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The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran, a sovereign state * Iranian peoples, the speakers of the Iranian languages. The term Iranic peoples is also used for this term to distinguish the pan ethnic term from Iranian, used for the people of Iran * Iranian lang ...
empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an emperor. States can be empires either by narrow definition through having an emperor and being named as such, or by broad ...
based in
Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It includes Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Mesopotamia, the Levant region, the island of Cyprus, the Sinai Peninsula, and ...
founded by
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia ( peo, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš; ; ) commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ( ...
. Ranging at its greatest extent from the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch t ...
and
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, ethnic, cultural, and s ...
proper in the west to the
Indus Valley#REDIRECT Indus River {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus Valley
in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning . It is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through
satrap Satraps () were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with consi ...
s under the
King of Kings King of Kings (Akkadian: ''šar šarrāni''; Old Persian: ''Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm'';' Middle Persian: ''šāhān šāh'';' Modern Persian: شاهنشاه, ''Šâhanšâh''; Greek: Βασιλεὺς Βασιλέων, ''Basileùs Basilé ...
), for its
multicultural The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, and of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "ethnic pluralism", with the two terms often used interc ...
policy, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a
postal system The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels. A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. Since the mid-19th century, national postal syste ...
, the use of an
official language An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government (judiciary, legislature ...
across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires. The Achaemenid Empire is also considered as the world's first superpower. By the 7th century BC, the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as languages closely related to Persian. The ancient Persians w ...
had settled in the south-western portion of the
Iranian Plateau#REDIRECT Iranian Plateau {{R from move ...
in the region of
Persis Persis ( grc-gre, , ''Persís''), better known in English as Persia (Old Persian: 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ''Parsa''; fa, پارس, ''Pârs''), or Persia proper, is the Fars region located to the southwest of modern Iran, now a province. The Persians ...
, which came to be their
heartland Heartland or Heartlands may refer to: Film and television * ''Heartland'' (film), a 1979 film starring Rip Torn and Conchata Ferrell * ''Heartland'' (1989 film), a UK television film featuring Jane Horrocks * ''Heartlands'' (film), a 2002 film sta ...
. From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat the
Medes bas-relief shows a Mede soldier behind a Persian soldier, in Persepolis, Iran The Medes (Old Persian language, Old Persian ', grc, Μῆδοι) were an ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as M ...

Medes
,
Lydia Lydia (Assyrian: ''Luddu''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. The language ...
, and the
Neo-Babylonian Empire The Neo-Babylonian Empire, also known as the Second Babylonian Empire and historically known as the Chaldean Empire, was the last of the Mesopotamian empires to be ruled by monarchs native to Mesopotamia. Beginning with Nabopolassar's coronation as ...

Neo-Babylonian Empire
, establishing the Achaemenid Empire.
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus'') of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. ...
, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered most of the empire by 330 BC. Upon Alexander's death, most of the empire's former territory fell under the rule of the
Ptolemaic Kingdom#REDIRECT Ptolemaic Kingdom#REDIRECT Ptolemaic Kingdom {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
and
Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Hellenistic state in Western Asia that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of t ...
, in addition to other minor territories which gained independence at that time. The Iranian elites of the central plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under the
Parthian Empire The Parthian Empire (), also known as the Arsacid Empire (), was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, Arsaces I, who led the Parni tribe in conquerin ...
.


Name

The term ' means "of the family of the Achaemenis/Achaemenes" ( peo, 𐏃𐎧𐎠𐎶𐎴𐎡𐏁 ''Haxāmaniš''; a
bahuvrihi A ''bahuvrihi'' compound (from sa, बहुव्रीहि, tr=bahuvrīhi, lit=much rice/having much rice, originally referring to fertile land but later denoting the quality of being wealthy or rich) is a type of compound word that denotes a refe ...
compound translating to "having a friend's mind").
Achaemenes Achaemenes ( peo, 𐏃𐎧𐎠𐎶𐎴𐎡𐏁, translit=Haxāmaniš) was the apical ancestor of the Achaemenid dynasty of rulers of Persia. Other than his role as an apical ancestor, nothing is known of his life or actions. It is quite possible t ...
was himself a minor seventh-century ruler of the
Anshan Anshan () is an inland prefecture-level city in central-southeast Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, about south of the provincial capital Shenyang. It is Liaoning's third-most populous city with a population of 3,584,000 people, and ...
in southwestern Iran, and a vassal of
Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BCE (in the form of the Assur city-state) until its collapse between ...
. Around 850 BC the original nomadic people who began the empire called themselves the ''Parsa'' and their constantly shifting territory ''Parsua'', for the most part localized around Persis. The name "Persia" is a Greek and
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
pronunciation of the native word referring to the country of the people originating from
Persis Persis ( grc-gre, , ''Persís''), better known in English as Persia (Old Persian: 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ''Parsa''; fa, پارس, ''Pârs''), or Persia proper, is the Fars region located to the southwest of modern Iran, now a province. The Persians ...
(Old Persian: 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ''Pārsa''). The Persian term ''Xšāça'' (), meaning "The Empire" was used by the Achaemenids to refer to their multinational state.


History


Achaemenid timeline

''
Astronomical year numbering Astronomical year numbering is based on AD/CE year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. Thus, it has a year 0; the years before that are designated with negative numbers and the years after that are designated with ...
'' ImageSize = width:800 height:115 PlotArea = width:700 height:90 left:65 bottom:20 AlignBars = justify Colors = id:time value:rgb(0.7,0.7,1) # id:period value:rgb(1,0.7,0.5) # id:age value:rgb(0.95,0.85,0.5) # id:era value:rgb(1,0.85,0.5) # id:eon value:rgb(1,0.85,0.7) # id:filler value:gray(0.8) # background bar id:black value:black Period = from:-675 till:-329 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:100 start:-675 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:10 start:-675 PlotData = align:center textcolor:black fontsize:10 mark:(line,black) width:15 shift:(0,-5) bar:Period color:filler from: -675 till: -550 text:Origins bar:Period color:age from: -550 till: -499 shift:(0,3) text:Expansion from: -499 till: -449 shift:(0,-10) text:
Greco-Persian wars The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the ...
from: -449 till: -358 text:Cultural from: -358 till: -330 text:Decline bar:Rulers color:era from:-675 till:-640 text:
Teispes Teïspes (from Greek ; in peo, 𐎨𐎡𐏁𐎱𐎡𐏁 ''Cišpiš''; Akkadian: 𒅆𒅖𒉿𒅖 ''Šîšpîš'')Kent (1384 AP), page 394 ruled Anshan in 675–640 BC. He was the son of Achaemenes of Persis and an ancestor of Cyrus the Great. There ...
from:-640 till:-600 text:
Cyrus I Cyrus I (Old Persian: ''Kuruš'') or Cyrus I of Anshan or Cyrus I of Persia, was King of Anshan in Persia from to 580 BC or, according to others, from to 600 BC. Cyrus I of Anshan is the grandfather of Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus II. ...
from:-600 till:-559 text:
Cambyses I Cambyses I or Cambyses the Elder (via Latin from Greek , from Old Persian ''Kabūǰiya'', Aramaic ''Knbwzy''; d. 559 BC) was king of Anshan from c. 580 to 559 BC and the father of Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II), younger son of Cyrus I, a ...
from:-559 till:-530 shift:(0,5) text:
Cyrus II Cyrus II of Persia ( peo, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš; ; ) commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ( ...
from:-530 till:-522 shift:(0,-9) text:
Cambyses II Cambyses II ( peo, 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 ''Kabūjiya'') was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 530 to 522 BC. He was the son and successor of Cyrus the Great () and his mother was Cassandane. Before his accession, Cambyses ha ...

Cambyses II
from:-522 till:-522 shift:(0,-17) text: Smerdis from:-522 till:-486 shift:(0,-33) text:
Darius I Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...
from:-486 till:-465 text:
Xerxes I Xerxes I ( peo, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, Xšaya-ṛšā; – August 465 BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great ...

Xerxes I
from:-465 till:-424 shift:(0,-10) text:
Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes I (, peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 , "whose rule (''xšaça'' PlutarchThemistocles, 29/ref> Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah A King Artaxerxes ( he, אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּא, ) is described in the Bible as ...
from:-424 till:-424 shift:(0,-3) text:
Xerxes II Xerxes II (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, translit=Xšayaṛša (), "ruling over heroes"; grc, Ξέρξης, translit=Xérxēs, ; d. 424 BC), was a Persian king who was very briefly a ruler of the Achaemenid Empire, as the son and success ...
from:-424 till:-424 shift:(0,-25) text:
Sogdianus Sogdianus ( or ) was briefly a ruler of the Achaemenid Empire for a period in 424–423 BC. His short rule—lasting not much more than six months—and the little recognition of his kingdom are known primarily from the writings of Ctesias; who i ...
from:-424 till:-404 shift:(-20,14) text:
Darius II Darius II ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayavahuš), also called Darius II Nothus or Darius II Ochus, was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 423 BC to 405 or 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died in 424 BC, was followed by hi ...
from:-404 till:-358 shift:(-10,4) text:
Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠, transl=Artaxšaçā, lit=whose reign is through truth)R. Schmitt"ARTAXERXES" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. was the King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empir ...
from:-358 till:-338 shift:(0,-8) text:
Artaxerxes III Ochus (Greek: Ὦχος, ''Ôchos''; Babylonian: ''Ú-ma-kuš''), better known by his dynastic name of Artaxerxes III ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 ''Artaxšaçā'') was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 358 to 338 BC. He was the son a ...
from:-338 till:-336 shift:(-20,21) text: Arses from:-336 till:-330 shift:(-10,11) text:
Darius III Darius III ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; c. 380 – 330 BC) was the last Achaemenid King of Kings of Persia, reigning from 336 BC to his death in 330 BC. Contrary to his predecessor Artaxerxes IV Arses ...
from:-330 till:-329 shift:(0,-15) text:
Bessus Bessus, also known by his throne name Artaxerxes V (died summer 329 BC), was a prominent Persian satrap of Bactria in Persia, and later self-proclaimed king of Persia. According to classical sources, he killed his predecessor and relative, Darius I ...
bar:  color:filler from: -675 till: -480 text:Early from: -480 till: -380 text:Middle from: -380 till: -330 text:Late
:::''Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details''


Origin

The Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as languages closely related to Persian. The ancient Persians w ...
. The Persians were an
Iranian people The Iranian peoples or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Iranian languages and other cultural similarities. The Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a separate branc ...
who arrived in what is today
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
c. 1000 BC and settled a region including north-western Iran, the
Zagros Mountains The Zagros Mountains ( fa, کوه‌های زاگرس; ku, چیاکانی زاگرۆس, translit=Çiyayên Zagros;) are a long mountain range in Iran, northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of . The Zagros moun ...
and Persis alongside the native
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Elamite: ''haltamti''; Sumerian: ''elam''; Akkadian: ''elamtu''; he, עֵילָם ''ʿēlām''; peo, 𐎢𐎺𐎩 ''hūja'') was an ancient civilization centered in the far west and southwest ...

Elam
ites. For a number of centuries they fell under the domination of the
Neo-Assyrian Empire The Neo-Assyrian Empire (Assyrian cuneiform: ''mat Aš-šur KI'', "Country of the city of god Aššur"; also phonetically ''mat Aš-šur'') was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire ...

Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911–609 BC), based in northern
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām''-Nahrīn'' or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ''Bēṯ Nahrīn'') is a historical region of Western Asia situated withi ...
. The Persians were originally
nomadic pastoralists Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herded in order to seek for fresh pastures on which to graze. True nomads follow an irregular pattern of movement, in contrast with transhumance where seasonal pastures are fixed. How ...
in the western Iranian Plateau. The Achaemenid Empire was not the first Iranian empire, as the
Medes bas-relief shows a Mede soldier behind a Persian soldier, in Persepolis, Iran The Medes (Old Persian language, Old Persian ', grc, Μῆδοι) were an ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as M ...

Medes
, another group of Iranian peoples, established a short-lived empire and played a major role in the overthrow of the Assyrians. The Achaemenids were initially rulers of the Elamite city of
Anshan Anshan () is an inland prefecture-level city in central-southeast Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, about south of the provincial capital Shenyang. It is Liaoning's third-most populous city with a population of 3,584,000 people, and ...
near the modern city of
Marvdasht Marvdasht ( fa, مرودشت, also romanized as Marv Dasht) is a city and the capital of Marvdasht County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 123,858, in 29,134 families. Name Some historians hold that Marvdasht was orig ...
; the title "King of Anshan" was an adaptation of the earlier Elamite title "King of Susa and Anshan". There are conflicting accounts of the identities of the earliest Kings of Anshan. According to the
Cyrus Cylinder The Cyrus Cylinder or Cyrus Charter ( fa, استوانه کوروش) is an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several pieces, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia's Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great. ...

Cyrus Cylinder
(the oldest extant genealogy of the Achaemenids) the kings of Anshan were
Teispes Teïspes (from Greek ; in peo, 𐎨𐎡𐏁𐎱𐎡𐏁 ''Cišpiš''; Akkadian: 𒅆𒅖𒉿𒅖 ''Šîšpîš'')Kent (1384 AP), page 394 ruled Anshan in 675–640 BC. He was the son of Achaemenes of Persis and an ancestor of Cyrus the Great. There ...
,
Cyrus I Cyrus I (Old Persian: ''Kuruš'') or Cyrus I of Anshan or Cyrus I of Persia, was King of Anshan in Persia from to 580 BC or, according to others, from to 600 BC. Cyrus I of Anshan is the grandfather of Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus II. ...
,
Cambyses I Cambyses I or Cambyses the Elder (via Latin from Greek , from Old Persian ''Kabūǰiya'', Aramaic ''Knbwzy''; d. 559 BC) was king of Anshan from c. 580 to 559 BC and the father of Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II), younger son of Cyrus I, a ...
and
Cyrus II Cyrus II of Persia ( peo, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš; ; ) commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ( ...
, also known as Cyrus the Great, who created the empire (the later
Behistun Inscription The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; fa, بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, n ...
, written by
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
, claims that Teispes was the son of
Achaemenes Achaemenes ( peo, 𐏃𐎧𐎠𐎶𐎴𐎡𐏁, translit=Haxāmaniš) was the apical ancestor of the Achaemenid dynasty of rulers of Persia. Other than his role as an apical ancestor, nothing is known of his life or actions. It is quite possible t ...
and that Darius is also descended from Teispes through a different line, but no earlier texts mention Achaemenes). In
Herodotus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book ''The Histories'' ( grc, Ἱσ ...
'
Histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history * ''Histories'' (Herodotus), by Herodotus * ''The Histories'', by Timaeus * ''The Histories'' (Polybius), by Polybius * ''Histories'' by Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust), of ...
, he writes that Cyrus the Great was the son of Cambyses I and
Mandane of Media : Mandana of Media (Old Iranian: ''Mandanā'') was a princess of Media and, later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great, ruler of Persia's Achaemenid Empire. Etymology The name ''Mandane'' is a Latinized form de ...
, the daughter of
Astyages Astyages (Median: ''R̥štivaigah''; Babylonian: ''Ištumegu''; spelled by Herodotus as ''Astyages'', by Ctesias as ''Astyigas'', by Diodorus as ''Aspadas'') was the last king of the Median Empire, r. 585–550 BC, the son of Cyaxares; he was det ...
, the king of the Median Empire.


Formation and expansion

Cyrus revolted against the Median Empire in 553 BC, and in 550 BC succeeded in defeating the Medes, capturing Astyages and taking the Median capital city of
Ecbatana Ecbatana (; peo, 𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 ''Hagmatāna'' or ''Haŋmatāna'', literally "the place of gathering"; Elamite: 𒀝𒈠𒁕𒈾 ''Ag-ma-da-na''; Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭧𐭬𐭲𐭠𐭭‏; Parthian: 𐭀𐭇𐭌𐭕𐭍 ''Ahmadān''; ar ...
. Once in control of Ecbatana, Cyrus styled himself as the successor to Astyages and assumed control of the entire empire. By inheriting Astyages' empire, he also inherited the territorial conflicts the Medes had had with both
Lydia Lydia (Assyrian: ''Luddu''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. The language ...
and the
Neo-Babylonian Empire The Neo-Babylonian Empire, also known as the Second Babylonian Empire and historically known as the Chaldean Empire, was the last of the Mesopotamian empires to be ruled by monarchs native to Mesopotamia. Beginning with Nabopolassar's coronation as ...

Neo-Babylonian Empire
. King
Croesus Croesus ( ; grc, Κροῖσος, ''Kroisos''; 595 BC – date of death unknown) was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years: from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC (sometimes giv ...
of Lydia sought to take advantage of the new international situation by advancing into what had previously been Median territory in Asia Minor. Cyrus led a counterattack which not only fought off Croesus' armies, but also led to the capture of
Sardis Sardis () or Sardes (; Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 ''Sfard''; grc, Σάρδεις ''Sardeis''; peo, Sparda; hbo, ספרד ''Sfarad'') was an ancient city at the location of modern ''Sart'' (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005), near Salihli, in T ...

