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Oxford () is a city in England. It is the
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
and only city of
Oxfordshire Oxfordshire is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), ...

Oxfordshire
. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
, southeast of
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can ...

Birmingham
, and northeast of
Bristol Bristol () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...

Bristol
. The city is home to the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
, the oldest university in the
English-speaking world Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...
, and has buildings in every style of
English architecture 's 30 St Mary Axe, 'Gherkin' (2004) rises above the sixteenth century St Andrew Undershaft in the City of London The architecture of England is the architecture of modern England and in the historic Kingdom of England. It often includes buildings ...
from late
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a who inhabited . They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the coastlands of . However, the of the Anglo-Saxons occurred within Britain, and the ide ...
. Oxford's industries include motor manufacturing, education, publishing, information technology and science.


History


Medieval

Oxford was first settled by the
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a who inhabited . They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the coastlands of . However, the of the Anglo-Saxons occurred within Britain, and the ide ...
s and was initially known as Oxnaford, meaning "
ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
of the en", as referenced in
Florence of WorcesterFlorence of Worcester (died 1118), known in Latin as Florentius, was a monk of Worcester, who played some part in the production of the '' Chronicon ex chronicis'', a Latin world chronicle which begins with the creation and ends in 1140.Keynes, "Fl ...
's ''
Chronicon ex chronicis . John of Worcester (died c. 1140) was an English monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Eu ...
''. A river crossing for oxen began around 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of
Mercia Mercia (, ang, Miercna rīċe; la, Merciorum regnum) was one of the kingdoms of the . The name is a of the or (West Saxon dialect; in the Mercian dialect itself), meaning "border people" (see ). Mercia dominated what would later become ...

Mercia
and
Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was Kingdom of England, unified by Æthelstan in 927. The Anglo-Sa ...

Wessex
and was raided by
Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East ...
. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the
St. Brice's Day massacre St. Brice's Day massacre ( da, Danemordet, Massakren på Sankt Brictiusdag) was the killing of Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each oth ...
ordered by
Æthelred the Unready Æthelred (Old English: ''Æþelræd'', ;Different spellings of this king’s name most commonly found in modern texts are "Ethelred" and "Æthelred" (or "Aethelred"), the latter being closer to the original Old English language, Old English fo ...
. The skeletons of more than thirty suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to ’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was heavily damaged during the
Norman Invasion The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to ...
of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor,
Robert D'Oyly Robert D'Oyly (also spelt Robert D'Oyley de Liseaux, Robert Doyley, Robert de Oiley, Robert d'Oilly, Robert D'Oyley and Roberti De Oilgi) was a Norman nobleman who accompanied William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the ...
, who ordered the construction of
Oxford Castle Oxford Castle is a large, partly ruined Norman medieval castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), ...

Oxford Castle
to confirm
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...
authority over the area. The castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a
chapel 300px, schematic rendering of typical "side chapels" in the apse of a cathedral, surrounding the ambulatory. A chapel is a Christian place of prayer and worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually dire ...

chapel
and living quarters for monks (''St George in the Castle''). The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139
Geoffrey of Monmouth Geoffrey of Monmouth ( la, Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, cy, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularit ...
wrote his ''
History of the Kings of Britain ''Historia regum Britanniae'' (''The History of the Kings of Britain''), originally called ''De gestis Britonum'' (''On the Deeds of the Britons''), is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth ...
'', a compilation of
Arthurian King Arthur ( cy, Brenin Arthur, kw, Arthur Gernow, br, Roue Arzhur) was a legendary British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kin ...

Arthurian
legends. Additionally, there is evidence of
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jews
living in the city as early as 1141, and during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100. The city was besieged during
The Anarchy The Anarchy was a civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country ...
in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
, Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scien ...
granted by King
Henry II Henry II may refer to: Kings *Henry II of England (1133–89), reigned from 1154 *Henry II of Jerusalem and Cyprus (1271–1324), reigned from 1285; king of Jerusalem in name only from 1291 *Henry II of Castile (1334–79), reigned 1366–67 and ...

