dhangar), pastoral (Gavli, Gawli), blacksmith (Lohar), Sutar (carpenter), Bhandari caste, Bh ...
, who captured the region by defeating the Afghan forces of
Ahmad Shah Abdali Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 4 June 1772) ( Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (), was the founder of the Durrani Empire The Durrani Empire ( ps, د درانيانو ټولواکمني), also ...
. Following the
Third Battle of Panipat The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about 97 km (60 miles) north of Delhi, between the Maratha Empire and the invading Durrani Empire, Afghan army (of Ahmad Shah Durrani), supported by four Indian allies, ...
against Marathas, the Durranis reconsolidated their power and dominion over the Punjab region and Kashmir Valley. Abdali's Indian invasion weakened Maratha influence. After the death of Ahmad Shah, Punjab was freed from Afghan rule by Sikhs for a brief period between 1773 and 1818. At the time of the formation of the Dal Khalsa in 1748 at Amritsar, Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities, called Misl. From this point onward, the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh Empire emerged. Of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Ranjit Singh, Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The other 14 accepted East India Company sovereignty. After Ranjit Singh's death, assassinations and internal divisions severely weakened the empire. Six years later, the British East India Company was given an excuse to declare war, and in 1849, following the First Anglo-Sikh War, first and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars, Punjab was annexed by the East India Company. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Sikh rulers backed the East India Company, providing troops and support. However, in Jhelum, 35 British soldiers of HMXXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance, and in Ludhiana, a rebellion was crushed with the assistance of the Punjab chiefs of Nabha and Malerkotla.


1858 to present

The British India, British Raj had political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the Indian independence movement, independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Sardar Ajit Singh, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai. At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan. The Punjab bore the brunt of the Civil disorder, civil unrest following Partition of India, partition, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.


Timeline

* 3300–1500 BCE:
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
* 1500–1000 BCE: (Rigveda, Rigvedic) Vedic civilisation * 1000–500 BCE: Middle and late Vedic period, Vedic Period * 326 BCE: Indian campaign of Alexander the Great, Alexander's Invasion of Punjab * 322–298 BCE: Chandragupta I, Maurya period * 273–232 BCE: Reign of
Ashoka Ashoka (; Brāhmi: 𑀅𑀲𑁄𑀓, ''Asoka'', IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit ...

Ashoka
* 125–160 BCE: Rise of the Sakas (Scythians) * 2 BCE: Beginning of Rule of the Sakas * 45–180: Rule of the Kushans * 320–550: Gupta Empire ** 500: Huns, Hunnic Invasion * 510–650: Harsha, Vardhana's era * 711–713:
Muhammad bin Qasim Muhammad bin Qasim al-Thaqafi ( ar, محمد بن القاسم الثقفي, ''Muḥammad bin al-Qāsim al-Thaqafī''; 715), also known by the '' laqab'' (honorific epithet) of Imad ad-Din ( ar, عماد الدين, ''ʿImād al-Dīn''), was an A ...
conquers Sindh and a small part of Punjab region * 713–1200: Rajput states, Kabul Shahi (disambiguation), Kabul Shahi and small Muslim kingdoms * 1206–1290: Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi), Mamluk dynasty established by Mohammad Ghori * 1290–1320: Khalji dynasty established by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji * 1320–1413: Tughlaq dynasty established by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq * 1414–1451: Sayyid dynasty established by Khizr Khan * 1451–1526: Lodhi dynasty established by Bahlul Khan Lodhi ** 1469–1539:
Guru Nanak Gurū Nānak (Punjabi language, Punjabi pronunciation: , ; born as Nānak on 15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), also referred to as ('father Nānak'), was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh gurus, Sikh Gurus. His birt ...