Sardis
and the fall of the Lydian Kingdom in 546 BC. Cyrus placed Pactyes in charge of collecting tribute in Lydia and left, but once Cyrus had left Pactyes instigated a rebellion against Cyrus. Cyrus sent the Median general Mazares to deal with the rebellion, and Pactyes was captured. Mazares, and after his death
Harpagus Harpagus, also known as Harpagos or Hypargus (Ancient Greek Ἅρπαγος; Akkadian: ''Arbaku''), was a Median general from the 6th century BC, credited by Herodotus as having put Cyrus the Great on the throne through his defection during the bat ...
, set about reducing all the cities which had taken part in the rebellion. The subjugation of Lydia took about four years in total. When power in Ecbatana changed hands from the Medes to the Persians, many tributaries to the Median Empire believed their situation had changed and revolted against Cyrus. This forced Cyrus to fight wars against
Bactria Bactria (Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia. Bactria proper was north of the Hindu Kush mountain range and south of the Amu Darya river, covering the flat region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan. More broadly ...
and the nomadic
Saka The Saka, Śaka, Shaka, Śāka or Sacae ( ''Sakā''; Kharosthi: 𐨯𐨐 ''Saka''; Brahmi: , ''Śaka''; sa, शक, शाक, ''Śaka'', ''Śāka''; grc, Σάκαι, ''Sákai''; la, Sacae; , old ''*Sək'', mod. ''Sāi''; egy, 𓋴 ...

Saka
in Central Asia. During these wars, Cyrus established several garrison towns in Central Asia, including the
Cyropolis Cyropolis (Latin form of Gr. ''Kyroúpolis'' () and Κύρου πόλει literally "The City of Cyrus") was an ancient city founded by Cyrus the Great in 544 BCE to mark the northeastern border of his Achaemenid empire. Location It is identifi ...
. Nothing is known of Persian-Babylonian relations between 547 BC and 539 BC, but it is likely that there were hostilities between the two empires for several years leading up to the war of 540–539 BC and the
Fall of Babylon The Fall of Babylon denotes the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire after it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BCE. Nabonidus (Nabû-na'id, 556–539 BCE), son of the Assyrian priestess Adda-Guppi, came to the throne in 556 BCE, after ...
. In October 539 BC, Cyrus won a battle against the Babylonians at
Opis Opis (Akkadian ''Upî'' or ''Upija''; grc, Ὦπις) was an ancient Babylonian city near the Tigris, not far from modern Baghdad. Akkadian and Greek texts indicate that it was located on the east side of the Tigris, near the Diyala River. While ...
, then took
Sippar Sippar (Sumerian: , Zimbir) was an ancient Near Eastern Sumerian and later Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates river. Its ''tell'' is located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah near Yusufiyah in Iraq's Baghdad Governorate, some 60& ...
without a fight before finally capturing the city of
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite: ''Karanduniash'' , image ...
on 12 October, where the Babylonian king
Nabonidus Nabonidus (; akk, 𒀭𒀝𒉎𒌇 , "Nabu is praised") was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556–539 BC (17 years). He seized power in a coup, toppling King Labashi-Marduk. He also angered the priests and commoners of Ba ...

Nabonidus
was taken prisoner. Upon taking control of the city, Cyrus depicted himself in propaganda as restoring the divine order which had been disrupted by Nabonidus, who had promoted the cult of
Sin In a religious context, sin is a transgression against divine law. Each culture has its own interpretation of what it means to commit a sin. While sins are generally actions, any thought, word, or act considered immoral, selfish, shameful, harmf ...
rather than
Marduk Marduk (Cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: ''amar utu.k'' "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Classical Syriac: ܡܪܘܿܕ݂ܵܟܼ (Mrōḏāḵ), Greek , ''Mardochaios''; ) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the cit ...
, and he also portrayed himself as restoring the heritage of the
Neo-Assyrian Empire The Neo-Assyrian Empire (Assyrian cuneiform: ''mat Aš-šur KI'', "Country of the city of god Aššur"; also phonetically ''mat Aš-šur'') was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire ...

Neo-Assyrian Empire
by comparing himself to the Assyrian king
Ashurbanipal Ashurbanipal, also spelled Assurbanipal, Asshurbanipal and Asurbanipal (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform: , ''Aššur-bāni-apli'' or ''Aššur-bāni-habal'', meaning "Ashur has given a son-heir") was the king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from the death of hi ...
. The
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel and Ezra ...
also unreservedly praises Cyrus for his actions in the conquest of Babylon, referring to him as
Yahweh Yahweh was the national god of the kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah, with origins reaching at least to the early Iron Age and apparently to the Late Bronze Age. In the oldest biblical literature he is a storm-and-warrior deity who lea ...
's
anointed Anointed is a contemporary Christian music duo from Columbus, Ohio, known for their strong vocals and harmonies, featuring siblings Steve Crawford and Da'dra Crawford Greathouse, along with former members Nee-C Walls (who left the group in 2001) a ...
. He is credited with freeing the people of Judah from their exile and with authorizing the reconstruction of much of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusałēm.) is a cit ...

Jerusalem
, including the
Second Temple The Second Temple (, ''Beit HaMikdash HaSheni'') was the Jewish holy temple, which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, between c. 516 BCE and c. 70 CE. It gave name to the Second Temple period. According to the Hebrew Bible, it replaced Solom ...

Second Temple
. In 530 BC, Cyrus died while on a military expedition against the
Massagetae The Massagetae, or Massageteans, (Greek: ''Μασσαγέται'' (''Massagétai''), Iranian: ''*Masyaka-tā'') were an ancient Eastern Iranian nomadic tribal confederation,Karasulas, Antony. ''Mounted Archers Of The Steppe 600 BC-AD 1300 (Elite) ...
in Central Asia. He was succeeded by his eldest son
Cambyses II Cambyses II ( peo, 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 ''Kabūjiya'') was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 530 to 522 BC. He was the son and successor of Cyrus the Great () and his mother was Cassandane. Before his accession, Cambyses ha ...

Cambyses II
, while his younger son
Bardiya Bardiya ( peo, 𐎲𐎼𐎮𐎡𐎹 ''Bạrdiya''), also known as Smerdis among the Greeks ( grc, Σμέρδις ''Smerdis'') (possibly died 522 BC), was a son of Cyrus the Great and the younger brother of Cambyses II, both Persian kings. There ar ...
received a large territory in Central Asia. By 525 BC, Cambyses had successfully subjugated
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
and
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is locate ...
and was making preparations to invade
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
with the newly created Persian navy. The great Pharaoh
Amasis II Amasis II ( grc, Ἄμασις) or Ahmose II was a pharaoh (reigned 570526 BCE) of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais. He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. Life Most of our information a ...
had died in 526 BC and had been succeeded by
Psamtik III Psamtik III (also spelled Psammetichus, Psammeticus, or Psammenitus, from Greek Ψαμμήτιχος or Ψαμμήνιτος) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt from 526 BC to 525 BC. Most of what is known about his reign an ...

Psamtik III
, resulting in the defection of key Egyptian allies to the Persians. Psamtik positioned his army at
Pelusium Pelusium ( ar, الفرما; cop, Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ and Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲏ or Ⲥⲓⲛ; Tell el-Farama) was an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said. It be ...
in the
Nile Delta#REDIRECT Nile Delta#REDIRECT Nile Delta {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. He was soundly defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium before fleeing to
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt, a former capital of Egypt *Memphis, Tennessee, a major American city Memphis may also refer to: Places United States *Memphis, Alabama *Memphis, Florida *Memphis, Indiana *Memphis, Michigan *Memphis, Mis ...
, where the Persians defeated him and took him prisoner.Herodotus, ''
Histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history * ''Histories'' (Herodotus), by Herodotus * ''The Histories'', by Timaeus * ''The Histories'' (Polybius), by Polybius * ''Histories'' by Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust), of ...
'
III.11III.13
/ref> Herodotus depicts Cambyses as openly antagonistic to the Egyptian people and their gods, cults, temples and priests, in particular stressing the murder of the sacred bull
Apis Apis or APIS may refer to: *Apis (deity), an ancient Egyptian god *Apis (Greek mythology), several different figures in Greek mythology *Apis (city), an ancient seaport town on the northern coast of Africa **Kom el-Hisn, a different Egyptian city, ...
. He says that these actions led to a madness that caused him to kill his brother Bardiya (who Herodotus says was killed in secret), his own sister-wife and Croesus of Lydia. He then concludes that Cambyses completely lost his mind, and all later classical authors repeat the themes of Cambyses' impiety and madness. However, this is based on spurious information, as the epitaph of Apis from 524 BC shows that Cambyses participated in the funeral rites of Apis styling himself as pharaoh. Following the conquest of Egypt, the Libyans and the Greeks of Cyrene and Barca in Libya surrendered to Cambyses and sent tribute without a fight. Cambyses then planned invasions of
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now Tunisia. Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities o ...

Carthage
, the oasis of Ammon and
Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, ኢትዮጵያ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, ኢትዮጵያ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shar ...
. Herodotus claims that the naval invasion of Carthage was cancelled because the Phoenicians, who made up a large part of Cambyses' fleet, refused to take up arms against their own people, but modern historians doubt whether an invasion of Carthage was ever planned at all. However, Cambyses dedicated his efforts to the other two campaigns, aiming to improve the Empire's strategic position in Africa by conquering the Kingdom of Meroë and taking strategic positions in the western oases. To this end, he established a garrison at
Elephantine Elephantine ( ; ; arz, جزيرة الفنتين, Gazīrat il-Fantīn; el, Ἐλεφαντίνη ''Elephantíne''; ''(Ə)iêw'') is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt. There are archaeological sites on the i ...
consisting mainly of Jewish soldiers, who remained stationed at Elephantine throughout Cambyses' reign. The invasions of Ammon and Ethiopia themselves were failures. Herodotus claims that the invasion of Ethiopia was a failure due to the madness of Cambyses and the lack of supplies for his men, but archaeological evidence suggests that the expedition was not a failure, and a fortress at the Second Cataract of the Nile, on the border between Egypt and Kush, remained in use throughout the Achaemenid period. The events surrounding Cambyses' death and Bardiya's succession are greatly debated as there are many conflicting accounts. According to Herodotus, as Bardiya's assassination had been committed in secret, the majority of Persians still believed him to be alive. This allowed two
Magi Magi (; singular magus ; from Latin ''magus'') were priests in Zoroastrianism and the earlier religions of the western Iranians. The earliest known use of the word ''magi'' is in the trilingual inscription written by Darius the Great, known as t ...
to rise up against Cambyses, with one of them sitting on the throne able to impersonate Bardiya because of their remarkable physical resemblance and shared name (Smerdis in Herodotus' accounts).
Ctesias:''For the beetle genus, see Ctesias (beetle).'' Ctesias (; grc, Κτησίας, ''Ktēsíās'', 5th century BC), also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria, when Caria ...
writes that when Cambyses had Bardiya killed he immediately put the magus Sphendadates in his place as satrap of Bactria due to a remarkable physical resemblance. Two of Cambyses' confidants then conspired to usurp Cambyses and put Sphendadates on the throne under the guise of Bardiya. According to the
Behistun Inscription The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; fa, بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, n ...
, written by the following king
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
, a magus named Gaumata impersonated Bardiya and incited a revolution in Persia. Whatever the exact circumstances of the revolt, Cambyses heard news of it in the summer of 522 BC and began to return from Egypt, but he was wounded in the thigh in Syria and died of gangrene, so Bardiya's impersonator became king. The account of Darius is the earliest, and although the later historians all agree on the key details of the story, that a magus impersonated Bardiya and took the throne, this may have been a story created by Darius to justify his own usurpation. Iranologist
Pierre Briant Pierre Briant (born 30 September 1940 in Angers) is a French Iranologist, Professor of History and Civilisation of the Achaemenid World and the Empire of Alexander the Great at the Collège de France (1999 onwards), Doctor Honoris Causa at the Unive ...
hypothesises that Bardiya was not killed by Cambyses, but waited until his death in the summer of 522 BC to claim his legitimate right to the throne as he was then the only male descendant of the royal family. Briant says that although the hypothesis of a deception by Darius is generally accepted today, "nothing has been established with certainty at the present time, given the available evidence". According to the
Behistun Inscription The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; fa, بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, n ...
, Gaumata ruled for seven months before being overthrown in 522 BC by
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
(Darius I) (Old Persian ''Dāryavuš'', "who holds firm the good", also known as ''Darayarahush'' or Darius the Great). The Magi, though persecuted, continued to exist, and a year following the death of the first pseudo-Smerdis (Gaumata), saw a second pseudo-Smerdis (named Vahyazdāta) attempt a coup. The coup, though initially successful, failed.
Herodotus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book ''The Histories'' ( grc, Ἱσ ...
writes that the native leadership debated the best form of government for the empire. Ever since the Macedonian king
Amyntas I Amyntas I (Greek: Ἀμύντας Aʹ; 498 BC) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon (540 – 512 / 511 BC) and then a vassal of Darius I from 512/511 to his death 498 BC, at the time of Achaemenid Macedonia. He was a son of Alcetas I of Maced ...
surrendered his country to the Persians in about 512–511, Macedonians and Persians were strangers no more as well. Subjugation of Macedonia was part of Persian military operations initiated by
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
(521–486) in 513—after immense preparations—a huge Achaemenid army invaded the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch t ...
and tried to defeat the European
Scythians The Scythians (; from Greek ), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were an ancient nomadic people of Eurasia, inhabiting the region Scythia. Classical Scythians dominated the Pontic steppe from approximately the 7th century B ...
roaming to the north of the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's second-longest river after the Volga, flowing through much of Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. Its longest headstream Breg rises in Furtwangen im Schwarzwald, while the rive ...
river.Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthingto
''A Companion to Ancient Macedonia''
pp. 342–45. John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Darius' army subjugated several Thracian peoples, and virtually all other regions that touch the European part of the
Black Sea#REDIRECT Black Sea#REDIRECT Black Sea {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, such as parts of nowadays
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and No ...
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldov ...
,
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraina, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest country in Europe, after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east; it also shares borders with Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia a ...
, and
Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering and encompassing more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited l ...
, before it returned to
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region i ...
. Darius left in Europe one of his commanders named
Megabazus Megabazus (Old Persian: ''Bagavazdā'' or ''Bagabāzu'', grc, Μεγαβάζος), son of Megabates, was a highly regarded Persian general under Darius, of whom he was a first-degree cousin. Most information about him comes from ''The Histories'' ...
whose task was to accomplish conquests in the Balkans. The Persian troops subjugated gold-rich
Thrace Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius in 1585, stating both the names Thrace and Europe. Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, n ...
, the coastal Greek cities, as well as defeating and conquering the powerful
Paeonians Paeonians were an ancient Indo-European people that dwelt in Paeonia. Paeonia was an old country whose location was to the north of ancient Macedonia, to the south of Dardania, to the west of Thrace and to the east of Illyria, most of their land wa ...
. Finally, Megabazus sent envoys to Amyntas, demanding acceptance of Persian domination, which the Macedonians did. The Balkans provided many soldiers for the multi-ethnic Achaemenid army. Many of the Macedonian and Persian elite intermarried, such as the Persian official
Bubares Northern end of the Xerxes Canal, now filled up. Bubares ( el, Βουβάρης, died after 480 BC) was a Persian nobleman and engineer in the service of the Achaemenid Empire of the 5th century BC. He was one of the sons of Megabazus, and a second ...
who married Amyntas' daughter, Gygaea. Family ties the Macedonian rulers Amyntas and Alexander enjoyed with Bubares ensured them good relations with the Persian kings Darius and
Xerxes I Xerxes I ( peo, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, Xšaya-ṛšā; – August 465 BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great ...
. The Persian invasion led indirectly to Macedonia's rise in power and Persia had some common interests in the Balkans; with Persian aid, the Macedonians stood to gain much at the expense of some Balkan tribes such as the Paeonians and Greeks. All in all, the Macedonians were "willing and useful Persian allies. Macedonian soldiers fought against Athens and
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the city-state was known as Lacedaemon (, ), while the name Sparta referred to its main se ...

Sparta
in Xerxes' army. The Persians referred to both Greeks and Macedonians as '' Yauna'' ("
Ionians on the coast of modern-day Turkey. The Ionians (; el, Ἴωνες, ''Íōnes'', grammatical number, singular , ''Íōn'') were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the ot ...
", their term for "Greeks"), and to Macedonians specifically as ''Yaunã Takabara'' or "Greeks with hats that look like shields", possibly referring to the Macedonian
kausia The kausia ( grc, καυσία) was an ancient Macedonian flat hat. It was worn during the Hellenistic period but perhaps even before the time of Alexander the Great and was later used as a protection against the sun by the poorer classes in Rome. ...
hat. By the 5th century BC the Kings of Persia were either ruling over or had subordinated territories encompassing not just all of the
Persian Plateau#REDIRECT Iranian Plateau {{R from move ...
and all of the territories formerly held by the
Assyrian Empire Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disambiguation) * SS ''Assyrian'', several cargo shi ...

Assyrian Empire
(
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām''-Nahrīn'' or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ''Bēṯ Nahrīn'') is a historical region of Western Asia situated withi ...
, the
Levant The Levant () is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria, which included present-day ...