Henry II
, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom; and various important religious houses were founded in or near the city. Oxford's status as a
liberty Broadly speaking, liberty is the ability to do as one pleases, or a right or immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant (i.e. privilege). It is a synonym for the word freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without c ...
obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of
King John of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King John
established
Rewley Abbey The Cistercian Abbey of Rewley was an Abbey in Oxford, England. It was founded in the 13th century by Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall. Edmund's father, Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, founder of Hailes Abbey, had intended to establish a college or ...
for the
Cistercian The Cistercians, () officially the Order of Cistercians ( la, (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist), are a Catholic religious order In the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic ...
Order; and
friar A friar is a brother A brother is a man A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertil ...
s of various orders (
Dominicans Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic ( , stress on the "mi"), on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles, in the Caribbean ** People of the Dominican Republic ** Demographics of the Domin ...
,
Franciscan , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , m ...
s,
Carmelite The Carmelites, formally known as the Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel ( la, Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) or sometimes simply as Carmel by synecdoche, is a Roman Catholic Roman or R ...

Carmelite
s,
AugustinianAugustinian may refer to: *Augustinians Augustinians are members of Christian religious orders that follow the Rule of Saint Augustine, written in about 400 AD by Augustine of Hippo. There are two distinct types of Augustinians in Catholic relig ...
s and
Trinitarians The Order of the Most Holy Trinity and of the Captives ( la, Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis et captivorum), also known as the Trinitarian Order or the Trinitarians, is a Catholic religious order founded in Brumetz, Cerfroid, outside Paris, in lat ...

Trinitarians
) all had houses of varying importance at Oxford. Parliaments were often held in the city during the 13th century. The
Provisions of OxfordThe Provisions of Oxford were constitutional reforms developed in 1258 which resolved a dispute between the English barons and King Henry III of England Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, wa ...
were instigated by a group of barons led by
Simon de Montfort Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester ( – 4 August 1265), later sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from his namesake relatives, was a nobleman Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately b ...
; these documents are often regarded as England's first written constitution.
Richard I Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western Kin ...

Richard I
(reigned 6 July 1189 – 6 April 1199) and King John (reigned 6 April 1199 – 19 October 1216) the sons of Henry II, were both born at
Beaumont Palace Image:Beaumont Palace plaque.jpg, The plaque on Beaumont Street near the site of Beaumont Palace Beaumont Palace, built outside the north gate of Oxford, was intended by Henry I of England, Henry I about 1130 to serve as a royal palace convenientl ...
in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in
Beaumont Street Beaumont Street is a street in the centre of Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capita ...
commemorates these events.


University of Oxford

The
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of
aularian The academic halls of the university of Oxford , mottoeng = Psalm 27, The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (as of 31 July 2019) , budget = £2.145 billion (2019–20) , chancel ...
houses that sprang up across the city, only
St Edmund Hall St Edmund Hall (sometimes known as The Hall or informally as Teddy Hall) is a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher educati ...
() remains. What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. were
University College In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is often part of a larger university. The precise usage varies ...
(1249), (1263) and
Merton Merton may refer to: People * Merton (surname) * Merton (given name) * Merton (YouTube), American YouTube personality Fictional characters * Merton Matowski, an alternate name for "Moose" Mason, an Archie Comics character * List of Downton Ab ...
(1264). These colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way. These colleges at Oxford were supported by the Church in the hope of reconciling
Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, at a time when the inhabitants of ancient Greece were struggling to repel devastating invasions from the east. Greek philosophy continued throughout the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic p ...
and
Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christia ...
. The relationship between "
town and gown Town and Gown are two distinct communities of a university town; 'town' being the non-academic population and 'gown' metonymically being the university community, especially in ancient seats of learning such as Oxford Oxford () is a city ...
" has often been uneasy – as many as 93 students and townspeople were killed in the
St Scholastica Day Riot The St Scholastica Day riot took place in Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital ...
of 1355. The
sweating sickness Sweating sickness, also known as the sweats, English sweating sickness, English sweat or ''sudor anglicus'' in Latin, was a mysterious and contagious disease that struck England and later continental Europe in a series of epidemics beginning i ...
epidemic in 1517 was particularly devastating to Oxford and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
where it killed half of both cities' populations, including many students and dons.
Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford Christ Church Cathedral is the cathedral A cathedral is a church that contains the '' cathedra'' () of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entr ...
is unique in combining a college
chapel 300px, schematic rendering of typical "side chapels" in the apse of a cathedral, surrounding the ambulatory. A chapel is a Christian place of prayer and worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually dire ...

chapel
and a
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...

cathedral
in one foundation. Originally the Priory of St Frideswide, the building was extended and incorporated into the structure of the
Cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
's College shortly before its refounding as Christ Church in 1546, since when it has functioned as the cathedral of the
Diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
of Oxford. The
Oxford Martyrs The Oxford Martyrs were Protestants tried for heresy in 1555 and Death by burning, burnt at the stake in Oxford, England, for their religious beliefs and teachings, during the Mary I of England#Religious policy, Marian persecution English Reforma ...
were tried for heresy in 1555 and subsequently burnt at the stake, on what is now
Broad StreetBroad Street may refer to: United Kingdom *Broad Street railway station (England), in London *Broad Street (ward), in London *Broad Street, Birmingham *Broad Street, Bristol *Broad Street, Oxford *Broad Street, Reading *Broad Street, Suffolk, hamle ...