Guru Nanak
* 1526–1707: Mughal Empire, Mughal rule ** 1526–1530: Babur, Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur ** 1530–1540: Humayun, Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun ** 1540–1545: Sher Shah Suri of Afghanistan ** 1545–1554: Islam Shah Suri ** 1555–1556: Humayun, Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun ** 1556–1556: Hem Chandra Vikramaditya ** 1556–1605: Akbar, Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ** 1605–1627: Jahangir, Nooruddin Muhammad Jahangir ** 1627–1658: Shah Jahan, Shahaabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan ** 1658–1707: Aurangzeb, Mohiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir ** 1539–1675: Period of 8 Sikh gurus, Sikh Gurus from Guru Angad Dev to Guru Tegh Bahadur ** 1675–1708: Guru Gobind Singh (10th Sikh Guru) *** 1699: Birth of the Khalsa * 1708–1713: Conquests of Banda Bahadur * 1714–1759: Sikh chiefs (Sardars) war against Afghans and Mughal governors ** 1722: Birth of Ahmed Shah Durrani, either in
Multan Multan (; ) is a city and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. Situated on the bank of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan's List of largest cities in Pakistan, 7th largest city and is the major cultural and ...

Multan
in the Mughal Empire or Herat in Afghanistan ** 1739: Invasion by Nader Shah and defeat of the weakened Mughal Empire * 1747–1772:
Durrani Empire The Durrani Empire ( ps, د درانيانو ټولواکمني), also called the Sadozai Kingdom and the Afghan Empire, was an Afghan Afghan ( Pashto/Persian language, Persian: ) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particul ...
led by
Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 4 June 1772) (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian ...
** 1756–1759: Sikh and Maratha Empire cooperation in the Punjab ** 1761: Battle of Panipat (1761), The Third Battle of Panipat, between the Durrani Empire and the Maratha Empire. ** 1762: 2nd massacre (Wadda Ghalughara, Ghalughara) from Ahmed Shah's 2nd invasion * 1765–1801: Rise of the Sikh Misls, who gained control of significant swathes of Punjab * 1801–1839: Sikh Empire, also known as Sarkar Khalsa, ruled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh * 1845–1846: First Anglo-Sikh War * 1846: Jammu Division, Jammu joined the new state of Jammu and Kashmir (state), Jammu and Kashmir * 1848–1849: Second Anglo-Sikh War * 1849: Complete annexation of Punjab into Presidencies and provinces of British India, British India * 1849–1947: British Raj, British rule ** 1901: Peshawar and adjoining districts separate from the Punjab Province ** 1911: Parts of Delhi separate from Punjab Province * 1947: The
Partition of India The partition of India was the division of British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcon ...

Partition of India
divided Punjab into two parts: the Eastern side, with two rivers, became the East Punjab, Indian Punjab; and the Western side, with three rivers, became the Punjab, Pakistan, Pakistan Punjab. * 1966: Indian Punjab divided into three parts:
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
,
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
, and
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

Himachal Pradesh
* 1973–1995: Punjab insurgency


Political geography


16th century

In the 16th century, during the reign of the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor Akbar, the term ''Punjab'' was synonymous with the Subah of Lahore, Lahore province. It covered a relatively smaller area lying between the Indus and the
Sutlej The Sutlej or Satluj ( Punjabi: سُتلج) River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifi ...
rivers.


19th century

The 19th-century definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the Punjab Province (British India), British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in today's Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur, Azad Kashmir, Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (especially Peshawar, known in the Punjab region as Pishore). In India, the wider definition includes parts of
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
and Jammu Division. Using the older definition, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas: # the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division, Kangra-Bilaspur valley and Azad Kashmir; # the trans-Indus region including Peshawar; # the central plain with its five rivers; # the north-western region, separated from the central plain by the Salt Range between the
Jhelum Jhelum ( ur, , ) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River , name_other = Hydaspes, Bidaspes, Vitastā, Bihat, Wihat, Bihatab, Biyatta, Jailam , image = Jhelum River-Pakistan.jpg , image_size = , im ...

Jhelum
and the Indus rivers; # the semi-desert to the south of the Sutlej river. The formation of the Himalayas, Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, and the Himalayas are rising by about per year. The upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains. The Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir,
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

Himachal Pradesh
, and further south. The mountains are relatively young and are eroding rapidly. The Indus and the five rivers of Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam, minerals and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which consequently are very fertile.