Levant
,
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is locate ...
and
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
), but beyond this all of
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region i ...
and
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UNbr>classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the ...
, as well as the
Southern Caucasus Transcaucasia, also known as the South Caucasus, is a geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains. Transcaucasia roughly corresponds to modern Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan ...
and parts of the
North Caucasus North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west. ''North'' is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. Etymology The word ''north'' is re ...
,
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is bounded by the Caspia ...
,
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It is surrounded by five countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan ...
,
Tajikistan ) center , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = Tajiki , la ...
, all of
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and No ...
, Paeonia,
Thrace Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius in 1585, stating both the names Thrace and Europe. Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, n ...
and Macedonia to the north and west, most of the
Black Sea#REDIRECT Black Sea#REDIRECT Black Sea {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
coastal regions, parts of
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Russian-ruled, later Soviet ...

Central Asia
as far as the
Aral Sea The Aral Sea (Aral ; kk, Aral teńizi, Арал теңізі, uz, Orol dengizi, Орол денгизи, kaa, Aral ten'izi, Арал теңизи, russian: Аральское море) was an endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Ky ...

Aral Sea
, the
Oxus The Amu Darya, tk, Amyderýa/ uz, Amudaryo// tg, Амударё, Amudaryo ps, , tr, Ceyhun / Amu Derya grc, Ὦξος, Ôxos (also called the Amu, Amo River, or Jay-hoon, and historically known by its Latin name or Greek ) is a major river in Centra ...
and
Jaxartes uz, Sirdaryo, Сирдарё tg, Сирдарё , name_native_lang = , name_other = Jaxartes, Seyhun , name_etymology = unknown , image = Syr Darya.jpg , image_size = 290px , image_caption = Syr Darya at Kyzy ...

Jaxartes
to the north and north-east, the
Hindu Kush The Hindu Kush (Dari, Pashto: commonly understood to mean ''Killer of the Hindus'', ''Killer of the Indians'', or ''Hindu-Killer'') is an mountain range that stretches through Afghanistan,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Af ...
and the western
Indus basin#REDIRECT Indus River {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus basin
(corresponding to modern Afghanistan and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
) to the far east, parts of northern
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the A ...

Arabia
to the south, and parts of northern
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Libya, ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībīyā) is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the sout ...
to the south-west, and parts of
Oman Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia and the oldest independent state in the Arab world. Located in a s ...

Oman
, China, and the UAE.
Behistun Inscription The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; fa, بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, n ...


Greco-Persian Wars

The
Ionian Revolt The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfactio ...
in 499 BC, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants,
Histiaeus Histiaeus (, died 493 BC), the son of Lysagoras, was a Greek ruler of Miletus in the late 6th century BC. Histiaeus was a Tyrant under Darius I, king of Persia, who had subjugated Miletus and the other Ionian states in Asia Minor, and wa ...
and
Aristagoras Aristagoras ( grc-gre, Ἀρισταγόρας ὁ Μιλήσιος), d. 497/496 BC, was the leader of the Ionian city of Miletus in the late 6th century BC and early 5th century BC and a key player during the early years of the Ionian Revolt agai ...
. In 499 BC, the then-tyrant of
Miletus Miletus (; gr, Μῑ́λητος, Mīlētos; Hittite transcription ''Millawanda'' or ''Milawata'' (exonyms); la, Miletus; tr, Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Cari ...
, Aristagoras, launched a joint expedition with the Persian satrap Artaphernes to conquer
Naxos Naxos (; el, Νάξος, ) is a Greek island and the largest of the Cyclades. It was the centre of archaic Cycladic culture. The island is famous as a source of emery, a rock rich in corundum, which until modern times was one of the best abrasi ...
, in an attempt to bolster his position in Miletus (both financially and in terms of prestige). The mission was a debacle, and sensing his imminent removal as tyrant, Aristagoras chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against the Persian king Darius the Great. The Persians continued to reduce the cities along the west coast that still held out against them, before finally imposing a peace settlement in 493 BC on Ionia that was generally considered to be both just and fair. The
Ionian Revolt The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfactio ...
constituted the first major conflict between Greece and the Achaemenid Empire, and as such represents the first phase of the Greco-Persian Wars. Asia Minor had been brought back into the Persian fold, but Darius had vowed to punish Athens and Eretria for their support of the revolt. Moreover, seeing that the political situation in Greece posed a continued threat to the stability of his Empire, he decided to embark on the conquest of all of Greece. The first campaign of the invasion was to bring the territories in the
Balkan The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch t ...

Balkan
peninsula back within the empire.Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington
"A companion to Ancient Macedonia"
John Wiley & Sons, 2011. pp 135–38, 343–45
The Persian grip over these territories had loosened following the Ionian Revolt. In 492 BC, the Persian general Mardonius re-subjugated
Thrace Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius in 1585, stating both the names Thrace and Europe. Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, n ...
and made
Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the roya ...
a fully
subordinate A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy ...
part of the empire; it had been a vassal as early as the late 6th century BC, but retained a great deal of autonomy. However, in 490 BC the Persian forces were defeated by the Athenians at the
Battle of Marathon The Battle of Marathon ( grc, Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, translit=Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian fo ...
and Darius would die before having the chance to launch an invasion of Greece.
Xerxes I Xerxes I ( peo, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, Xšaya-ṛšā; – August 465 BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great ...
(485–465 BC, Old Persian ''Xšayārša'' "Hero Among Kings"), son of
Darius I Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius I
, vowed to complete the job. He organized a massive invasion aiming to conquer
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situated on th ...
. His army entered Greece from the north, meeting little or no resistance through Macedonia and
Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly w ...

Thessaly
, but was delayed by a small Greek force for three days at
Thermopylae Thermopylae (; Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: (''Thermopylai'') , Demotic Greek (Greek): , (''Thermopyles'') ; "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. It derives its name from its hot sulphur spri ...
. A simultaneous naval battle at Artemisium was tactically indecisive as large storms destroyed ships from both sides. The battle was stopped prematurely when the Greeks received news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated. The battle was a strategic victory for the Persians, giving them uncontested control of Artemisium and the Aegean Sea. Following his victory at the
Battle of Thermopylae The Battle of Thermopylae ( ; Greek: , ''Máchē tōn Thermopylōn'') was fought between an alliance of Ancient Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas I of Sparta, and the Achaemenid Empire of Xerxes I. It was fought over the course of three ...
, Xerxes sacked the evacuated city of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
and prepared to meet the Greeks at the strategic
Isthmus of Corinth An isthmus ( or ; plural: isthmuses or isthmi; from grc, ἰσθμός, isthmós, neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated. A tombolo is an isthmus that consists of ...

Isthmus of Corinth
and the
Saronic Gulf The Saronic Gulf (Greek: Σαρωνικός κόλπος, ''Saronikós kólpos'') or Gulf of Aegina in Greece is formed between the peninsulas of Attica and Argolis and forms part of the Aegean Sea. It defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Cori ...
. In 480 BC the Greeks won a decisive victory over the Persian fleet at the
Battle of Salamis The Battle of Salamis ( ; grc, Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachía tês Salamînos) was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles, and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC. It ...

Battle of Salamis
and forced Xerxes to retire to
Sardis Sardis () or Sardes (; Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 ''Sfard''; grc, Σάρδεις ''Sardeis''; peo, Sparda; hbo, ספרד ''Sfarad'') was an ancient city at the location of modern ''Sart'' (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005), near Salihli, in T ...

Sardis
. The land army which he left in Greece under Mardonius retook Athens but was eventually destroyed in 479 BC at the
Battle of Plataea The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place in 479 BC near the city of Plataea in Boeotia, and was fought between an alliance of the Greek city-states (including Sparta, Athens, Cor ...
. The final defeat of the Persians at
Mycale Mycale (). also Mykale and Mykali ( grc, Μυκάλη, ''Mykálē''), called Samsun Dağı and Dilek Dağı (Dilek Peninsula) in modern Turkey, is a mountain on the west coast of central Anatolia in Turkey, north of the mouth of the Maeander and d ...
encouraged the Greek cities of Asia to revolt, and the Persians lost all of their territories in Europe; Macedonia once again became independent.


Cultural phase

After
Xerxes I Xerxes I ( peo, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, Xšaya-ṛšā; – August 465 BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great ...
was assassinated, he was succeeded by his eldest son
Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes I (, peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 , "whose rule (''xšaça'' PlutarchThemistocles, 29/ref> Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah A King Artaxerxes ( he, אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּא, ) is described in the Bible as ...
. It was during his reign that
Elamite Elamite, also known as Hatamtite, is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran from 2600 BC to 330 BC. Elamite works disappear from the archeological record after Alexander the Great ...
ceased to be the language of government, and Aramaic gained in importance. It was probably during this reign that the solar calendar was introduced as the national calendar. Under Artaxerxes I,
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is one of the world's oldest continuously practiced religions, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as ''Zaraθuštra'' in Avestan or ''Zarthost'' in Modern Persian). Zoroastr ...
became the ''de facto'' religion of state. After Persia had been defeated at the Battle of Eurymedon (469 BC or 466 BC), military action between Greece and Persia was halted. When Artaxerxes I took power, he introduced a new Persian strategy of weakening the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece. This indirectly caused the Athenians to move the treasury of the
Delian League The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330 under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek vict ...
from the island of
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic: , Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excavations in the island are amo ...
to the Athenian acropolis. This funding practice inevitably prompted renewed fighting in 450 BC, where the Greeks attacked at the Battle of Cyprus. After
Cimon Cimon (; – 450BC) or Kimon (; grc-gre, Κίμων, ''Kimōn'') was an Athenian statesman and general in mid-5th century BC Greece. He was the son of Miltiades, the victor of the Battle of Marathon. Cimon played a key role in creating the powerful ...
's failure to attain much in this expedition, the
Peace of Callias The Peace of Callias is a purported peace treaty established around 449 BC between the Delian League (led by Athens) and Persia, ending the Greco-Persian Wars. The peace was agreed as the first compromise treaty between Achaemenid Persia and a Greek ...
was agreed between
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
, Argos and
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...

Persia
in 449 BC. Artaxerxes I offered asylum to
Themistocles Themistocles (; grc-gre, Θεμιστοκλῆς ; "Glory of the Law"; c. 524–459 BC) was an Athenian politician and general. He was one of a new breed of non-aristocratic politicians who rose to prominence in the early years of the At ...
, who was the winner of the
Battle of Salamis The Battle of Salamis ( ; grc, Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachía tês Salamînos) was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles, and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC. It ...

Battle of Salamis
, after Themistocles was
ostracized Ostracism ( el, ὀστρακισμός, ''ostrakismos'') was a procedure under Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. While some instances clearly expressed popular anger at the citiz ...
from
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
. Also, Artaxerxes I gave him Magnesia,
Myus Myus ( grc, Μυοῦς), sometimes Myous or Myos, was an ancient Greek city in Caria. It was one of twelve major settlements of the Ionian League. The city was said to have been founded by Cyaretus ( grc, Κυάρητος) (sometimes called Cydrelu ...
, and
Lampsacus Lampsacus (; grc, Λάμψακος, translit=Lampsakos) was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad. An inhabitant of Lampsacus was called a Lampsacene. The name has been transmitted i ...
to maintain him in bread, meat, and wine. In addition, Artaxerxes I gave him Palaescepsis to provide him with clothes, and he also gave him
PercotePercote or Perkote ( grc, Περκώτη) was a town or city of ancient Mysia on the southern (Asian) side of the Hellespont, to the northeast of Troy. Percote is mentioned a few times in Greek mythology, where it plays a very minor role each time. I ...
with bedding for his house. When Artaxerxes died in 424 BC at
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform: ''šušinki''; fa, شوش ''Šuš'' ; he, שׁוּשָׁן ''Šušān''; Greek: Σοῦσα ; syr, ܫܘܫ ''Šuš''; Middle Persian: 𐭮𐭥𐭱𐭩 ''Sūš'', 𐭱𐭥𐭮 ''Šūs''; Old Persian: 𐏂𐎢𐏁𐎠 ''Çūš ...
, his body was taken to the tomb already built for him in the
Naqsh-e Rustam Naqsh-e Rostam ( fa, نقش رستم ) is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods ...
Necropolis. It was Persian tradition that kings begin constructing their own tombs while they were still alive. Artaxerxes I was immediately succeeded by his eldest son
Xerxes II Xerxes II (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, translit=Xšayaṛša (), "ruling over heroes"; grc, Ξέρξης, translit=Xérxēs, ; d. 424 BC), was a Persian king who was very briefly a ruler of the Achaemenid Empire, as the son and success ...
, who was the only legitimate son of Artaxerxes. However, after a few days on the throne, he was assassinated while drunk by Pharnacyas and Menostanes on the orders of his illegitimate brother:
Sogdianus Sogdianus ( or ) was briefly a ruler of the Achaemenid Empire for a period in 424–423 BC. His short rule—lasting not much more than six months—and the little recognition of his kingdom are known primarily from the writings of Ctesias; who i ...
who apparently had gained the support of his regions. He reigned for six months and fifteen days before being captured by his half-brother, , who had rebelled against him. Sogdianus was executed by being suffocated in ash because Ochus had promised he would not die by the sword, by poison or by hunger. Ochus then took the royal name Darius II. Darius' ability to defend his position on the throne ended the short power vacuum. From 412 BC
Darius II Darius II ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayavahuš), also called Darius II Nothus or Darius II Ochus, was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 423 BC to 405 or 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died in 424 BC, was followed by hi ...
, at the insistence of
Tissaphernes Tissaphernes ( grc, Τισσαφέρνης; Old Persian ''Čiçafarnah'', Aramaic ''Ššprn'', Lycian ''Kizzaprñna'', ''Zisaprñna'') (445 BC395 BC) was a Persian soldier and statesman, Satrap of Lydia. His life is mostly known from the magistral ...
, gave support first to Athens, then to Sparta, but in 407 BC, Darius' son
Cyrus the Younger Cyrus the Younger ( peo, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 ''Kūruš''), son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general, Satrap of Lydia and Ionia from 408 to 401 BC. His birth date is unknown, but he died in 401 BC during a failed bat ...
was appointed to replace Tissaphernes and aid was given entirely to Sparta which finally defeated Athens in 404 BC. In the same year, Darius fell ill and died in Babylon. His death gave an Egyptian rebel named
Amyrtaeus Amyrtaeus (, ''Amyrtaios'', a Hellenization of the original Egyptian name Amenirdisu) of Sais, is the only pharaoh of the Twenty-eighth Dynasty of EgyptCimmino 2003, p. 385. and is thought to be related to the royal family of the Twenty-sixth Dynas ...
the opportunity to throw off Persian control over Egypt. At his death bed, Darius' Babylonian wife
Parysatis Parysatis (; peo, Parušyātiš, grc, Παρύσατις; 5th-century BC) was a powerful Persian Queen, consort of Darius II and had a lot of influence during the reign of Artaxerxes II. Biography Parysatis was the daughter of Artaxerxes I, Emper ...
pleaded with him to have her second eldest son Cyrus (the Younger) crowned, but Darius refused. Queen Parysatis favoured Cyrus more than her eldest son
Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠, transl=Artaxšaçā, lit=whose reign is through truth)R. Schmitt"ARTAXERXES" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. was the King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empir ...
.
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46–after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist philosopher, historian, biographer, essayist, and priest at the Temple of Apollo. He is known primarily for his ''Parallel Lives'', ...

Plutarch
relates (probably on the authority of
Ctesias:''For the beetle genus, see Ctesias (beetle).'' Ctesias (; grc, Κτησίας, ''Ktēsíās'', 5th century BC), also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria, when Caria ...
) that the displaced Tissaphernes came to the new king on his coronation day to warn him that his younger brother Cyrus (the Younger) was preparing to assassinate him during the ceremony. Artaxerxes had Cyrus arrested and would have had him executed if their mother Parysatis had not intervened. Cyrus was then sent back as Satrap of Lydia, where he prepared an armed rebellion. Cyrus assembled a large army, including a contingent of Ten Thousand Greek mercenaries, and made his way deeper into Persia. The army of Cyrus was stopped by the royal Persian army of
Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠, transl=Artaxšaçā, lit=whose reign is through truth)R. Schmitt"ARTAXERXES" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. was the King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empir ...
at Cunaxa in 401 BC, where Cyrus was killed. The Ten Thousand Greek Mercenaries including
Xenophon Xenophon of Athens (; grc-gre, Ξενοφῶν, , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian-born military leader, philosopher, and historian. At the age of 30, Xenophon was elected a commander of one of the biggest Greek mercenary armies, the T ...

Xenophon
were now deep in Persian territory and were at risk of attack. So they searched for others to offer their services to but eventually had to return to Greece.
Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠, transl=Artaxšaçā, lit=whose reign is through truth)R. Schmitt"ARTAXERXES" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. was the King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empir ...
was the longest reigning of the Achaemenid kings and it was during this 45-year period of relative peace and stability that many of the monuments of the era were constructed. Artaxerxes moved the capital back to
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
, which he greatly extended. Also the summer capital at
Ecbatana Ecbatana (; peo, 𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 ''Hagmatāna'' or ''Haŋmatāna'', literally "the place of gathering"; Elamite: 𒀝𒈠𒁕𒈾 ''Ag-ma-da-na''; Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭧𐭬𐭲𐭠𐭭‏; Parthian: 𐭀𐭇𐭌𐭕𐭍 ''Ahmadān''; ar ...
was lavishly extended with gilded columns and roof tiles of silver and copper. The extraordinary innovation of the Zoroastrian shrines can also be dated to his reign, and it was probably during this period that Zoroastrianism spread from
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UNbr>classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the ...
throughout
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region i ...
and the
Levant The Levant () is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria, which included present-day ...