Broad Street
, for their religious beliefs and teachings. The three martyrs were the bishops
Hugh Latimer Hugh Latimer ( – 16 October 1555) was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and Bishop of Worcester during the English Reformation, Reformation, and later Church of England chaplain to King Edward VI. In 1555 under the Catholic Queen Mary I he ...

Hugh Latimer
and Nicholas Ridley, and the archbishop
Thomas Cranmer Thomas Cranmer (2 July 1489 – 21 March 1556) was a leader of the English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in History of England, England and Wales ...

Thomas Cranmer
. The
Martyrs' Memorial from Magdalen Street Image:The Taylor Institute from behind the Martyrs' Memorial, in Oxford, England.jpg, The lower section of the Martyrs' Memorial, looking towards the Taylor Institution The Martyrs' Memorial is a stone monument positioned ...

Martyrs' Memorial
stands nearby, round the corner to the north on St Giles'.


Early modern


English Civil War

During the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
, Oxford housed the court of
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
in 1642, after the king was expelled from
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
. The town yielded to
ParliamentarianParliamentarian has two principal meanings. First, it may refer to a member or supporter of a Parliament, as in: *Member of parliament *Roundhead, supporter of the parliamentary cause in the English Civil War Second, in countries that do not refe ...
forces under General Fairfax in the
Siege of Oxford The siege of Oxford comprised the English Civil War military campaigns waged to besiege the Royalist controlled city of Oxford, involving three short engagements over twenty-five months, which ended with a Parliamentarian victory in ...
of 1646. It later housed the court of during the
Great Plague of London The Great Plague of London, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England. It happened within the centuries-long Second plague pandemic, Second Pandemic, a period of intermittent bubonic plague ...
in 1665–66. Although reluctant to do so, he was forced to evacuate when the plague got too close. The city suffered two serious fires in 1644 and 1671.


Late modern

In 1790, the
Oxford Canal The Oxford Canal is a narrow canal in central England linking Oxford with Bedworth (between Coventry and Nuneaton on the Coventry Canal) via Banbury and Rugby, Warwickshire, Rugby. Completed in 1790, it connects to the River Thames at Oxford a ...
connected the city with
Coventry Coventry ( or ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is on the River Sherbourne. Coventry has been a large settlement for centuries, although it was not founded and given its c ...

Coventry
. The Duke's Cut was completed by the
Duke of Marlborough General (United Kingdom), General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 Old Style and New Style dates, O.S.) was an Englis ...
in 1789 to link the new canal with the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the Longest rivers of the United Kingdom, se ...
; and, in 1796, the Oxford Canal company built its own link to the Thames, at
Isis Lock Isis Lock (known to boatmen as "Louse Lock") is a lock (water transport), lock connecting the Oxford Canal and the Castle Mill Stream, a backwater of the River Thames in Oxford, England. Location The Isis Lock is close to Sheepwash Channel, just ...
. In 1844, the
Great Western Railway The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millenni ...
linked Oxford with
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
via
Didcot Didcot ( ) is a railway town A railway town, or railroad town, is a settlement that originated or was greatly developed because of a railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and ...
and
Reading Reading is the process of taking in the sense or meaning of letters, symbols, ''etc.'', especially by sight or touch. For educators and researchers, reading is a multifaceted process involving such areas as word recognition, orthography An ...
, and other rail routes soon followed. In the 19th century, the controversy surrounding the
Oxford Movement The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church The term ''high church'' refers to beliefs and practices of Christian ecclesiology In Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practi ...
in the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
drew attention to the city as a focus of theological thought. A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of
Cowley Barracks Cowley Barracks (originally Bullingdon Barracks) was a military installation in Cowley, Oxfordshire Cowley () is a residential and industrial area in Oxford, England. Cowley's neighbours are Rose Hill, Oxford, Rose Hill and Blackbird Leys to the ...