Major cities

Historically, Lahore has been the capital of the Punjab region and continues to be the most populous city in the region at 11 million cities' proper population. Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, and Chandigarh are all the other cities in Punjab with a city proper population of over a million. File:Bahu Fort, Jammu, India.jpg, Bahu Fort, Jammu, India File:Peshawar Museum.JPG, Peshawar Museum File:Jama Masjid.jpg, Jama Masjid, Delhi File:City-view.00.gif, City view, Mirpur


1947 partition

The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India, whereby the then British Punjab Province was Partition of India, partitioned between what would become India and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
. In Pakistan, the region now includes the Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab province and
Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad Capital Territory ( ur, , translit=vafāqī dār-alhakūmat) is the only of . Located between and province. It includes the country's federal capital . The territory is represented in the constituencies , and . History In 1960, ...
. In India, it includes the Punjab, India, Punjab state,
Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the s ...

Chandigarh
,
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
, and
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

Himachal Pradesh
. Using the 1947 definition, Punjab borders the
Balochistan Balochistan (; bal, بلوچِستان; also romanised as Baluchistan) is an arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Balochistan
and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the
Hindi Belt The Hindi Belt is a linguistic region encompassing parts of northern, central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Di ...

Hindi Belt
to the east, and
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...

Rajasthan
and
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, ad ...

Sindh
to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is very diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the Punjab Plain, plains and to the Cholistan Desert.


Present-day maps

File:Districts of Punjab, Pakistan.png, Punjab, Pakistan File:Punjab district map 2014.png, Punjab, India, 2014 File:India Haryana map.svg, Haryana, India File:Map of Himachal Pradesh.svg, Himachal Pradesh, India


Major cities

Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore, Faisalabad, Ludhiana and Amritsar. File:Night View of Badshahi Mosque (King’s Mosque).jpg, Badshahi Mosque, Lahore File:Golden Temple India.jpg, Golden Temple, Amritsar File:Clock Tower Faisalabad by Usman Nadeem.jpg, Clock Tower, Faisalabad File:Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk.jpg, Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk File:Open Hand monument, Chandigarh.jpg, Open Hand monument, Chandigarh File:Faisal Masjid21.jpg, Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)


Greater Punjab

Another definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...

Rajasthan
on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar district, Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh district, Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region. File:Anupgarh fort.jpg, Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city File:Hanumangarh Bhatner fort.jpg, Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city


Climate

The climate is a factor contributing to the economy of Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance. There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach . The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the winter season, when the temperature in January falls to at night and by day. During the transitional period from winter to the hot season, sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.Royal Geographical Societ
Climate and Landscape of the Punjab


Western Punjab


Central Punjab


Eastern Punjab


Demographics


Languages

The major language is Punjabi language, Punjabi, (Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi alphabet, Shahmukhi: ) written in India with the Gurmukhi script, and in Pakistan using the Shahmukhi script. The Punjabi language has official status and is widely used in education and administration in Indian Punjab, whereas in Pakistani Punjab these roles are instead communicated by the Urdu language. Other major languages and Punjabi dialects spoken in the Punjab region include Hindustani language, Hindustani, Mahasu Pahari, Kangri language, Kangri, Kullui, Kullvi, Sirmauri language, Sirmauri, Chambeali, Chambaeli, Mandeali, Dogri language, Dogri, Haryanvi language, Haryanvi, Saraiki language, Saraiki, Hindko, Pahari-Pothwari and Pashto.


Religions

The
Punjabi people The Punjabis (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as ...

Punjabi people
first practiced Hinduism, the oldest recorded religion in the Punjab region. An ancient Indian law book called the Manusmriti, developed by Brahmin Hindu priests, shaped Punjabi religious life from 200 BC onward. The History of Buddhism in India, spread of Buddhsim and Jainism in India saw many Hindu Punjabis adopting the Buddhist and Jain faith though the decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent resulted in Punjab becoming a Hindu society again, though Jainism continued as a minority religion. The Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, arrival of Islam in medieval India resulted in the conversion of some Hindu Punjabis to Islam, and the rise of
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
in the 1700s saw some Punjabis, both Hindu and Muslim, accepting the new Sikh faith. A number of Punjabis during the colonial India, colonial period of India became Christians, with all of these religions characterizing the religious diversity now found in the Punjab region. In the present-day, the vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis are Sunni Muslim by faith, but also include large minority faiths, such as Shia Muslims, Ahmadi Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and Christians. Sikhism, founded by
Guru Nanak Gurū Nānak (Punjabi language, Punjabi pronunciation: , ; born as Nānak on 15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), also referred to as ('father Nānak'), was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh gurus, Sikh Gurus. His birt ...