Levant
. The construction of temples, though serving a religious purpose, was not a purely selfless act, as they also served as an important source of income. From the Babylonian kings, the Achaemenids had taken over the concept of a mandatory temple tax, a one-tenth tithe which all inhabitants paid to the temple nearest to their land or other source of income. A share of this income called the ''Quppu Sha Sharri'', "king's chest"—an ingenious institution originally introduced by
Nabonidus Nabonidus (; akk, 𒀭𒀝𒉎𒌇 , "Nabu is praised") was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556–539 BC (17 years). He seized power in a coup, toppling King Labashi-Marduk. He also angered the priests and commoners of Ba ...

Nabonidus
—was then turned over to the ruler. In retrospect, Artaxerxes is generally regarded as an amiable man who lacked the moral fiber to be a really successful ruler. However, six centuries later Ardeshir I, founder of the second Persian Empire, would consider himself Artaxerxes' successor, a grand testimony to the importance of Artaxerxes to the Persian psyche. Artaxerxes II became involved in a war with Persia's erstwhile allies, the
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the city-state was known as Lacedaemon (, ), while the name Sparta referred to its main se ...

Sparta
ns, who, under
Agesilaus II Agesilaus II (; grc-gre, Ἀγησίλαος ''Agesilaos''; c. 444/443 – c. 360 BC), was a king (''basileus'') of the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta and a member of the Eurypontid dynasty ruling from 398 to about 360 BC usually, in Plutarch' ...
, invaded
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region i ...
. In order to redirect the Spartans' attention to Greek affairs, Artaxerxes II subsidized their enemies: in particular the
Athenians , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
,
Thebans Thebes (; ell, Θήβα, ''Thíva'' ; grc, Θῆβαι, ''Thêbai'' .) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece. It played an important role in Greek myths, as the site of the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus, Heracles and others. Archaeological e ...
and
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it has been part of th ...
ians. These subsidies helped to engage the
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the city-state was known as Lacedaemon (, ), while the name Sparta referred to its main se ...

Sparta
ns in what would become known as the
Corinthian War The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of Thebes, Athens, Corinth and Argos, backed by the Achaemenid Empire. The immediate cause of the war was a local conflict in no ...
. In 387 BC, Artaxerxes II betrayed his allies and came to an arrangement with Sparta, and in the Treaty of Antalcidas he forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms. This treaty restored control of the Greek cities of
Ionia Ionia (; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία /i.ɔː.ní.aː/, ''Iōnía'' or Ἰωνίη, ''Iōníē'') was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically ...
and
Aeolis Aeolis (Ancient Greek: , ''Aiolís''), or Aeolia (; , ''Aiolía''), was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Gree ...
on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, while giving Sparta dominance on the Greek mainland. In 385 BC he campaigned against the Cadusians. Although successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes II had more trouble with the
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
ians, who had successfully revolted against him at the beginning of his reign. An attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC was completely unsuccessful, but in his waning years the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian–Spartan effort to conquer
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
. He quashed the
Revolt of the Satraps The Great Satraps' Revolt, or the Revolt of the Satraps (366-360 BC), was a rebellion in the Achaemenid Empire of several satraps against the authority of the Great King Artaxerxes II Mnemon. The Satraps who revolted were Datames, Ariobarzanes and O ...
in 372–362 BC. He is reported to have had a number of wives. His main wife was Stateira, until she was poisoned by Artaxerxes II's mother Parysatis in about 400 BC. Another chief wife was a Greek woman of
Phocaea Phocaea or Phokaia (Ancient Greek: Φώκαια, ''Phókaia''; modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. Greek colonists from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille, in Fran ...
named Aspasia (not the same as the concubine of
Pericles Pericles (; grc-x-attic, Περικλῆς, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a Greek statesman and general of Athens during its golden age. Pericles was prominent and influential in Athenian politics, particularly between the Pers ...

Pericles
). Artaxerxes II is said to have had more than 115 sons from 350 wives. In 358 BC Artaxerxes II died and was succeeded by his son
Artaxerxes III Ochus (Greek: Ὦχος, ''Ôchos''; Babylonian: ''Ú-ma-kuš''), better known by his dynastic name of Artaxerxes III ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 ''Artaxšaçā'') was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 358 to 338 BC. He was the son a ...
. In 355 BC, Artaxerxes III forced
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
to conclude a peace which required the city's forces to leave
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region i ...
and to acknowledge the independence of its rebellious allies. Artaxerxes started a campaign against the rebellious
Cadusians The Cadusii ( grc, Καδούσιοι, Kadoúsioi; lat.: Cadusii) were an ancient Iranian people living in north-western Iran. Origin The original inhabitants of Gilan were the tribes of Cadusii (heirs of the ancient star-seekers), the area of whic ...
, but he managed to appease both of the Cadusian kings. One individual who successfully emerged from this campaign was Darius Codomannus, who later occupied the Persian throne as
Darius III Darius III ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; c. 380 – 330 BC) was the last Achaemenid King of Kings of Persia, reigning from 336 BC to his death in 330 BC. Contrary to his predecessor Artaxerxes IV Arses ...
. Artaxerxes III then ordered the disbanding of all the satrapal armies of Asia Minor, as he felt that they could no longer guarantee peace in the west and was concerned that these armies equipped the western satraps with the means to revolt. The order was however ignored by
Artabazos II of Phrygia Artabazos II (in Greek Αρτάβαζος) (fl. 389 – 328 BC) was a Persian general and satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia. He was the son of the Persian satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia Pharnabazus II, and younger kinsman (most probably ne ...
, who asked for the help of Athens in a rebellion against the king. Athens sent assistance to
Sardis Sardis () or Sardes (; Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 ''Sfard''; grc, Σάρδεις ''Sardeis''; peo, Sparda; hbo, ספרד ''Sfarad'') was an ancient city at the location of modern ''Sart'' (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005), near Salihli, in T ...

Sardis
. Orontes of Mysia also supported Artabazos and the combined forces managed to defeat the forces sent by Artaxerxes III in 354 BC. However, in 353 BC, they were defeated by Artaxerxes III's army and were disbanded. Orontes was pardoned by the king, while Artabazos fled to the safety of the court of
Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in . He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third ...
. In around 351 BC, Artaxerxes embarked on a campaign to recover Egypt, which had revolted under his father, Artaxerxes II. At the same time a rebellion had broken out in Asia Minor, which, being supported by
ThebesThebes, Thebae or Thebai may refer to one of the following places: *Thebes, Egypt, Thebes of the Hundred Gates, capital of Egypt under the 11th, early 12th, 17th and early 18th Dynasties *Thebes, Greece, Thebes of the Seven Gates, a city in Boeotia ...
, threatened to become serious. Levying a vast army, Artaxerxes marched into Egypt, and engaged
Nectanebo II Nectanebo II (Manetho's transcription of Egyptian ''Nḫt-Ḥr-(n)-Ḥbyt'', "Strong is Horus of Hebit"), ruled in 360–342 BC was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt. Und ...
. After a year of fighting the Egyptian
Pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the term "pharaoh" was not used contempor ...

Pharaoh
, Nectanebo inflicted a crushing defeat on the Persians with the support of mercenaries led by the Greek generals Diophantus and Lamius. Artaxerxes was compelled to retreat and postpone his plans to reconquer Egypt. Soon after this defeat, there were rebellions in
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
,
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region i ...

Asia Minor
and
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is locate ...
. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes committed responsibility for the suppression of the Cyprian rebels to
Idrieus Idrieus, or Hidrieos ( grc, Ἱδριεύς, Hidrieús; died 344 BC) was a ruler of Caria under the Achaemenid Empire, nominally a Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of ...
, prince of
Caria Caria (; from Greek: Καρία, ''Karia'', tr, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Car ...

Caria
, who employed 8,000 Greek mercenaries and forty
trireme A trireme (, ; derived from Latin: ''trirēmis'' "with three banks of oars"; grc, τριήρης ''triērēs'', literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Medite ...

trireme
s, commanded by
Phocion Phocion (; grc-gre, Φωκίων ''Phokion''; c. 402 – c. 318 BC; nicknamed The Good) was an Athenian statesman and strategos, and the subject of one of Plutarch's ''Parallel Lives''. Phocion was a successful politician of Athens. He believed th ...
the Athenian, and Evagoras, son of the elder Evagoras, the Cypriot monarch. Idrieus succeeded in reducing Cyprus. Artaxerxes initiated a counter-offensive against
Sidon Sidon, known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate, of which it is the capital, on the Mediterranean coast. Tyre to the south and Lebanese capital Beirut to the nor ...
by commanding Belesys, satrap of Syria, and
Mazaeus Mazaeus, Mazday or Mazaios (Old Persian: ''Mazdāya'', Aramaic: 𐡌𐡆𐡃𐡉 MZDY, Greek: Μαζαῖος) (died 328 BC) was a Persian noble and satrap of Cilicia and later satrap of Babylon for the Achaemenid Empire, a satrapy which he retained ...
, satrap of Cilicia, to invade the city and to keep the
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
ns in check. Both satraps suffered crushing defeats at the hands of Tennes, the Sidonese king, who was aided by 40,000 Greek mercenaries sent to him by
Nectanebo II Nectanebo II (Manetho's transcription of Egyptian ''Nḫt-Ḥr-(n)-Ḥbyt'', "Strong is Horus of Hebit"), ruled in 360–342 BC was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt. Und ...
and commanded by
Mentor of Rhodes Mentor of Rhodes ( grc, Μέντωρ Ῥόδιος) () was a Greek mercenary and later Satrap of the Asiatic coast. He fought both for and against Artaxerxes III of Persia. He is also known as the first husband of Barsine, who later became mistres ...
. As a result, the Persian forces were driven out of
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
. After this, Artaxerxes personally led an army of 330,000 men against
Sidon Sidon, known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate, of which it is the capital, on the Mediterranean coast. Tyre to the south and Lebanese capital Beirut to the nor ...
. Artaxerxes' army comprised 300,000-foot soldiers, 30,000
cavalry Cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms, operating as light cavalry in the ...
, 300 triremes, and 500 transports or provision ships. After gathering this army, he sought assistance from the Greeks. Though refused aid by
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
and
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the city-state was known as Lacedaemon (, ), while the name Sparta referred to its main se ...

Sparta
, he succeeded in obtaining a thousand Theban heavy-armed hoplites under Lacrates, three thousand Argives under Nicostratus, and six thousand Æolians,
Ionians on the coast of modern-day Turkey. The Ionians (; el, Ἴωνες, ''Íōnes'', grammatical number, singular , ''Íōn'') were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the ot ...
, and Dorians from the Greek cities of Asia Minor. This Greek support was numerically small, amounting to no more than 10,000 men, but it formed, together with the Greek mercenaries from Egypt who went over to him afterwards, the force on which he placed his chief reliance, and to which the ultimate success of his expedition was mainly due. The approach of Artaxerxes sufficiently weakened the resolution of Tennes that he endeavoured to purchase his own pardon by delivering up 100 principal citizens of Sidon into the hands of the Persian king, and then admitting Artaxerxes within the defences of the town. Artaxerxes had the 100 citizens transfixed with javelins, and when 500 more came out as supplicants to seek his mercy, Artaxerxes consigned them to the same fate. Sidon was then burnt to the ground, either by Artaxerxes or by the Sidonian citizens. Forty thousand people died in the conflagration. Artaxerxes sold the ruins at a high price to speculators, who calculated on reimbursing themselves by the treasures which they hoped to dig out from among the ashes. Tennes was later put to death by Artaxerxes. Artaxerxes later sent Jews who supported the revolt to
Hyrcania Hyrcania () ( el, ''Hyrkania'', Old Persian: 𐎺𐎼𐎣𐎠𐎴 ''Varkâna'',Lendering (1996) Middle Persian: 𐭢𐭥𐭫𐭢𐭠𐭭 ''Gurgān'', Akkadian: ''Urqananu'') is a historical region composed of the land south-east of the Caspian S ...
on the south coast of the
Caspian Sea#REDIRECT Caspian Sea#REDIRECT Caspian Sea {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
.


Second conquest of Egypt

The reduction of Sidon was followed closely by the invasion of Egypt. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes, in addition to his 330,000 Persians, had now a force of 14,000 Greeks furnished by the Greek cities of Asia Minor: 4,000 under
Mentor Mentorship is the influence, guidance, or direction given by a mentor. In an organizational setting, a mentor influences the personal and professional growth of a mentee. Most traditional mentorships involve having senior employees mentor more ...
, consisting of the troops that he had brought to the aid of Tennes from Egypt; 3,000 sent by Argos; and 1000 from Thebes. He divided these troops into three bodies, and placed at the head of each a Persian and a Greek. The Greek commanders were Lacrates of Thebes,
Mentor of Rhodes Mentor of Rhodes ( grc, Μέντωρ Ῥόδιος) () was a Greek mercenary and later Satrap of the Asiatic coast. He fought both for and against Artaxerxes III of Persia. He is also known as the first husband of Barsine, who later became mistres ...
and Nicostratus of Argos while the Persians were led by Rhossaces, Aristazanes, and
Bagoas Bagoas (Old Iranian: ''Bagāvahyā'', grc, Βαγώας ''Bagōas''; died 336 BC) was a prominent Persian official who served as the vizier (Chief Minister) of the Achaemenid Empire until his death. Biography Bagoas was an eunuch who later became ...
, the chief of the eunuchs.
Nectanebo II Nectanebo II (Manetho's transcription of Egyptian ''Nḫt-Ḥr-(n)-Ḥbyt'', "Strong is Horus of Hebit"), ruled in 360–342 BC was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt. Und ...
resisted with an army of 100,000 of whom 20,000 were Greek mercenaries. Nectanebo II occupied the
Nile The Nile ( ar, النيل, an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. The longest river in Africa, it has historically been considered the longest river in the world, though this ...

Nile
and its various branches with his large navy. The character of the country, intersected by numerous canals and full of strongly fortified towns, was in his favour and Nectanebo II might have been expected to offer a prolonged, if not even a successful, resistance. However, he lacked good generals, and, over-confident in his own powers of command, he was out-manoeuvred by the Greek mercenary generals and his forces were eventually defeated by the combined Persian armies at the
Battle of Pelusium (343 BC) The Battle of Pelusium in 343 was fought between the Persians, with their Greek mercenaries, and the Egyptians with their Greek mercenaries. It took place at the stronghold of Pelusium, on the coast at the far eastern side of the Nile Delta. Overa ...
. After his defeat, Nectanebo hastily fled to
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt, a former capital of Egypt *Memphis, Tennessee, a major American city Memphis may also refer to: Places United States *Memphis, Alabama *Memphis, Florida *Memphis, Indiana *Memphis, Michigan *Memphis, Mis ...
, leaving the fortified towns to be defended by their garrisons. These garrisons consisted of partly
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor of ...
and partly Egyptian troops; between whom jealousies and suspicions were easily sown by the Persian leaders. As a result, the Persians were able to rapidly reduce numerous towns across Lower Egypt and were advancing upon Memphis when Nectanebo decided to quit the country and flee southwards to
Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, ኢትዮጵያ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, ኢትዮጵያ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shar ...

Ethiopia
. The Persian army completely routed the Egyptians and occupied the Lower Delta of the Nile. Following Nectanebo fleeing to Ethiopia, all of Egypt submitted to Artaxerxes. The Jews in Egypt were sent either to
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite: ''Karanduniash'' , image ...
or to the south coast of the
Caspian Sea#REDIRECT Caspian Sea#REDIRECT Caspian Sea {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, the same location that the Jews of
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
had earlier been sent. After this victory over the Egyptians, Artaxerxes had the city walls destroyed, started a reign of terror, and set about looting all the temples.
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...