Cowley Barracks
in 1876. Local government in Oxford was reformed by the
Municipal Corporations Act 1835 The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 (5 & 6 Wm. IV., c.76), sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Ki ...
, and the boundaries of the borough were extended to include a small area east of the
River Cherwell The River Cherwell ( or ) is a tributary of the River Thames in central England. It rises near Hellidon, Northamptonshire and flows southwards for to meet the Thames at Oxford in Oxfordshire. The river gives its name to the Cherwell District, ...
. The boundaries were further extended in 1889 to add the areas of
Grandpont Grandpont is a mainly residential area in south Oxford. It is west of Abingdon Road, and consists mainly of narrow streets that run at right angles to the main road, with terraced late-Victorian architecture, Victorian and Edwardian era, Edwardian ...
and
New Hinksey New Hinksey is a suburb in the south of the city of Oxford. Geography The suburb is west of the Abingdon Road (A4144 road, A4144). To the north is Grandpont, Oxford, Grandpont and to the east, over Donnington Bridge, which crosses the River Thame ...
, south of the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...

Thames
, which were transferred from
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

Berkshire
to
Oxfordshire Oxfordshire is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), ...

Oxfordshire
. At the same time Summertown and the western part of Cowley were also added to the borough. In 1890 Oxford became a
county borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiabl ...
.
Oxford Town Hall Oxford Town Hall is a public building in St Aldate's, Oxford, St Aldate's Street in central Oxford, England. It is both the seat of Oxford City Council and a venue for public meetings, entertainment and other events. It is also includes the Museum ...
was built by Henry T. Hare; the foundation stone was laid on 6 July 1893 and opened by the future
King Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union A political ...
on 12 May 1897. The site has been the seat of local government since the
Guild Hall A guildhall is either a town hall, or a building historically used by guilds for meetings and other purposes, in which sense it can also be spelled as "guild hall" and may also be called a "guild house". It is also the official or colloquial name ...
of 1292 and though Oxford is a city and a Lord Mayoralty, the building is still called by its traditional name of "Town Hall".


20th and 21st centuries

During the World War I, First World War, the population of Oxford changed. The number of University members was significantly reduced as students, fellows and staff enlisted. Some of their places in college accommodation were taken by soldiers in training. Another reminder of the ongoing war was found in the influx of wounded and disabled soldiers, who were treated in new hospitals housed in buildings such as the university's Examination School, the Oxford Town Hall, town hall and Somerville College, Oxford, Somerville College. During the Second World War, Oxford was largely ignored by the German air raids during the The Blitz, Blitz, primarily as Adolf Hitler, Hitler had plans to make Oxford the new capital city. Also perhaps due to the lack of heavy industry such as steelworks or shipbuilding that would have made it a target, although it was still affected by the rationing and influx of refugees fleeing
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
and other cities. The university's colleges served as temporary military barracks and training areas for soldiers before deployment. By the early 20th century, there was rapid industrial and population growth, with the printing and publishing industries becoming well established by the 1920s. In 1929 the boundaries of the city were extended to include the suburbs of Headington, Cowley and Iffley to the east, and Wolvercote to the north. Also during the 1920s, the economy and society of Oxford underwent a huge transformation as William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield, William Morris established Morris Motors, Morris Motors Limited to mass-produce cars in Cowley, on the south-eastern edge of the city. By the early 1970s over 20,000 people worked in Cowley at the huge Morris Motors and Pressed Steel Fisher plants. Oxford was now a city of two halves: the university city to the west of Magdalen Bridge and the car town to the east. This led to the witticism that "Oxford is the left bank of Cowley". On 6 May 1954, Roger Bannister, a 25-year-old medical student, ran the first authenticated sub-four-minute mile at the Iffley Road athletics track, running track in Oxford. Although he had previously studied at Oxford University, Bannister was studying at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
at the time. He later returned to Oxford University and became Master (college), Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, Pembroke College. Oxford's second university, Oxford Brookes University, formerly the Oxford School of Art, then Oxford Polytechnic (United Kingdom), Polytechnic, based at Headington Hill, was given its
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scien ...
in 1991 and for ten years has been voted the best new university in the UK. It was named to honour the school's founding principal, John Henry Brookes. Cowley suffered major job losses in the 1980s and 1990s during the decline of British Leyland, but is now producing the successful Mini (marque), Mini for BMW on a smaller site. Much of the original car factories at Cowley, Oxfordshire, Cowley was demolished in the 1990s, and is now the site of the Oxford Business Park. The influx of migrant labour to the car plants and hospitals, recent immigration from South Asia, and a large student population, have given Oxford a notably cosmopolitan character, especially in the Headington and Cowley Road, Oxford, Cowley Road areas with their many bar (establishment), bars, cafes, restaurants, clubs, Asian shops and fast food outlets and the annual Cowley Road Carnival. Oxford is one of the most diverse small cities in Britain: the most recent population estimates for 2011 showed that 22% of the population were from black or minority ethnic groups, compared to 13% in England.