Guru Nanak
is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab state. About 57.7% of the population of Punjab state is Sikh, 38.5% is Hindu, and the rest are Islam in Punjab, India, Muslims, Christianity in Punjab, India, Christians, and Jainism, Jains. Punjab state contains the holy Sikh cities of Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Tarn Taran Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib. The Punjab was home to several List of Sufi saints, Sufi saints, and Sufism is Sufism in Punjab, well established in the region. Also, Kirpal Singh revered the Sikh Gurus as saints.


Culture


Festivals

Punjabis celebrate different festivals based on their following culture, season and religion:

Sikhism and Hinduism *Maghi *Lohri *Maha Shivratri *Holi *Vaisakhi *Teeyan *Raksha Bandhan *Diwali *Gurpurab *Hola Mohalla *Mela Chiraghan *Bandi Chhor Divas *Dussehra *Karwa Chauth *Navratri *Basant (festival), Basant
Islam *Basant (festival), Basant *Isra and Mi'raj#Modern observance, Shab-e-Miraj *Eid al-Fitr *Eid al-Adha
Others *Christmas


Clothing

Traditional Punjabi clothing differs depending on the region. It includes the following: *Salwar *Patiala salwar *Punjabi Tamba and Kurta *Phulkari *Punjabi ghagra *Shalwar kameez *Kurta


Economy

The historical region of Punjab is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab produce a relatively high proportion of India and Pakistan's food output respectively. The region has been used for extensive wheat farming. In addition, rice, cotton, sugarcane, fruit, and vegetables are also grown. The agricultural output of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab is considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. The Indian state of Punjab is currently the List of Indian states and union territories by GDP per capita, 16th richest state or the 8th richest large state of India. Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's foodgrain production. Its share of Pakistan's GDP has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%. Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India," Indian Punjab produces 1% of the Rice production, world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton. In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce. In the Punjab region of Pakistan, 42.3% of the labour force is engaged in the agriculture sector. Alternatively, Punjab is also adding to the economy with the increase in employment of Punjab youth in the private sector. Government schemes such as 'Ghar Ghar Rozgar and Karobar Mission' have brought enhanced employability in the private sector. So far, 32,420 youths have been placed in different jobs and 12,114 have been skill-trained. Patiala Phulkari.jpg, Phulkari embroidery from Patiala


Environment

Three Punjab cities – Bathinda, Patiala and Firozpur, Ferozepur – featured in the list of top 100 clean cities of India in the Swachh Survekshan report released in August 2020.


See also

* Sattagydia * Chak (village) * Dhani (settlement type) * Jallianwala Bagh, Jallianwala bagh * Music of Punjab * Punjabi cuisine * Punjabi dance


Notes


References


Further reading

* Condos, Mark. ''The Insecurity State: Punjab and the Making of Colonial Power in British India'' (2020
excerpt
* * [Quraishee 73] ''Punjabi Adab De Kahani'', Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973. * [Chopra 77] ''Punjab as a Sovereign State'', Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni, Lahore, 1977. * Patwant Singh. 1999. ''The Sikhs''. New York: Doubleday. . * ''The Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab'', 1971, Buddha Parkash. * ''Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab'', Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash. * ''History of Porus'', Patiala, Buddha Parkash. * ''History of the Panjab'', Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L.M. Joshi (Ed). * ''The Legacy of the Punjab'', 1997, R.M. Chopra. * ''The Rise Growth and Decline of Indo-Persian Literature'', R.M. Chopra, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd revised edition, published in 2013. * Sims, Holly. "The State and Agricultural Productivity: Continuity versus Change in the Indian and Pakistani Punjabs." ''Asian Survey'', 1 April 1986, Vol. 26(4), pp. 483–500.


External links

* * * * * {{Authority control Punjab, Regions of India Historical regions Divided regions Geography of South Asia Historical Indian regions Historical regions of Pakistan Punjab, India, . Punjab, Pakistan, .