Persia
gained a significant amount of wealth from this looting. Artaxerxes also raised high taxes and attempted to weaken
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
enough that it could never revolt against Persia. For the 10 years that Persia controlled Egypt, believers in the native religion were persecuted and sacred books were stolen. Before he returned to Persia, he appointed Pherendares as satrap of Egypt. With the wealth gained from his reconquering Egypt, Artaxerxes was able to amply reward his mercenaries. He then returned to his capital having successfully completed his invasion of Egypt. After his success in Egypt, Artaxerxes returned to Persia and spent the next few years effectively quelling insurrections in various parts of the Empire so that a few years after his conquest of Egypt, the Persian Empire was firmly under his control. Egypt remained a part of the Persian Empire until
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus'') of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. ...
's conquest of Egypt. After the conquest of Egypt, there were no more revolts or rebellions against Artaxerxes. Mentor and
Bagoas Bagoas (Old Iranian: ''Bagāvahyā'', grc, Βαγώας ''Bagōas''; died 336 BC) was a prominent Persian official who served as the vizier (Chief Minister) of the Achaemenid Empire until his death. Biography Bagoas was an eunuch who later became ...
, the two generals who had most distinguished themselves in the Egyptian campaign, were advanced to posts of the highest importance. Mentor, who was governor of the entire Asiatic seaboard, was successful in reducing to subjection many of the chiefs who during the recent troubles had rebelled against Persian rule. In the course of a few years Mentor and his forces were able to bring the whole Asian Mediterranean coast into complete submission and dependence. Bagoas went back to the Persian capital with Artaxerxes, where he took a leading role in the internal administration of the Empire and maintained tranquillity throughout the rest of the Empire. During the last six years of the reign of Artaxerxes III, the Persian Empire was governed by a vigorous and successful government. The Persian forces in
Ionia Ionia (; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία /i.ɔː.ní.aː/, ''Iōnía'' or Ἰωνίη, ''Iōníē'') was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically ...
and
Lycia Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 ''Trm̃mis''; el, Λυκία, ; tr, Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, and Bur ...
regained control of the Aegean and the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east ...
and took over much of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
' former island empire. In response,
Isocrates Isocrates (; grc, Ἰσοκράτης ; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators. Among the most influential Greek rhetoricians of his time, Isocrates made many contributions to rhetoric and education through hi ...
of Athens started giving speeches calling for a 'crusade against the barbarians' but there was not enough strength left in any of the Greek city-states to answer his call. Although there were no rebellions in the Persian Empire itself, the growing power and territory of
Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in . He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third ...
in
Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the roya ...
(against which
Demosthenes Demosthenes (; el, Δημοσθένης, translit=Dēmosthénēs; ; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess a ...

Demosthenes
was in vain warning the Athenians) attracted the attention of Artaxerxes. In response, he ordered that Persian influence was to be used to check and constrain the rising power and influence of the Macedonian kingdom. In 340 BC, a Persian force was dispatched to assist the Thracian prince,
CersobleptesCersobleptes ( el, Kερσoβλέπτης, Kersobleptēs, also found in the form Cersebleptes, Kersebleptēs), was son of Cotys I, king of the Odrysians in Thrace, on whose death in September 360 BC he inherited the throne. From the beginning of his ...
, to maintain his independence. Sufficient effective aid was given to the city of
Perinthus Perinthus or Perinthos ( grc, ἡ Πέρινθος) was a great and flourishing town of ancient Thrace, situated on the Propontis. According to John Tzetzes, it bore at an early period the name of Mygdonia (Μυγδονία). It lay 22 miles west of ...
that the numerous and well-appointed army with which Philip had commenced his siege of the city was compelled to give up the attempt. By the last year of Artaxerxes' rule, Philip II already had plans in place for an invasion of the Persian Empire, which would crown his career, but the Greeks would not unite with him. In 338 BC Artaxerxes was poisoned by
Bagoas Bagoas (Old Iranian: ''Bagāvahyā'', grc, Βαγώας ''Bagōas''; died 336 BC) was a prominent Persian official who served as the vizier (Chief Minister) of the Achaemenid Empire until his death. Biography Bagoas was an eunuch who later became ...
with the assistance of a physician.


Fall of the empire

Artaxerxes III was succeeded by , who before he could act was also poisoned by Bagoas. Bagoas is further said to have killed not only all Arses' children, but many of the other princes of the land. Bagoas then placed
Darius III Darius III ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; c. 380 – 330 BC) was the last Achaemenid King of Kings of Persia, reigning from 336 BC to his death in 330 BC. Contrary to his predecessor Artaxerxes IV Arses ...
, a nephew of Artaxerxes IV, on the throne. Darius III, previously Satrap of Armenia, personally forced Bagoas to swallow poison. In 334 BC, when Darius was just succeeding in subduing Egypt again, Alexander and his battle-hardened troops invaded Asia Minor.
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus'') of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. ...
(Alexander III of Macedon) defeated the Persian armies at Granicus (334 BC), followed by
Issus Issus may refer to: * Issus (Cilicia), an ancient settlement in the modern Turkish province of Hatay ** Battle of Issus, in 333 BC, in which Alexander the Great defeated Darius III * Issus (river), a river near the town and battle site * Issus (dio ...

Issus
(333 BC), and lastly at
Gaugamela The Battle of Gaugamela (; el, Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela ( el, Ἄρβηλα), was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. In 331 BC Alexander's army of the Hellenic League ...

Gaugamela
(331 BC). Afterwards, he marched on
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform: ''šušinki''; fa, شوش ''Šuš'' ; he, שׁוּשָׁן ''Šušān''; Greek: Σοῦσα ; syr, ܫܘܫ ''Šuš''; Middle Persian: 𐭮𐭥𐭱𐭩 ''Sūš'', 𐭱𐭥𐭮 ''Šūs''; Old Persian: 𐏂𐎢𐏁𐎠 ''Çūš ...
and
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
which surrendered in early 330 BC. From Persepolis, Alexander headed north to Pasargadae, where he visited the
tomb of Cyrus The Tomb of Cyrus (Persian: آرامگاه کوروش بزرگ translit. ''ārāmgāh-e kurosh-e bozorg'') is the monument of Cyrus the Great approximately 1 km southwest of the palaces of Pasargadae in Iran. According to Greek sources, it d ...
, the burial of the man whom he had heard of from the ''
Cyropedia The ''Cyropaedia'', sometimes spelled ''Cyropedia'', is a partly fictional biography of Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. It was written around 370 BC by Xenophon, the Athenian-born soldier, historian ...
''. In the ensuing chaos created by Alexander's invasion of Persia, Cyrus's tomb was broken into and most of its luxuries were looted. When Alexander reached the tomb, he was horrified by the manner in which it had been treated, and questioned the Magi, putting them on trial. By some accounts, Alexander's decision to put the Magi on trial was more an attempt to undermine their influence and display his own power than a show of concern for Cyrus's tomb. Regardless, Alexander the Great ordered Aristobulus to improve the tomb's condition and restore its interior, showing respect for Cyrus. From there he headed to
Ecbatana Ecbatana (; peo, 𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 ''Hagmatāna'' or ''Haŋmatāna'', literally "the place of gathering"; Elamite: 𒀝𒈠𒁕𒈾 ''Ag-ma-da-na''; Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭧𐭬𐭲𐭠𐭭‏; Parthian: 𐭀𐭇𐭌𐭕𐭍 ''Ahmadān''; ar ...
, where Darius III had sought refuge. Darius III was taken prisoner by
Bessus Bessus, also known by his throne name Artaxerxes V (died summer 329 BC), was a prominent Persian satrap of Bactria in Persia, and later self-proclaimed king of Persia. According to classical sources, he killed his predecessor and relative, Darius I ...
, his
Bactria Bactria (Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia. Bactria proper was north of the Hindu Kush mountain range and south of the Amu Darya river, covering the flat region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan. More broadly ...
n
satrap Satraps () were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with consi ...
and kinsman. As Alexander approached, Bessus had his men murder Darius III and then declared himself Darius' successor, as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia leaving Darius' body in the road to delay Alexander, who brought it to Persepolis for an honourable funeral. Bessus would then create a coalition of his forces, in order to create an army to defend against Alexander. Before Bessus could fully unite with his confederates at the eastern part of the empire, Alexander, fearing the danger of Bessus gaining control, found him, put him on trial in a Persian court under his control, and ordered his execution in a "cruel and barbarous manner." Alexander generally kept the original Achaemenid administrative structure, leading some scholars to dub him as "the last of the Achaemenids". Upon Alexander's death in 323 BC, his empire was divided among his generals, the
Diadochi 250px, Bust of Seleucus ''Nicator'' ("Victor"; 358 – 281 BCE), the last of the original Diadochi. The Diadochi (; plural of Latin Diadochus, from grc-gre, Διάδοχοι, ''Diádokhoi'' "successors") were the rival generals, famili ...

Diadochi
, resulting in a number of smaller states. The largest of these, which held sway over the Iranian plateau, was the
Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Hellenistic state in Western Asia that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of t ...
, ruled by Alexander's general
Seleucus I Nicator Seleucus I Nicator (; ; grc, Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ, Séleukos Nikátōr, Seleucus the Victor) was a Greek general and one of the Diadochi, the rival generals, relatives, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over hi ...
. Native Iranian rule would be restored by the Parthians of northeastern Iran over the course of the 2nd century BC.


Descendants in later Persian dynasties

;"Frataraka" Governors of the Seleucid Empire Several later Persian rulers, forming the ''
Frataraka Frataraka (Aramaic: ''Prtkr’'', "governor", or more specifically "sub-satrapal governor") is an ancient Persian title, interpreted variously as “leader, governor, forerunner”. It is an epithet or title of a series of rulers in Persis from ...
'' dynasty, are known to have acted as representatives of the
Seleucids The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Hellenistic state in Western Asia that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of t ...
in the region of
Fārs Fars Province (; fa, استان فارس, , ), also known as Pars (, ) as well as Persis and Persia, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran. With an area of 122,400 km², it is located in Iran's southwest, in Region 2, and its administrat ...
. They ruled from the end of the 3rd century BC to the beginning of the 2nd century BC, and
Vahbarz Wahbarz (also spelled Vahbarz), known in Greek sources as Oborzos, was a dynast (''frataraka'') of Persis in the 1st half of 2nd century BC, ruling from possibly to 164 BC. His reign was marked by his efforts to establish Persis as a kingdom indep ...
or
Vādfradād I Wadfradad I (also spelled Autophradates I) was a dynast (''frataraka'') of Persis in the late 2nd-century BC, ruling from 146 to 138 BC. He was succeeded by Wadfradad II. References Sources * . * * * * * {{Fratarakas of Persis Cate ...
obtained independence circa 150 BC, when Seleucid power waned in the areas of southwestern Persia and the Persian Gulf region. ;Kings of Persis, under the Parthian Empire During an apparent transitional period, corresponding to the reigns of Vādfradād II and another uncertain king, no titles of authority appeared on the reverse of their coins. The earlier title ''prtrk' zy alhaya'' (Frataraka) had disappeared. Under
Dārēv I Darayan I (also spelled Darew I, Darev I and Darius I; Aramaic: 𐡃‬𐡀𐡓𐡉‬‬𐡅‬ ''d’ryw'') was the first king of Persis, most likely invested with kingship of the region by his overlord, the Parthian monarch Phraates II () sometim ...
however, the new title of ''mlk'', or king, appeared, sometimes with the mention of ''prs'' (Persis), suggesting that the kings of Persis had become independent rulers. When the
ParthianParthian may be: Historical * A demonym "of Parthia", a region of north-eastern of Greater Iran * Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD) * Parthian language, a now-extinct Middle Iranian language * Parthian shot, an archery skill famously employed by P ...
Arsacid The Parthian Empire (), also known as the Arsacid Empire (), was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, Arsaces I, who led the Parni tribe in conquerin ...
king Mithridates I (c. 171–138 BC) took control of
Persis Persis ( grc-gre, , ''Persís''), better known in English as Persia (Old Persian: 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ''Parsa''; fa, پارس, ''Pârs''), or Persia proper, is the Fars region located to the southwest of modern Iran, now a province. The Persians ...
, he left the Persian dynasts in office, known as the
Kings of Persis The Kings of Persis, also known as the Darayanids, were a series of Persian kings, who ruled the region of Persis in southwestern Iran, from the 2nd century BCE to 224 CE. They ruled as sub-kings of the Parthian Empire, until they toppled them an ...
, and they were allowed to continue minting coins with the title of ''mlk'' ("King"). ;Sasanian Empire With the reign of Šābuhr, the son of Pāpag, the kingdom of Persis then became a part of the
Sasanian Empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 ''Ērānshahr''), and called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian imperial dynasty before ...

Sasanian Empire
. Šābuhr's brother and successor, Ardaxšir (Artaxerxes) V, defeated the last legitimate Parthian king, Artabanos V in 224 CE, and was crowned at
Ctesiphon Ctesiphon ( ; Middle Persian: 𐭲𐭩𐭮𐭯𐭥𐭭 ''tyspwn'' or ''tysfwn''; fa, تیسفون; grc-gre, Κτησιφῶν, ; syr, ܩܛܝܣܦܘܢThomas A. Carlson et al., “Ctesiphon — ܩܛܝܣܦܘܢ ” in The Syriac Gazetteer last modified ...
as Ardaxšir I (Ardashir I), ''šāhanšāh ī Ērān'', becoming the first king of the new
Sasanian Empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 ''Ērānshahr''), and called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian imperial dynasty before ...

Sasanian Empire
. ;Kingdom of Pontus The Achaemenid line would also be carried on through the
Kingdom of Pontus The Kingdom of Pontus ( grc, Βασιλεία τοῦ Πόντου, ''Basileía toû Póntou'') was a Hellenistic-era kingdom, centered in the historical region of Pontus and ruled by the Mithridatic dynasty of Persian origin, which may have been ...
, based in the
Pontus Pontus, from the Ancient Greek word for a sea, may refer to: * Short Latin name for the Pontus Euxinus, the Greek name of the Black Sea (aka the Euxine sea) * Pontus (mythology), a sea god in Greek mythology * Pontus (region), on the southern coast ...
region of northern
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region i ...
. This Pontic Kingdom, a state of Persian origin, may even have been directly related to
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...
and the
Achaemenid dynasty The Achaemenid dynasty (Greek: Ἀχαιμενίδαι; ''Achaimenídai'', in Old Persian ''Hakhāmanišiya''; fa, دودمان هخامنشی) was an ancient Persian royal house. They were the ruling dynasty of Achaemenid Empire from about 700 to ...
. It was founded by Mithridates I in 281 BC and lasted until its conquest by the
Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
in 63 BC. The kingdom grew to its largest extent under
Mithridates VI Mithridates or Mithradates VI Eupator ( grc-gre, Μιθραδάτης; 135–63 BC) was ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus in northern Anatolia from 120 to 63 BC, and one of the Roman Republic's most formidable and determined opponents. He was an effec ...
the Great, who conquered
Colchis In pre-Hellenistic Greco-Roman geography, Colchis () was an exonym for the Georgian polity of Egrisi ( ka, ეგრისი) located on the coast of the Black Sea, centered in present-day western Georgia. It has been described in modern schol ...

Colchis
,
Cappadocia Cappadocia (; also ''Capadocia''; grc, label=Ancient and Modern Greek, Καππαδοκία, translit=Kappadokía, from peo, 𐎣𐎫𐎱𐎬𐎢𐎣, translit=Katpatuka, arm, Կապադովկիա, translit=Kapadovkia, tr, Kapadokya) is a historica ...
,
Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek: , ''Bithynía'') was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Sea of Marmara, the Bosporus, and the Black Sea. It bordered Mysia to the southwest, Paphlagonia to the north ...
, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos and for a brief time the Roman province of
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with b ...
. Thus, this Persian dynasty managed to survive and prosper in the
Hellenistic world The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the conquest of Ptolemaic Egyp ...
while the main Persian Empire had fallen. Despite Greek influence on the Kingdom of Pontus, Pontics continued to maintain their Achaemenid lineage. Both the later dynasties of the Parthians and
Sasanians The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 ''Ērānshahr''), and called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian imperial dynasty before ...

Sasanians
would on occasion claim Achaemenid descent. Recently there has been some corroboration for the Parthian claim to Achaemenid ancestry via the possibility of an inherited disease (neurofibromatosis) demonstrated by the physical descriptions of rulers and from evidence of familial disease on ancient coinage.


Causes of decline

Part of the cause of the Empire's decline had been the heavy tax burden put upon the state, which eventually led to economic decline. An estimate of the tribute imposed on the subject nations was up to U.S. $180M per year. This does not include the material goods and supplies that were supplied as taxes.Will Durant, ''Our Oriental Heritage'', Simon and Schuster, Inc., New York, 1935, p. 363 After the high overhead of government—the military, the bureaucracy, whatever the satraps could safely dip into the coffers for themselves—this money went into the royal treasury. According to Diodorus, at Persepolis, Alexander III found some 180,000
Attic talentThe Attic talent (a talent of the Attic standard), also known as the Athenian talent or Greek talent ( el, τάλαντον, ''talanton''), is an ancient unit of weight equal to about , as well as a unit of value equal to this amount of pure silver.Th ...
s of silver besides the additional treasure the Macedonians were carrying that already had been seized in Damascus by
Parmenion Parmenion (also Parmenio; grc-gre, Παρμενίων; c. 400 – 330 BC), son of Philotas, was an Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. A nobleman, Parmenion rose to become Philip's chief military ...
. This amounted to U.S. $2.7B. On top of this, Darius III had taken 8,000 talents with him on his flight to the north. Alexander put this static hoard back into the economy, and upon his death some 130,000 talents had been spent on the building of cities, dockyards, temples, and the payment of the troops, besides the ordinary government expenses. Additionally, one of the satraps, Harpalus, had made off to Greece with some 6,000 talents, which Athens used to rebuild its economy after seizing it during the struggles with the
Corinthian League The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek Ἑλληνικός ''Hellenikos'', "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a confederation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC after ...
. Due to the flood of money from Alexander's hoard entering Greece, however, a disruption in the economy occurred, in agriculture, banking, rents, the great increase in mercenary soldiers that cash allowed the wealthy, and an increase in piracy. Another factor contributing to the decline of the Empire, in the period following Xerxes, was its failure to ever mold the many subject nations into a whole; the creation of a national identity was never attempted. This lack of cohesion eventually affected the efficiency of the military.