Geography


Physical


Location

Oxford's latitude and longitude are or (at Carfax Tower, which is usually considered the centre). Oxford is north-west of
Reading Reading is the process of taking in the sense or meaning of letters, symbols, ''etc.'', especially by sight or touch. For educators and researchers, reading is a multifaceted process involving such areas as word recognition, orthography An ...
, north-east of Swindon, east of Cheltenham, east of Gloucester, south-west of Milton Keynes, south-east of Evesham, south of Rugby, Warwickshire, Rugby and west-north-west of
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
. The rivers River Cherwell, Cherwell and River Thames, Thames (also sometimes known as the Isis locally, supposedly from the Latinised name ) run through Oxford and meet south of the city centre. These rivers and their flood plains constrain the size of the city centre.


Climate

Oxford has a oceanic climate, maritime temperate climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Cfb''). Precipitation (meteorology), Precipitation is uniformly distributed throughout the year and is provided mostly by weather systems that arrive from the Atlantic. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Oxford was on 24 December 1860. The highest temperature ever recorded in Oxford is on 25 July 2019. The average conditions below are from the Radcliffe Meteorological Station. It boasts the longest series of temperature and rainfall records for one site in Great Britain, Britain. These records are continuous from January 1815. Irregular observations of rainfall, cloud and temperature exist from 1767. The driest year on record was 1788, with of rainfall. Whereas, the wettest year was 2012, with . The wettest month on record was September 1774, with a total fall of . The warmest month on record is July 1983, with an average of and the coldest is January 1963, with an average of . The warmest year on record is 2014, with an average of and the coldest is 1879, with a mean temperature of . The sunniest month on record is May 2020, with 331.7 hours and December 1890 is the least sunny, with 5.0 hours. The greatest one-day rainfall occurred on 10 July 1968, with a total of . The greatest known snow depth was in February 1888.


Human

Twenty-two percent of the population come from Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups.


Districts


The city centre

The city centre is relatively small, and is centred on Carfax, Oxford, Carfax, a crossroads which forms the junction of Cornmarket Street, Oxford, Cornmarket Street (pedestrianised), Queen Street, Oxford, Queen Street (mainly pedestrianised), St Aldate's, Oxford, St Aldate's and the High Street, Oxford, High Street ("the High"; blocked for through traffic). Cornmarket Street and Queen Street are home to Oxford's chain stores, as well as a small number of independent retailers, one of the longest established of which was Boswells of Oxford, Boswell's, founded in 1738. The store closed in 2020. St Aldate's has few shops but several local government buildings, including the town hall, the city police station and local council offices. The High (the word ''street'' is traditionally omitted) is the longest of the four streets and has a number of independent and high-end chain stores, but mostly university and college buildings. The historic buildings mean the area is regularly used by film and TV crews.


Suburbs

Aside from the city centre, there are several suburbs and neighbourhoods within the borders of the city of Oxford, including: * Barton, Oxford, Barton * Blackbird Leys * Cowley, Oxfordshire, Cowley ** Temple Cowley * Iffley ** Littlemore ** Rose Hill, Oxfordshire, Rose Hill * Cutteslowe * Headington ** New Marston * Jericho, Oxford, Jericho * North Oxford ** Park Town, Oxford, Park Town ** Norham Manor ** Walton Manor * Osney * Risinghurst * Summertown ** Sunnymead ** Waterways, Oxford, Waterways * Wolvercote


Green belt

Oxford is at the centre of the Oxford Green Belt, which is an environmental policy, environmental and Planning in the United Kingdom, planning policy that regulates the rural space in
Oxfordshire Oxfordshire is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), ...

Oxfordshire
surrounding the city which aims to prevent urban sprawl and minimize convergence with nearby settlements. The policy has been blamed for the large rise in house prices in Oxford, making it the least affordable city in the United Kingdom outside of London, with estate agents calling for brownfield land inside the green belt to be released for new housing. The vast majority of the area covered is outside of the city, but there are some green spaces within that which are covered by the designation such as much of the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...