Government

Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia ( peo, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš; ; ) commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ( ...
founded the empire as a multi-
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, United States * ''Our Sta ...
empire, governed from four capital cities:
Pasargadae Pasargadae (from grc, Πασαργάδαι, from Old Persian ''Pāθra-gadā'', "protective club" or "strong club"; Modern Persian: ''Pāsārgād'') was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great (559–530 BCE), who ordered its ...
,
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite: ''Karanduniash'' , image ...
,
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform: ''šušinki''; fa, شوش ''Šuš'' ; he, שׁוּשָׁן ''Šušān''; Greek: Σοῦσα ; syr, ܫܘܫ ''Šuš''; Middle Persian: 𐭮𐭥𐭱𐭩 ''Sūš'', 𐭱𐭥𐭮 ''Šūs''; Old Persian: 𐏂𐎢𐏁𐎠 ''Çūš ...
and
Ecbatana Ecbatana (; peo, 𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 ''Hagmatāna'' or ''Haŋmatāna'', literally "the place of gathering"; Elamite: 𒀝𒈠𒁕𒈾 ''Ag-ma-da-na''; Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭧𐭬𐭲𐭠𐭭‏; Parthian: 𐭀𐭇𐭌𐭕𐭍 ''Ahmadān''; ar ...
. The Achaemenids allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in the form of the
satrap Satraps () were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with consi ...
y system. A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis. A '
satrap Satraps () were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with consi ...
' (governor) was the governor who administered the region, a 'general' supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a 'state secretary' kept the official records. The general and the state secretary reported directly to the satrap as well as the central government. At differing times, there were between 20 and 30 satrapies. Cyrus the Great created an organized army including the Immortals unit, consisting of 10,000 highly trained soldiers Cyrus also formed an innovative
postal system The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels. A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. Since the mid-19th century, national postal syste ...
throughout the empire, based on several relay stations called
Chapar Khaneh "Chapar Khaneh" ( fa, چاپارخانه, , ''courier-house'') is a Persian term for the postal service used during the Achaemenid era. The system was created by Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Persian Empire, and later developed by Darius the G ...
.


Achaemenid coinage

The Persian
daric The Persian daric was a gold coin which, along with a similar silver coin, the siglos, represented the bimetallic monetary standard of the Achaemenid Persian Empire.Michael Alram"DARIC" ''Encyclopaedia Iranica'', December 15, 1994, last updated Nov ...
was the first
gold coin A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold. Most gold coins minted since 1800 are 90–92% gold (22 karat), while most of today's gold bullion coins are pure gold, such as the Britannia, Canadian Maple Leaf, and American Buffa ...
which, along with a similar silver coin, the
siglos The Achaemenid Empire issued coins from 520 BCE–450 BCE to 330 BCE. The Persian daric was the first gold coin which, along with a similar silver coin, the siglos (from grc, σίγλος, he, שֶׁקֶל, ''shékel'') represented the first bimeta ...
, introduced the bimetallic
monetary standard A monetary system is a system by which a government provides money in a country's economy. Modern monetary systems usually consist of the national treasury, the mint, the central banks and commercial banks. Commodity money system A commodity mon ...
of the Achaemenid Persian Empire which has continued till today.Michael Alram
"DARIC"
''
Encyclopaedia Iranica An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries that ...
'', 15 December 1994, last updated 17 November 2011
This was accomplished by
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
, who reinforced the empire and expanded
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
as a ceremonial capital; he revolutionized the economy by placing it on the silver and gold coinage.


Tax districts

Darius also introduced a regulated and sustainable tax system that was precisely tailored to each satrapy, based on their supposed productivity and their economic potential. For instance,
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite: ''Karanduniash'' , image ...
was assessed for the highest amount and for a startling mixture of commodities – 1,000 silver talents, four months' supply of food for the army.
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Oce ...
was clearly already fabled for its gold;
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
was known for the wealth of its crops; it was to be the granary of the Persian Empire (as later of Rome's) and was required to provide 120,000 measures of grain in addition to 700 talents of silver. This was exclusively a tax levied on subject peoples. There is evidence that conquered and/or rebellious enemies could be sold into slavery. Alongside its other innovations in administration and taxation, the Achaemenids may have been the first government in the ancient Near East to register private slave sales and tax them using an early form of
sales tax A sales tax is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services. Usually laws allow the seller to collect funds for the tax from the consumer at the point of purchase. When a tax on goods or services is paid to a govern ...
. Other accomplishments of Darius' reign included the codification of the ''dāta'' (a universal legal system which would become the basis of later Iranian law), and the construction of a new capital at
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
.


Transportation and Communication

Under the Achaemenids, trade was extensive and there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities in the far reaches of the empire. Tariffs on trade, along with agriculture and tribute, were major sources of revenue for the empire. The satrapies were linked by a 2,500-kilometer highway, the most impressive stretch being the
Royal Road The Royal Road was an ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first (Achaemenid) Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE. Darius built the road to facilitate rapid communication throughout his ...
from
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform: ''šušinki''; fa, شوش ''Šuš'' ; he, שׁוּשָׁן ''Šušān''; Greek: Σοῦσα ; syr, ܫܘܫ ''Šuš''; Middle Persian: 𐭮𐭥𐭱𐭩 ''Sūš'', 𐭱𐭥𐭮 ''Šūs''; Old Persian: 𐏂𐎢𐏁𐎠 ''Çūš ...
to
Sardis Sardis () or Sardes (; Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 ''Sfard''; grc, Σάρδεις ''Sardeis''; peo, Sparda; hbo, ספרד ''Sfarad'') was an ancient city at the location of modern ''Sart'' (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005), near Salihli, in T ...

Sardis
, built by command of Darius I. It featured stations and
caravanserai A caravanserai (or caravansary; ) was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, ...
s at specific intervals. The relays of mounted couriers (the
angariumThe Angarium (Latin; from Greek ''angareion'') was the institution of the royal mounted couriers in ancient Persia. The messengers, called ''angaros'' (), alternated in stations that had a day's ride distance along the Royal Road. The riders were ex ...
) could reach the remotest of areas in fifteen days. Herodotus observes that "there is nothing in the world that travels faster than these Persian couriers. Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night stays these courageous couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds." Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system, royal inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king", toured the empire and reported on local conditions. Another highway of commerce was the
Great Khorasan RoadThe (Great) Khurasan Road was the great trunk road connecting Mesopotamia to the Iranian Plateau and thence to Central Asia and China. It is very well-documented in the Abbasid period, when it connected the core of the capital city of Baghdad with t ...
, an informal mercantile route that originated in the fertile lowlands of Mesopotamia and snaked through the Zagros highlands, through the Iranian plateau and Afghanistan into the Central Asian regions of
Samarkand fa, سمرقند , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = City , image_skyline = , image_alt = , image_caption = , image_flag = , flag ...
,
Merv Merv ( tk, Merw, ''Мерв'', مرو; fa, , ''Marv''), also known as the Merve Oasis, formerly known as Alexandria ( el, Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana ( el, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐν τῇ Μαργιανῇ) was a major c ...

Merv
and
Ferghana Fergana ( uz, Fargʻona/Фарғона, russian: Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan. Fergana is about 420 km east of Tashkent, about 75 km west of Andijan, and less than 20 km from ...
, allowing for the construction of frontier cities like
Cyropolis Cyropolis (Latin form of Gr. ''Kyroúpolis'' () and Κύρου πόλει literally "The City of Cyrus") was an ancient city founded by Cyrus the Great in 544 BCE to mark the northeastern border of his Achaemenid empire. Location It is identifi ...
. Following Alexander's conquests, this highway allowed for the spread of cultural syncretic fusions like
Greco-Buddhism Greco-Buddhism, or Graeco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, which developed between the fourth century BCE and the fifth century CE in Bactria (modern-day Afghanistan) and the Indian subcontinent. It w ...
into Central Asia and China, as well as empires like the
Kushan The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, ; Late Brahmi Sanskrit: , ', '; Devanagari sa, कुषाण राजवंश, ; BHS: ; xpr, 𐭊𐭅𐭔𐭍 𐭇𐭔𐭕𐭓, ; zh, 貴霜) was a syncretic ...
,
Indo-Greek#REDIRECT Indo-Greek Kingdom#REDIRECT Indo-Greek Kingdom {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
and
ParthianParthian may be: Historical * A demonym "of Parthia", a region of north-eastern of Greater Iran * Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD) * Parthian language, a now-extinct Middle Iranian language * Parthian shot, an archery skill famously employed by P ...
to profit from trade between East and West. This route was greatly rehabilitated and formalized during the
Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttal ...
, during which it developed into a major component of the famed
Silk Road The Silk Road was and is a network of trade routes connecting the East and West, and was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions between these regions from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century. The Silk Road p ...
.


Military

Despite its humble origins in Persis, the empire reached an enormous size under the leadership of
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia ( peo, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš; ; ) commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ( ...
. Cyrus created a multi-state empire where he allowed regional rulers, called the "
satrap Satraps () were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with consi ...
", to rule as his proxy over a certain designated area of his empire called the
satrapy Satraps () were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with consi ...
. The basic rule of governance was based upon loyalty and obedience of each satrapy to the central power, or the king, and compliance with tax laws. Due to the ethno-cultural diversity of the subject nations under the rule of Persia, its enormous geographic size, and the constant struggle for power by regional competitors, the creation of a professional army was necessary for both maintenance of the peace and to enforce the authority of the king in cases of rebellion and foreign threat. Cyrus managed to create a strong land army, using it to advance in his campaigns in
Babylonia Babylonia () was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day Iraq and Syria). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the mino ...
, Lydia, and
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region i ...
, which after his death was used by his son
Cambyses II Cambyses II ( peo, 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 ''Kabūjiya'') was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 530 to 522 BC. He was the son and successor of Cyrus the Great () and his mother was Cassandane. Before his accession, Cambyses ha ...

Cambyses II
, in
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
against
Psamtik III Psamtik III (also spelled Psammetichus, Psammeticus, or Psammenitus, from Greek Ψαμμήτιχος or Ψαμμήνιτος) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt from 526 BC to 525 BC. Most of what is known about his reign an ...

Psamtik III
. Cyrus would die battling a local Iranian insurgency in the empire, before he could have a chance to develop a naval force. That task would fall to
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
, who would officially give Persians their own royal navy to allow them to engage their enemies on multiple seas of this vast empire, from the
Black Sea#REDIRECT Black Sea#REDIRECT Black Sea {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
and the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In the north, the Aegean is con ...
, to the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=Xalij-e Fârs, lit=Gulf of Fars, ) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean (Gulf of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran ...
,
Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Adriatic Sea to the north, and is bounded by Southern Italy, including Calab ...
and the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east ...
.


Military composition

The empire's great armies were, like the empire itself, very diverse, having:
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as languages closely related to Persian. The ancient Persians w ...
,Herodotu
VII, 84
/ref>
Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the roya ...
ians, European Thrace, Thracians, Paionia, Paeonians,
Medes bas-relief shows a Mede soldier behind a Persian soldier, in Persepolis, Iran The Medes (Old Persian language, Old Persian ', grc, Μῆδοι) were an ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as M ...

Medes
, Achaean Greeks, Khuzistan, Cissians, Hyrcanians,Herodotu
VII, 62
/ref> Achaemenid Assyria, Assyrians, Chaldeans,Herodotu
VII, 63
/ref>
Bactria Bactria (Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia. Bactria proper was north of the Hindu Kush mountain range and south of the Amu Darya river, covering the flat region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan. More broadly ...
ns, Sacae,Herodotu
VII, 64
/ref> Aria (satrapy), Arians, Parthians, Caucasian Albanians,Chaumont, M.L
Albania
. "Encyclopædia Iranica.
Khwarezm, Chorasmians, Sogdiana, Sogdians, Gandhara, Gandarians, Daradas, Dadicae,Herodotu
VII, 66
/ref> Caspians, Drangiana, Sarangae, Pashtun people, Pactyes,Herodotu
VII, 67
/ref> Utians, Maka (satrapy), Mycians,
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
ns, Yehud Medinata, Judeans, Ancient Egypt, Egyptians,Herodotu
VII, 89
/ref> Greek Cypriots, Cyprians,Herodotu
VII 90
/ref> Cilicians, Pamphylians,
Lycia Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 ''Trm̃mis''; el, Λυκία, ; tr, Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, and Bur ...
ns, Dorians of Asia,
Caria Caria (; from Greek: Καρία, ''Karia'', tr, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Car ...

Caria
ns,
Ionia Ionia (; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία /i.ɔː.ní.aː/, ''Iōnía'' or Ἰωνίη, ''Iōníē'') was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically ...
ns, Aegean Islands, Aegean islanders, Aeolis, Aeolians, Greeks from
Pontus Pontus, from the Ancient Greek word for a sea, may refer to: * Short Latin name for the Pontus Euxinus, the Greek name of the Black Sea (aka the Euxine sea) * Pontus (mythology), a sea god in Greek mythology * Pontus (region), on the southern coast ...
, Balochistan (Pakistan), Paricanians,Herodotu
VII, 68
/ref> Arabian Peninsula, Arabians, Ethiopia, Ethiopians of Africa,Herodotu
VII, 69
/ref> Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Ethiopians of Baluchistan,Herodotu
VII, 70
/ref> Libyans,Herodotu
VII, 71
/ref> Paphlagonians, Kutaisi, Ligyes, Matiene, Matieni, Bithynia, Mariandyni,
Cappadocia Cappadocia (; also ''Capadocia''; grc, label=Ancient and Modern Greek, Καππαδοκία, translit=Kappadokía, from peo, 𐎣𐎫𐎱𐎬𐎢𐎣, translit=Katpatuka, arm, Կապադովկիա, translit=Kapadovkia, tr, Kapadokya) is a historica ...
ns,Herodotu
VII, 72
/ref> Phrygians,
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UNbr>classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the ...
ns,Herodotu
VII, 73
/ref>
Lydia Lydia (Assyrian: ''Luddu''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. The language ...
ns, Mysians,Herodotu
VII, 74
/ref> Asian Bithyni, Thracians,Herodotus
VII, 75
/ref> Pisidia, Lasonii, Lycia, Milyae,Herodotu
VII, 77
/ref> Mushki, Moschi, Tabal, Tibareni, Macrones, Mossynoeci,Herodotu
VII, 78
/ref> Trabzon, Mares, Colchis, Colchians, Urartu, Alarodians, History of the Kurdish people, Saspirians,Herodotu
VII, 79
/ref> Red Sea islanders,Herodotu
VII, 80
/ref> Sagartians,Herodotu
VII, 85
/ref> Indians,Herodotu
VII, 65
/ref> Eordea, Eordi, Bottiaea, Bottiaei, Chalkidiki, Chalcidians, Bryges, Brygians, Pieres, Pierians, Perrhaebi, Enienes, Dolopes, and Magnesia Prefecture, Magnesians.


Infantry

The Achaemenid infantry consisted of three groups: the Immortals (Persian Empire), Immortals, the Sparabara, and the Takabara, though in the later years of the Achaemenid Empire, the Cardaces, were introduced. The Immortals (Persian empire), Immortals were described by
Herodotus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book ''The Histories'' ( grc, Ἱσ ...
as being heavy infantry, led by Hydarnes II, Hydarnes, that were kept constantly at a strength of exactly 10,000 men. He claimed that the unit's name stemmed from the custom that every killed, seriously wounded, or sick member was immediately replaced with a new one, maintaining the numbers and cohesion of the unit. They had wicker shields, short spears, swords or large daggers, bow and arrow. Underneath their robes they wore scale armour coats. The spear counterbalances of the common soldiery were of silver; to differentiate commanding ranks, the officers' spear butt-spikes were golden. Surviving Achaemenid coloured glazed bricks and carved reliefs represent the Immortals as wearing elaborate robes, hoop earrings and gold jewellery, though these garments and accessories were most likely worn only for ceremonial occasions. The Sparabara were usually the first to engage in hand-to-hand combat with the enemy. Although not much is known about them today, it is believed that they were the backbone of the Persian army who formed a shield wall and used their two-metre-long spears to protect more vulnerable troops such as Archery, archers from the enemy. The Sparabara were taken from the full members of Persian society, they were trained from childhood to be soldiers and when not called out to fight on campaigns in distant lands they practised hunting on the vast plains of
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...

Persia
. However, when all was quiet and the Pax Persica held true, the Sparabara returned to normal life farming the land and grazing their herds. Because of this they lacked true professional quality on the battlefield, yet they were well trained and courageous to the point of holding the line in most situations long enough for a counter-attack. They were armoured with quilted linen and carried large rectangular wicker shields as a form of light manoeuvrable defence. This, however, left them at a severe disadvantage against heavily armoured opponents such as the hoplite, and his two-metre-long spear was not able to give the Sparabara ample range to plausibly engage a trained phalanx. The wicker shields were able to effectively stop arrows but not strong enough to protect the soldier from spears. However, the Sparabara could deal with most other infantry, including trained units from the East. The Achaemenids relied heavily on archery. Major contributing nations were the
Scythians The Scythians (; from Greek ), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were an ancient nomadic people of Eurasia, inhabiting the region Scythia. Classical Scythians dominated the Pontic steppe from approximately the 7th century B ...
,
Medes bas-relief shows a Mede soldier behind a Persian soldier, in Persepolis, Iran The Medes (Old Persian language, Old Persian ', grc, Μῆδοι) were an ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as M ...