Thames
and river Cherwell flood-meadows, and the village of Binsey, Oxfordshire, Binsey, along with several smaller portions on the fringes. Other landscape features and places of interest covered include Cutteslowe Park and the mini railway attraction, the University Parks, Hogacre Common Eco Park, numerous sports grounds, Aston's Eyot, St Margaret of England, St Margaret's Church and well, and Wolvercote Common and community orchard.


Economy

Oxford's economy includes manufacturing, publishing and science-based industries as well as education, research and tourism.


Car production

Oxford has been an important centre of motor manufacturing since Morris Motors was established in the city in 1910. The principal production site for Mini (marque), Mini cars, owned by BMW since 2000, is in the Oxford suburb of Cowley, Oxfordshire, Cowley. The plant, which survived the turbulent years of British Leyland in the 1970s and was threatened with closure in the early 1990s, also produced cars under the Austin Motor Company, Austin and Rover Group, Rover brands following the demise of the Morris brand in 1984, although the last Morris-badged car was produced there in 1982.


Publishing

Oxford University Press, a department of the Oxford University, University of Oxford, is based in the city, although it no longer operates its own paper mill and printing house. The city is also home to the UK operations of Wiley-Blackwell, Elsevier and several smaller publishing houses.


Science and technology

The presence of the university has given rise to many science and technology based businesses, including Oxford Instruments, Research Machines and Sophos. The university established Isis Innovation in 1987 to promote technology transfer. The Oxford Science Park was established in 1990, and the Begbroke Science Park, owned by the university, lies north of the city. Oxford increasingly has a reputation for being a centre of digital innovation, as epitomized by Digital Oxford. Several startups including Passle, Brainomix, Labstep, and more, are based in Oxford.


Education

The presence of the university has also led to Oxford becoming a centre for the education industry. Companies often draw their teaching staff from the pool of Oxford University students and graduates, and, especially for English as a Foreign or Second Language, EFL education, use their Oxford location as a selling point.


Tourism

Oxford has numerous major tourist attractions, many belonging to the university and colleges. As well as several famous institutions, the town centre is home to Carfax Tower and the University Church of St Mary the Virgin, University Church of St Mary the Virgin, both of which offer views over the spires of the city. Many tourists shop at the historic Covered Market, Oxford, Covered Market. In the summer, punt (boat), punting on the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...

Thames
/ river Isis, Isis and the river Cherwell, Cherwell is a common practice. As well as being a major draw for tourists (9.1 million in 2008, similar in 2009), Oxford city centre has many shops, several theatres and an ice rink.


Retail

There are two small shopping malls in the city centre: The Clarendon Centre and the Westgate Shopping Centre, Oxford, Westgate Centre. The Westgate Centre is named for the original West Gate in the city wall, and is at the west end of Queen Street, Oxford, Queen Street. A major redevelopment and expansion to , with a new John Lewis Partnership, John Lewis department store and a number of new homes, was completed in October 2017. Blackwell UK, Blackwell's Bookshop is a bookshop which claims the largest single room devoted to book sales in the whole of Europe, the Norrington Room (10,000 sq ft).


Brewing

There is a long history of brewing in Oxford. Several of the colleges had private breweries, one of which, at Brasenose College, Oxford, Brasenose, survived until 1889. In the 16th century brewing and malting appear to have been the most popular trades in the city. There were breweries in Brewer Street, Oxford, Brewer Street and Paradise Street, Oxford, Paradise Street, near the Castle Mill Stream. The rapid expansion of Oxford and the development of its railway links after the 1840s facilitated expansion of the brewing trade. As well as expanding the market for Oxford's brewers, railways enabled brewers further from the city to compete for a share of its market. By 1874 there were nine breweries in Oxford and 13 brewers' agents in Oxford shipping beer in from elsewhere. The nine breweries were: Flowers & Co in Cowley Road, Hall's St Giles, Oxford, St Giles Brewery, Hall's Swan Brewery (see below), Hanley's City Brewery in Queen Street, Oxford, Queen Street, Le Mills's Brewery in St. Ebbes, Morrells Brewing Company, Morrell's Lion Brewery in Thomas the Apostle, St Thomas Street (see below), Simonds's Brewery in Queen Street, Weaving's Eagle Brewery (by 1869 the Eagle Steam Brewery) in Park End Street and Wootten and Cole's St Clement's, Oxford, St. Clement's Brewery. The Swan's Nest Brewery, later the Swan Brewery, was established by the early 18th century in Paradise Street, Oxford, Paradise Street, and in 1795 was acquired by William Hall. The brewery became known as Hall's Oxford Brewery, which acquired other local breweries. Hall's Brewery was acquired by Samuel Allsopp & Sons in 1926, after which it ceased brewing in Oxford. Morrell's Brewing Company, Morrell's was founded in 1743 by Richard Tawney. He formed a partnership in 1782 with Mark and James Morrell, who eventually became the owners. After an acrimonious family dispute this much-loved brewery was closed in 1998, the beer brand names being taken over by the Thomas Hardy Burtonwood brewery, while the 132 Tied house, tied pubs were bought by Michael Cannon, owner of the American hamburger chain Fuddruckers, through a new company, Morrells of Oxford. The new owners sold most of the pubs on to Greene King in 2002. The Lion Brewery was converted into luxury apartments in 2002. Oxford's first legal distillery, the Oxford Artisan Distillery, was established in 2017 in historic farm buildings at the top of South Park, Oxford, South Park.