Medes
,
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as languages closely related to Persian. The ancient Persians w ...
, and the
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Elamite: ''haltamti''; Sumerian: ''elam''; Akkadian: ''elamtu''; he, עֵילָם ''ʿēlām''; peo, 𐎢𐎺𐎩 ''hūja'') was an ancient civilization centered in the far west and southwest ...

Elam
ites. The composite bow was used by the Persians and Medes, who adopted it from the Scythians and transmitted it to other nations, including the Greeks. The socketed, three-bladed (also known as trilobate or Scythian) arrowheads made of copper alloy was the arrowhead variant normally used by the Achaemenid army. This variant required more expertise and precision to build. The Takabara were a rare unit who were a tough type of peltasts. They tended to fight with their own native weapons which would have included a crescent-shaped light wickerwork shield and axes as well as light linen cloth and leather. The Takabara were recruited from territories that incorporated modern Iran.


Cavalry

The Persian cavalry was crucial for conquering nations, and maintained its importance in the Achaemenid army to the last days of the Achaemenid Empire. The cavalry were separated into four groups. The chariot archers, horse cavalry, the camel cavalry, and the Persian war elephants, war elephants. In the later years of the Achaemenid Empire, the chariot archer had become merely a ceremonial part of the Persian army, yet in the early years of the Empire, their use was widespread. The chariot archers were armed with spears, bows, arrows, swords, and scale armour. The horses were also suited with scale armour similar to scale armour of the Sassanian cataphracts. The chariots would contain imperial symbols and decorations. The horses used by the Achaemenids for cavalry were often suited with scale armour, like most cavalry units. The riders often had the same armour as Infantry units, wicker shields, short spears, swords or large daggers, bow and arrow and scale armour coats. The camel cavalry was different, because the camels and sometimes the riders, were provided little protection against enemies, yet when they were offered protection, they would have spears, swords, bow, arrow, and scale armour. The camel cavalry was first introduced into the Persian army by
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia ( peo, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš; ; ) commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ( ...
, at the Battle of Thymbra. The elephant was most likely introduced into the Persian army by
Darius I Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...
after his Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley, conquest of the Indus Valley. They may have been used in Greek campaigns by Darius and
Xerxes I Xerxes I ( peo, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, Xšaya-ṛšā; – August 465 BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great ...
, but Greek accounts only mention 15 of them being used at the Battle of Gaugamela.


Navy

Since its foundation by Cyrus, the Persian empire had been primarily a land empire with a strong army, but void of any actual naval forces. By the 5th century BC, this was to change, as the empire came across Greek, and Egyptian forces, each with their own maritime traditions and capabilities.
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
(Darius I) was the first Achaemenid king to invest in a Persian fleet. Even by then no true "imperial navy" had existed either in Greece or Egypt. Persia would become the first empire, under Darius, to inaugurate and deploy the first regular imperial navy. Despite this achievement, the personnel for the imperial navy would not come from Iran, but were often
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
ns (mostly from
Sidon Sidon, known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate, of which it is the capital, on the Mediterranean coast. Tyre to the south and Lebanese capital Beirut to the nor ...
), Egyptians and Greek people, Greeks chosen by Darius the Great to operate the empire's combat vessels. At first the ships were built in Sidon by the Phoenicians; the first Achaemenid ships measured about 40 meters in length and 6 meters in width, able to transport up to 300 Persian Persian Immortals, troops at any one trip. Soon, other states of the empire were constructing their own ships, each incorporating slight local preferences. The ships eventually found their way to the Persian Gulf. Persian naval forces laid the foundation for a strong Persian maritime presence in the Persian Gulf. Persians were not only stationed on islands in the Persian Gulf, but also had ships often of 100 to 200 capacity patrolling the empire's various rivers including the Karun, Tigris and
Nile The Nile ( ar, النيل, an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. The longest river in Africa, it has historically been considered the longest river in the world, though this ...

Nile
in the west, as well as the Indus River, Indus. The Achaemenid navy established bases located along the Karun, and in Bahrain, Oman, and Yemen. The Persian fleet was not only used for peace-keeping purposes along the Karun but also opened the door to trade with India via the Persian Gulf. Darius's navy was in many ways a world power at the time, but it would be
Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠, transl=Artaxšaçā, lit=whose reign is through truth)R. Schmitt"ARTAXERXES" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. was the King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empir ...
who in the summer of 397 BC would build a formidable navy, as part of a rearmament which would lead to his decisive victory at Knidos in 394 BC, re-establishing Achaemenid power in
Ionia Ionia (; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία /i.ɔː.ní.aː/, ''Iōnía'' or Ἰωνίη, ''Iōníē'') was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically ...
. Artaxerxes II would also utilize his navy to later on quell a rebellion in Egypt. The construction material of choice was wood, but some armoured Achaemenid ships had metallic blades on the front, often meant to slice enemy ships using the ship's momentum. Naval ships were also equipped with hooks on the side to grab enemy ships, or to negotiate their position. The ships were propelled by sails or manpower. The ships the Persians created were unique. As far as maritime engagement, the ships were equipped with two mangonels that would launch projectiles such as stones, or flammable substances.
Xenophon Xenophon of Athens (; grc-gre, Ξενοφῶν, , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian-born military leader, philosopher, and historian. At the age of 30, Xenophon was elected a commander of one of the biggest Greek mercenary armies, the T ...

Xenophon
describes his eyewitness account of a massive military bridge created by joining 37 Persian ships across the Tigris. The Persians utilized each boat's buoyancy, in order to support a connected bridge above which supply could be transferred.
Herodotus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book ''The Histories'' ( grc, Ἱσ ...
also gives many accounts of Persians utilizing ships to build bridges. Darius the Great, in an attempt to subdue the Scythian horsemen north of the Black Sea, crossed over at the Bosphorus, using an enormous bridge made by connecting Achaemenid boats, then marched up to the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's second-longest river after the Volga, flowing through much of Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. Its longest headstream Breg rises in Furtwangen im Schwarzwald, while the rive ...
, crossing it by means of a second boat bridge. The bridge over the Bosphorus essentially connected the nearest tip of Asia to Europe, encompassing at least some 1000 meters of open water if not more. Herodotus describes the spectacle, and calls it the "bridge of Darius": :"''Strait called Bosphorus, across which the bridge of Darius had been thrown is hundred and twenty furlongs in length, reaching from the Euxine, to the Propontis. The Propontis is five hundred furlongs across, and fourteen hundred long. Its waters flow into the Dardanelles, Hellespont, the length of which is four hundred furlongs ...''" Years later, a similar boat bridge would be constructed by Xerxes the Great (
Xerxes I Xerxes I ( peo, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, Xšaya-ṛšā; – August 465 BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great ...
), in his invasion of Greece. Although the Persians failed to capture the Greek city states completely, the tradition of maritime involvement was carried down by the Persian kings, most notably Artaxerxes II. Years later, when Alexander invaded Persia and during his advancement into India, he took a page from the Persian art of war, by having Hephaestion and Perdiccas construct a similar boat-bridge at the Indus river, in India in the spring of 327 BC.


Culture

Herodotus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book ''The Histories'' ( grc, Ἱσ ...
, in his mid-5th century BC account of Persian residents of the
Pontus Pontus, from the Ancient Greek word for a sea, may refer to: * Short Latin name for the Pontus Euxinus, the Greek name of the Black Sea (aka the Euxine sea) * Pontus (mythology), a sea god in Greek mythology * Pontus (region), on the southern coast ...
, reports that Persian youths, from their fifth year to their twentieth year, were instructed in three things—''to ride a horse, to draw a bow, and to speak the Truth''. He further notes that:
the most disgraceful thing in the world [the Persians] think, is to tell a lie; the next worst, to owe a debt: because, among other reasons, the debtor is obliged to tell lies.
In Achaemenid Persia, the lie, ''druj'', is considered to be a Seven deadly sins, cardinal sin, and it was punishable by death in some extreme cases. Tablets discovered by archaeologists in the 1930s at the site of Persepolis give us adequate evidence about the love and veneration for the culture of truth during the Achaemenian period. These tablets contain the names of ordinary Persians, mainly traders and warehouse-keepers. According to Stanley Insler of Yale University, as many as 72 names of officials and petty clerks found on these tablets contain the word ''truth''. Thus, says Insler, we have ''Artapana'', protector of truth, ''Artakama'', lover of truth, ''Artamanah'', truth-minded, ''Artafarnah'', possessing splendour of truth, ''Artazusta'', delighting in truth, ''Artastuna'', pillar of truth, ''Artafrida'', prospering the truth and ''Artahunara'', having nobility of truth. It was Darius the Great who laid down the ''ordinance of good regulations'' during his reign. King Darius' testimony about his constant battle against the lie is found in cuneiform inscriptions. Carved high up in the Behistun Inscription, Behistun mountain on the road to Kermanshah,
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
(Darius I) testifies:
I was not a lie-follower, I was not a doer of wrong ... According to righteousness I conducted myself. Neither to the weak or to the powerful did I do wrong. The man who cooperated with my house, him I rewarded well; who so did injury, him I punished well.
Darius had his hands full dealing with large-scale rebellion which broke out throughout the empire. After fighting successfully with nine traitors in a year, Darius records his battles against them for posterity and tells us how it was the ''lie'' that made them rebel against the empire. At Behistun, Darius says:
I smote them and took prisoner nine kings. One was Gaumata by name, a Magian; he lied; thus he said: I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus ... One, Acina by name, an Elamite; he lied; thus he said: I am king in Elam ... One, Nidintu-Bel by name, a Babylonian; he lied; thus he said: I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus.
King Darius then tells us,
The Lie made them rebellious, so that these men deceived the people.
Then advice to his son Xerxes I of Persia, Xerxes, who is to succeed him as the great king:
Thou who shalt be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from the Lie; the man who shall be a lie-follower, him do thou punish well, if thus thou shall think. May my country be secure!


Languages

During the reign of Cyrus and Darius, and as long as the seat of government was still at
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform: ''šušinki''; fa, شوش ''Šuš'' ; he, שׁוּשָׁן ''Šušān''; Greek: Σοῦσα ; syr, ܫܘܫ ''Šuš''; Middle Persian: 𐭮𐭥𐭱𐭩 ''Sūš'', 𐭱𐭥𐭮 ''Šūs''; Old Persian: 𐏂𐎢𐏁𐎠 ''Çūš ...
in
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Elamite: ''haltamti''; Sumerian: ''elam''; Akkadian: ''elamtu''; he, עֵילָם ''ʿēlām''; peo, 𐎢𐎺𐎩 ''hūja'') was an ancient civilization centered in the far west and southwest ...

Elam
, the language of the chancellery was Elamite language, Elamite. This is primarily attested in the Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Persepolis fortification and treasury tablets that reveal details of the day-to-day functioning of the empire. In the grand rock-face inscriptions of the kings, the Elamite texts are always accompanied by Akkadian language, Akkadian (Babylonian dialect) and Old Persian inscriptions, and it appears that in these cases, the Elamite texts are translations of the Old Persian ones. It is then likely that although Elamite was used by the capital government in Susa, it was not a standardized language of government everywhere in the empire. The use of Elamite is not attested after 458 BC. File:Aramaic translation of the behistun inscripton.png, A copy of the Behistun inscription in Official Aramaic, Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the ''lingua franca'' of the empire. Following the conquest of Mesopotamia, the Official Aramaic, Aramaic language (as used in that territory) was adopted as a "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages. The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed "Official Aramaic" or "Imperial Aramaic", can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenids in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did." In 1955, Richard Frye questioned the classification of Imperial Aramaic as an "
official language An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government (judiciary, legislature ...
", noting that no surviving edict expressly and unambiguously accorded that status to any particular language. Frye reclassifies Imperial Aramaic as the ''lingua franca'' of the Achaemenid territories, suggesting then that the Achaemenid-era use of Aramaic was more pervasive than generally thought. Many centuries after the fall of the empire, Aramaic script and—as huzvarishn, ideograms—Aramaic vocabulary would survive as the essential characteristics of the Pahlavi scripts, Pahlavi writing system. Although Old Persian also appears on some seals and art objects, that language is attested primarily in the Achaemenid inscriptions of Western Iran, suggesting then that Old Persian was the common language of that region. However, by the reign of Artaxerxes II, the grammar and orthography of the inscriptions was so "far from perfect" that it has been suggested that the scribes who composed those texts had already largely forgotten the language, and had to rely on older inscriptions, which they to a great extent reproduced verbatim. When the occasion demanded, Achaemenid administrative correspondence was conducted in Old Greek, Greek, making it a widely used bureaucratic language. Even though the Achaemenids had extensive contacts with the Greeks and vice versa, and had conquered many of the Greek-speaking areas both in Europe and
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region i ...
during different periods of the empire, the native Old Iranian sources provide no indication of Greek linguistic evidence. However, there is plenty of evidence (in addition to the accounts of Herodotus) that Greeks, apart from being deployed and employed in the core regions of the empire, also evidently lived and worked in the heartland of the Achaemenid Empire, namely Iran. For example, Greeks were part of the various ethnicities that constructed Darius' palace in Susa, apart from the Greek inscriptions found nearby there, and one short Persepolis tablet written in Greek.


Customs

Herodotus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book ''The Histories'' ( grc, Ἱσ ...
mentions that the Persians were invited to great birthday feasts (Herodotus, ''
Histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history * ''Histories'' (Herodotus), by Herodotus * ''The Histories'', by Timaeus * ''The Histories'' (Polybius), by Polybius * ''Histories'' by Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust), of ...
'' 8), which would be followed by many desserts, a treat which they reproached the Greeks for omitting from their meals. He also observed that the Persians drank wine in large quantities and used it even for counsel, deliberating on important affairs when drunk, and deciding the next day, when sober, whether to act on the decision or set it aside. Bowing to superiors, or royalty was one of the many Persian customs adopted by
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus'') of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. ...
.


Religion

Religious toleration has been described as a "remarkable feature" of the Achaemenid Empire. The Old Testament reports that king
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia ( peo, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš; ; ) commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ( ...
released the Jews from their Babylonian captivity in 539–530 BC, and permitted them to return to their homeland. Cyrus the Great assisted in the restoration of the sacred places of various cities. It was during the Achaemenid period that
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is one of the world's oldest continuously practiced religions, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as ''Zaraθuštra'' in Avestan or ''Zarthost'' in Modern Persian). Zoroastr ...
reached South-Western Iran, where it came to be accepted by the rulers and through them became a defining element of Persian culture. The religion was not only accompanied by a formalization of the concepts and divinities of the traditional Iranian Pantheon (gods), pantheon but also introduced several novel ideas, including that of Free will in theology, free will. Under the patronage of the Achaemenid kings, and by the 5th century BC as the ''de facto'' religion of the state, Zoroastrianism reached all corners of the empire. During the reign of
Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes I (, peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 , "whose rule (''xšaça'' PlutarchThemistocles, 29/ref> Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah A King Artaxerxes ( he, אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּא, ) is described in the Bible as ...
and Darius II,
Herodotus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book ''The Histories'' ( grc, Ἱσ ...
wrote "[the Persians] have no images of the gods, no temples nor altars, and consider the use of them a sign of folly. This comes, I think, from their not believing the gods to have the same nature with men, as the Greeks imagine."Herodotus, I.131 He claims the Persians offer sacrifice to: "the sun and moon, to the earth, to fire, to water, and to the winds. These are the only gods whose worship has come down to them from ancient times. At a later period they began the worship of Urania, which they borrowed from the Arabians and Assyrians. Mylitta is the name by which the Assyrians know this goddess, to whom the Persians referred as Anahita." (The original name here is Mithra, which has since been explained to be a confusion of Anahita with Mithra, understandable since they were commonly worshipped together in one temple). From the Babylonian scholar-priest Berossus, Berosus, who—although writing over seventy years after the reign of Artaxerxes II, Artaxerxes II Mnemon—records that the emperor had been the first to make cult statues of divinities and have them placed in temples in many of the major cities of the empire. Berosus also substantiates Herodotus when he says the Persians knew of no images of gods until Artaxerxes II erected those images. On the means of sacrifice, Herodotus adds "they raise no altar, light no fire, pour no libations."Herodotus, I.132 This sentence has been interpreted to identify a critical (but later) accretion to Zoroastrianism. An altar with a wood-burning fire and the Yasna service at which libations are poured are all clearly identifiable with modern Zoroastrianism, but apparently, were practices that had not yet developed in the mid-5th century. Boyce also assigns that development to the reign of Artaxerxes II (4th century BC), as an orthodox response to the innovation of the shrine cults. Herodotus also observed that "no prayer or offering can be made without a Magi, magus present" but this should not be confused with what is today understood by the term ''magus'', that is a ''magupat'' (modern Persian: ''mobed''), a Zoroastrian priest. Nor does Herodotus' description of the term as one of the tribes or castes of the Medes necessarily imply that these ''magi'' were Medians. They simply were a hereditary priesthood to be found all over Western Iran and although (originally) not associated with any one specific religion, they were traditionally responsible for all ritual and religious services. Although the unequivocal identification of the ''magus'' with Zoroastrianism came later (Sassanid era, 3rd–7th century AD), it is from Herodotus' ''magus'' of the mid-5th century that Zoroastrianism was subject to doctrinal modifications that are today considered to be revocations of the original teachings of the prophet. Also, many of the ritual practices described in the Avesta's ''Vendidad'' (such as exposure of the dead (Zoroastrianism), exposure of the dead) were already practised by the ''magu'' of Herodotus' time.