Bellfounding

The John Taylor & Co, Taylor family of Loughborough had a Bellfounding, bell-foundry in Oxford between 1786 and 1854.


Buildings

* Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford * The Headington Shark * Oxford University Press * Oxford Botanic Garden * Sheldonian Theatre * St Mary's Church, Oxford, St. Mary the Virgin Church * Radcliffe Camera * Radcliffe Observatory * Oxford Oratory * Malmaison (hotel chain), Malmaison Hotel, located in a converted prison in part of the medieval
Oxford Castle Oxford Castle is a large, partly ruined Norman medieval castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), ...

Oxford Castle


Parks and nature walks

Oxford is a very green city, with several parks and nature walks within the ring road, as well as several sites just outside the ring road. In total, 28 nature reserves exist within or just outside Oxford ring road, including: * University Parks * Mesopotamia, Oxford, Mesopotamia * Rock Edge Nature Reserve * Lye Valley * South Park, Oxford, South Park * C. S. Lewis Nature Reserve * Shotover, Shotover Nature Reserve * Port Meadow * Cutteslowe Park


Transport


Air

In addition to the larger airports in the region, Oxford is served by nearby Oxford Airport, in Kidlington. The airport is also home to CAE Oxford, CAE Oxford Aviation Academy and Airways Aviation airline pilot flight training centres, and several private jet companies. The airport is also home to Airbus Helicopters UK headquarters.


Buses

Bus services in Oxford and its suburbs are run by the Oxford Bus Company and Stagecoach Oxfordshire as well as other operators including Arriva Shires & Essex and Thames Travel. Oxford has one of the largest urban park and ride networks in the United Kingdom. Its five sites, at Pear Tree, Redbridge, Oxford, Redbridge, Seacourt, Thornhill, Water Eaton, Oxfordshire, Water Eaton and Oxford Parkway have a combined capacity of 4,930 car parking spaces, served by 20 Oxford Bus Company double decker buses with a combined capacity of 1,695 seats. Hybrid electric bus, Hybrid buses began to be used in Oxford in 2010, and their usage has been expanded. In 2014 Oxford Bus introduced a fleet of 20 new buses with flywheel energy storage on the services it operates under contract for Oxford Brookes University. Most buses in the city now use a smartcard to pay for journeys and have free WiFi installed.


Coach

The Oxford to
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
coach route offers a frequent coach service to London. The Oxford Tube is operated by Stagecoach Oxfordshire and the Oxford Bus Company runs the Airline services to Heathrow Airport, Heathrow and Gatwick Airport, Gatwick airports. There is a bus station at Gloucester Green, used mainly by the London and airport buses, National Express Coaches, National Express coaches and other long-distance buses including route Stagecoach bus route X5, X5 to Milton Keynes Coachway, Milton Keynes and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
and Stagecoach Gold routes S1, S2, Stagecoach Gold bus route S3, S3, S4, S5, S8 and S9.


Cycling

Among British cities, Oxford has the second highest percentage of people cycling to work.