Women in the Achaemenid Empire

The position of women in the Achaemenid Empire differed depending on which culture they belonged to and therefore varied depending on region. The position of Persian women in actual Persia has traditionally been described from mythological Biblical references and the sometimes biased Ancient Greek sources, neither of them fully reliable as sources, but the most reliable reference are the archeological Persepolis Fortification Tablets (PFT), which describes women in connection to the royal court in Persepolis, from royal women to female laborers who were recipients of food rations at Persepolis.Maria Brosius, “WOMEN i. In Pre-Islamic Persia”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2021, available at WOMEN i. In Pre-Islamic Persia (accessed on 26 January 2021). Originally Published: January 1, 2000. Last Updated: March 15, 2010. Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, New York, 1996- https://iranicaonline.org/articles/women-i The hierarchy of the royal women at the Persian court was ranked with the King's mother first, followed by the queen and the king's daughters, the king's concubines and the other women of the royal palace. The king normally married a female member of the royal family or a Persian noblewoman related to a satrap or another important Persian man; it was permitted for members of the royal family to marry relatives, but there are no evidence for marriage between closer family members than half siblings. The King's concubines were often either slaves, sometimes prisoners of war, or foreign princesses, whom the King did not marry because they were foreigners, and whose children did not have the right to inherit the throne. Greek sources accuse the King of having hundreds of concubines secluded in a harem, but there are no archeological evidence supporting the existence of a harem, or the seclusion of women from contact with men, at the Persian court. The royal women joined the king at breakfast and dinner and accompanied him on his journeys. They may have participated in the royal hunt, as well as during the royal banquets; Herodotos relates how the Persian envoys at the Macedonian court demanded the presence of women during a banquet, because it was the custom for women to participate in the banquets in their own country. The Queen may have attended the king's audience, and arceological evidence shows that she gave her own audiences, at least for female supplicants. Royal women and noblewomen at court could further more travel by their own, accompanied by both male and female staff, own and manage their own fortune, land and business. Depictions of Persian women show them with long dresses and veils which did not cover their faces nor their hair, only flowing down over their neck at the back of the head as an ornament. Royal and aristocratic Achaemenid women were given an education in subjects which did not appear compatiple with seclusion, such as horsemanship and archery. Royal and aristocratic women held and managed vast estates and workshops and employed large numbers of servants and professional laborers. Royal and aristocratic women does not seem to have lived in seclusion from men, since it is known that they appeared in public and traveled with their husbands, participated in hunting and in feasts: at least the chief wife of a royal or aristocratic man did not live in seclusion, as it is clearly stated that wives customarily accompanied their husbands at dinner banquets, although they left the banquet when the “women entertainers” came in and the men began "merrymaking". No woman ever ruled the Achaemenid Empire, as monarch or as regent, but some queen consorts are known to have had influence over the affairs of state, notably the queens Atossa and
Parysatis Parysatis (; peo, Parušyātiš, grc, Παρύσατις; 5th-century BC) was a powerful Persian Queen, consort of Darius II and had a lot of influence during the reign of Artaxerxes II. Biography Parysatis was the daughter of Artaxerxes I, Emper ...
. There are no evidence of any women being employed as an official in the administration or within religious service, however there are plenty of archeological evidence of women being employed as free labourers in Persepolis, were they worked alongside men. Women could be employed as the leaders of their workforce, known by the title ''arraššara pašabena'', which were then given a higher salary than the male workers of their workforce; and while female laborers were given less than men, qualified workers within the crafts were given equal pay regardless of their sex.


Art and architecture

''Achaemenid architecture'' includes large cities, temples, palaces, and mausoleums such as the
tomb of Cyrus The Tomb of Cyrus (Persian: آرامگاه کوروش بزرگ translit. ''ārāmgāh-e kurosh-e bozorg'') is the monument of Cyrus the Great approximately 1 km southwest of the palaces of Pasargadae in Iran. According to Greek sources, it d ...
the Great. The quintessential feature of Persian architecture was its eclectic nature with elements of Median, Assyrian, and Asiatic Greek all incorporated, yet maintaining a unique Persian identity seen in the finished products. Its influence pervades the regions ruled by the Achaemenids, from the Mediterranean shores to India, especially with its emphasis on monumental stone-cut design and gardens subdivided by water-courses. ''Achaemenid art'' includes frieze reliefs, Metalwork such as the Oxus Treasure, decoration of palaces, glazed brick masonry, fine craftsmanship (masonry, carpentry, etc.), and gardening. Although the Persians took artists, with their styles and techniques, from all corners of their empire, they produced not simply a combination of styles, but a synthesis of a new unique Persian style. Cyrus the Great in fact had an extensive ancient Iranian heritage behind him; the rich Achaemenid gold work, which inscriptions suggest may have been a speciality of the Medes, was for instance in the tradition of the delicate metalwork found in Iron Age II times at Hasanlu and still earlier at Marlik. One of the most remarkable examples of both Achaemenid architecture and art is the grand palace of
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
, and its detailed workmanship, coupled with its grand scale. In describing the construction of his palace at Susa, Darius the Great records that: This was imperial art on a scale the world had not seen before. Materials and artists were drawn from all corners of the empire, and thus tastes, styles, and motifs became mixed together in an eclectic art and architecture that in itself mirrored the Persian empire. The legacy of the Persian gardens, Persian garden throughout the Middle East and South Asia starts in the Achaemenid period, especially with the construction of Pasargadae by Cyrus the Great. In fact, the English word 'paradise' derives from the Greek ''parádeisos'' which ultimately comes from the Old Persian ''pairi-daêza'', used to describe the walled gardens of ancient Persia. Distinct characteristics including flowing watercourses, fountains and water-channels, a structured orientational scheme (''Charbagh, chahar-bagh'') and a variety of flower and fruit-bearing trees brought from across the empire, all key features that served as a key inspiration for Islamic gardens ranging from Spain to India. The famous Alhambra complex in Spain (built by Al-Andalus, Andalusian Arabs), Safavid parks and boulevards at Isfahan and Mughal gardens of India and Pakistan (including those at the Taj Mahal) are all descendants of this cultural tradition. Engineering innovations were required to maintain Persian gardens amid the aridity and difficulty of attaining fresh water in the Iranian plateau. Persepolis was the center of an empire that reached
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situated on th ...
and India., was supplied with water through underground channels called ''qanat,'' allowing maintenance of its gardens and palaces. These structures consist of deep vertical shafts into water reservoirs, followed by gently-sloping channels bringing fresh water from high-altitude aquifers to valleys and lowland plains. The influence of the qanat is widespread throughout the Middle East and Central Asia (including in Xinjiang region of Western China) due to its productivity and efficiency in arid environments. The acequias of southern Spain were brought by Arabs from Iraq and Persia to advance agriculture in the dry Mediterranean climate of Al-Andalus, and from there, were implemented in southwestern North America for irrigation during Spanish colonization of the Americas. The American wife of an Iranian diplomat, Florence Khanum, wrote of Tehran that:
"The air is the most marvellous I ever was in, in any city. Mountain air, so sweet, dry and "preserving", delicious and life-giving.' She told of running streams, and fresh water bubbling up in the gardens. (This omnipresence of water, which doubtless spread from Persia to Baghdad and from there to Spain during its Muslim days, has given Spanish many a water-word: aljibe, for example, is Persian jub, brook; cano or pipe, is Arabic qanat—reed, canal. Thus J. T. Shipley, ''Dictionary of Word Origins'')."
Also supplemented by the ''qanat'' are ''Yakhchāl, yakhchal'', 'ice-pit' structures that use the rapid passage of water to aerate and cool their inner chambers. File:History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia and Assyria (1903) (14584070300).jpg, Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
. File:Lion Darius Palace Louvre Sb3298.jpg, Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre File:Nishat Bagh (14362717638).jpg, Nishat Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir (built during Mughal rule), a quintessential example of a Persian Garden with tree-lined avenues and flowing watercourses.


Tombs

Many Achaemenid rulers built tombs for themselves. The most famous,
Naqsh-e Rustam Naqsh-e Rostam ( fa, نقش رستم ) is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods ...
, is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km north-west of
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
, with the tombs of four of the kings of the dynasty carved in this mountain: Tomb of Darius I, Darius I,
Xerxes I Xerxes I ( peo, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, Xšaya-ṛšā; – August 465 BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great ...
,
Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes I (, peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 , "whose rule (''xšaça'' PlutarchThemistocles, 29/ref> Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah A King Artaxerxes ( he, אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּא, ) is described in the Bible as ...
and Darius II. Other kings constructed their own tombs elsewhere.
Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠, transl=Artaxšaçā, lit=whose reign is through truth)R. Schmitt"ARTAXERXES" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. was the King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empir ...
and
Artaxerxes III Ochus (Greek: Ὦχος, ''Ôchos''; Babylonian: ''Ú-ma-kuš''), better known by his dynastic name of Artaxerxes III ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 ''Artaxšaçā'') was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 358 to 338 BC. He was the son a ...
preferred to carve their tombs beside their spring capital
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
, the left tomb belonging to
Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠, transl=Artaxšaçā, lit=whose reign is through truth)R. Schmitt"ARTAXERXES" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. was the King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empir ...
and the right tomb belonging to
Artaxerxes III Ochus (Greek: Ὦχος, ''Ôchos''; Babylonian: ''Ú-ma-kuš''), better known by his dynastic name of Artaxerxes III ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 ''Artaxšaçā'') was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 358 to 338 BC. He was the son a ...
, the last Achaemenid king to have a tomb. The tomb of the founder of the Achaemenid dynasty,
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia ( peo, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš; ; ) commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ( ...
, was built in
Pasargadae Pasargadae (from grc, Πασαργάδαι, from Old Persian ''Pāθra-gadā'', "protective club" or "strong club"; Modern Persian: ''Pāsārgād'') was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great (559–530 BCE), who ordered its ...
(now a world heritage site).


Legacy

The Achaemenid Empire left a lasting impression on the heritage and cultural identity of Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, and influenced the development and structure of future
empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an emperor. States can be empires either by narrow definition through having an emperor and being named as such, or by broad ...
s. In fact, the Greeks, and later on the Romans, adopted the best features of the Persian method of governing an empire. The Persian model of governance was particularly formative in the expansion and maintenance of the
Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttal ...
, whose rule is widely considered the period of the 'Islamic Golden Age'. Like the ancient Persians, the Abbasid dynasty centered their vast empire in Mesopotamia (at the newly founded cities of Baghdad and Samarra, close to the historical site of Babylon), derived much of their support from Persian aristocracy and heavily incorporated the Persian language and architecture into Islamic culture (as opposed to the Greco-Roman influence on their rivals, the Umayyads of Spain). The Achaemenid Empire is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the polis, Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Babylonian captivity, Jewish exiles in Babylon. The historical mark of the empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social, technological and religious influences as well. For example, many
Athenians , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
adopted Achaemenid customs in their daily lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange, some being employed by or allied to the Persian kings. The impact of Cyrus's edict is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts, and the empire was instrumental in the spread of
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is one of the world's oldest continuously practiced religions, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as ''Zaraθuštra'' in Avestan or ''Zarthost'' in Modern Persian). Zoroastr ...
as far east as China. The empire also set the tone for the politics, heritage and history of
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
(also known as Persia). Historian Arnold J. Toynbee, Arnold Toynbee regarded Abassid society as a "reintegration" or "reincarnation" of Achaemenid society, as the synthesis of Persian, Turkic and Islamic modes of governance and knowledge allowed for the spread of Persianate society, Persianate culture over a wide swath of Eurasia through the Turkic-origin Seljuk Empire, Seljuq, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman, Safavid Iran, Safavid and Mughal Empire, Mughal empires. Historian Bernard Lewis wrote that
The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution. In a sense, Iranian Islam is a second advent of Islam itself, a new Islam sometimes referred to as Islam-i-Ajam. It was this Persian Islam, rather than the original Arab Islam, that was brought to new areas and new peoples: to the Turks, first in Central Asia and then in the Middle East in the country which came to be called Turkey, and of course to India. The Ottoman Turks brought a form of Iranian civilization to the walls of Vienna. [...] By the time of the great Mongol invasions of the thirteenth century, Iranian Islam had become not only an important component; it had become a dominant element in Islam itself, and for several centuries the main centers of the Islamic power and civilization were in countries that were, if not Iranian, at least marked by Iranian civilization ... The major centers of Islam in the late medieval and early modern periods, the centers of both political and cultural power, such as India, Central Asia, Iran, Turkey, were all part of this Iranian civilization.
Georg W. F. Hegel in his work ''Lectures on the Philosophy of History, The Philosophy of History'' introduces the Persian Empire as the "first empire that passed away" and its people as the "first historical people" in history. According to his account;
The Persian Empire is an empire in the modern sense—like that which existed in Germany, and the great imperial realm under the sway of Napoleon; for we find it consisting of a number of states, which are indeed dependent, but which have retained their own individuality, their manners, and laws. The general enactments, binding upon all, did not infringe upon their political and social idiosyncrasies, but even protected and maintained them; so that each of the nations that constitute the whole, had its own form of constitution. As light illuminates everything—imparting to each object a peculiar vitality—so the Persian Empire extends over a multitude of nations, and leaves to each one its particular character. Some have even kings of their own; each one its distinct language, arms, way of life and customs. All this diversity coexists harmoniously under the impartial dominion of Light ... a combination of peoples—leaving each of them free. Thereby, a stop is put to that barbarism and ferocity with which the nations had been wont to carry on their destructive feuds.
American Orientalist Arthur Upham Pope (1881–1969) said: "The western world has a vast unpaid debt to the Persian Civilization!" Will Durant, the American historian and philosopher, during one of his speeches, "Persia in the History of Civilization", as an address before the ''Iran–America Society'' in Tehran on 21 April 1948, stated:
For thousands of years Persians have been creating beauty. Sixteen centuries before Christ there went from these regions or near it ... You have been here a kind of watershed of civilization, pouring your blood and thought and art and religion eastward and westward into the world ... I need not rehearse for you again the achievements of your Achaemenid period. Then for the first time in known history an empire almost as extensive as the United States received an orderly government, a competence of administration, a web of swift communications, a security of movement by men and goods on majestic roads, equalled before our time only by the zenith of Imperial Rome.


Achaemenid kings and rulers


Unattested

There were four unattested kings who ruled as satraps to the
Neo-Assyrian Empire The Neo-Assyrian Empire (Assyrian cuneiform: ''mat Aš-šur KI'', "Country of the city of god Aššur"; also phonetically ''mat Aš-šur'') was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire ...

Neo-Assyrian Empire
and the Median Empire.


Attested

There were 13 attested kings during the 220 years of the Achaemenid Empire's existence. The reign of
Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠, transl=Artaxšaçā, lit=whose reign is through truth)R. Schmitt"ARTAXERXES" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. was the King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empir ...
was the longest, lasting 47 years.


Gallery

File:Persepolis recreated.jpg, Ruins of Throne Hall,
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
File:Persepolis The Persian Soldiers.jpg, Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis File:Cambyses I - April 2013 - 5.jpg, Lateral view of tomb of
Cambyses II Cambyses II ( peo, 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 ''Kabūjiya'') was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 530 to 522 BC. He was the son and successor of Cyrus the Great () and his mother was Cassandane. Before his accession, Cambyses ha ...

Cambyses II
,
Pasargadae Pasargadae (from grc, Πασαργάδαι, from Old Persian ''Pāθra-gadā'', "protective club" or "strong club"; Modern Persian: ''Pāsārgād'') was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great (559–530 BCE), who ordered its ...
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
File:Plaque with horned lion-griffins MET DT896.jpg, Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art


See also

* Achaemenid family tree * Achaemenid Persian Lion Rhyton * History of Iran * List of Zoroastrian states and dynasties * Wars of Cyrus the Great


Explanatory notes


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Persian History



Swedish Contributions to the Archaeology of Iran
Artikel i ''Fornvännen'' (2007) by Carl Nylander
Čišpiš





Achaemenid art on Iran Chamber Society (www.iranchamber.com)

Persepolis Fortification Archive Project


* [http://irancollection.alborzi.com/ Coins, medals and orders of the Persian empire]
Dynasty Achaemenid


* [http://www.achemenet.com/ Achemenet] an electronic resource for the study of the history, literature and archaeology of the Persian Empire
Persepolis Before Incursion
(Virtual tour project)
Musée achéménide virtuel et interactif (Mavi)
a "Virtual Interactive Achemenide Museum" of more than 8000 items of the Persian Empire
Persian history in detail
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