Rail

Oxford railway station, Oxford railway station is half a mile (about 1 km) west of the city centre. The station is served by CrossCountry services to Bournemouth railway station, Bournemouth, Manchester Piccadilly railway station, Manchester Piccadilly and Newcastle railway station, Newcastle, Great Western Railway (train operating company), Great Western Railway (who manage the station) services to London Paddington, Banbury railway station, Banbury and Hereford railway station, Hereford and Chiltern Railways services to Marylebone railway station, London Marylebone. Oxford has had three main railway stations. The first was opened at Grandpont in 1844, but this was a terminus, inconvenient for routes to the north; it was replaced by the present station on Park End Street in 1852 with the opening of the Birmingham New Street railway station, Birmingham route. Another terminus, at Oxford Rewley Road railway station, Rewley Road, was opened in 1851 to serve the Bletchley railway station, Bletchley route; this station closed in 1951. There have also been a number of local railway stations, all of which are now closed. A fourth station, , is just outside the city, at the park and ride site near Kidlington. The present railway station opened in 1852. Oxford railway station, Oxford is the junction for a short branch line to Bicester, a remnant of the former Varsity line to
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
. This Oxford–Bicester line was upgraded to running during an 18-month closure in 2014/2015 – and is scheduled to be extended to form the planned East West Rail line to . Chiltern Railways now connects Oxford to London Marylebone via , having sponsored the building of about 400 metres of new track between Bicester Village and the Chiltern Main Line southwards in 2014. The route serves High Wycombe railway station, High Wycombe and London Marylebone, avoiding London Paddington and Didcot Parkway railway station, Didcot Parkway. East West Rail is proposed to continue through (for ) to Bedford railway station, Bedford, Cambridge, and ultimately Ipswich railway station, Ipswich and Norwich railway station, Norwich, thus providing alternative route to East Anglia without needing to travel via, and connect between, the London station group, London mainline terminals. In 1844, the
Great Western Railway The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millenni ...
linked Oxford railway station, Oxford with Paddington railway station, London Paddington via and ; in 1851, the London and North Western Railway opened its own route from Oxford to Euston railway station, London Euston, via Bicester Village railway station, Bicester, and Watford Junction railway station, Watford; and in 1864 a third route, also to Paddington, running via , and , was provided; this was shortened in 1906 by the opening of a direct route between High Wycombe and London Paddington by way of . The distance from Oxford to
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
was via Bletchley; via Didcot and Reading; via Thame and Maidenhead; and via Denham. Only the original () route is still in use for its full length, portions of the others remain. There were also routes to the north and west. The line to was opened in 1850, and was extended to Birmingham Snow Hill railway station, Birmingham Snow Hill in 1852; a route to Worcester Shrub Hill railway station, Worcester opened in 1853. A branch to Witney railway station (goods), Witney was opened in 1862, which was extended to in 1873. The line to Witney and Fairford closed in 1962, but the others remain open.


Rail–airport links

Direct trains run from Oxford railway station, Oxford station to where there is an interchange with the Heathrow Express train links serving Heathrow Airport. Passengers can change at Reading railway station, Reading for connecting trains to Gatwick Airport railway station, Gatwick Airport. Some CrossCountry trains run direct services to Birmingham International railway station, Birmingham International as well as to Southampton Airport Parkway railway station, Southampton Airport Parkway further afield.


River and canal

Oxford was historically an important port on the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the Longest rivers of the United Kingdom, se ...
, with this section of the river being called the river Isis, Isis; the Oxford-Burcot Commission in the 17th century attempted to improve navigation to Oxford. Iffley Lock and Osney Lock lie within the bounds of the city. In the 18th century the
Oxford Canal The Oxford Canal is a narrow canal in central England linking Oxford with Bedworth (between Coventry and Nuneaton on the Coventry Canal) via Banbury and Rugby, Warwickshire, Rugby. Completed in 1790, it connects to the River Thames at Oxford a ...
was built to connect Oxford with the Midlands. Commercial traffic has given way to recreational use of the river and canal. Oxford was the original base of Salters Steamers (founded in 1858), which was a leading racing-boat-builder that played an important role in popularising pleasure boating on the Upper Thames. The firm runs a regular service from Folly Bridge downstream to Abingdon, Oxfordshire, Abingdon and beyond.


Roads

Oxford's central location on several transport routes means that it has long been a wikt:crossroads, crossroads city with many coaching inns, although road traffic is now strongly discouraged from using the city centre. From August 2021, a new Zero Emission Zone will mean any vehicles which are not zero-emission will be banned from the a small group of city centre roads during certain hours. This will be expanded to the whole city centre from spring 2022. The Oxford Ring Road or A4142 (southern part) surrounds the city centre and close suburbs Marston, Oxfordshire, Marston, Iffley, Cowley and Headington; it consists of the A34 road (England), A34 to the west, a 330-yard section of the A44 road, A44, the A40 road, A40 north and north-east, A4142/A423 road, A423 to the east. It is a dual carriageway, except for a 330-yard section of the A40 where two residential service roads adjoin, and was completed in 1966.


A roads

The main roads to/from Oxford are: * A34 road (England), A34 – a trunk route connecting the Northern England, North and Midlands to the port of Southampton. It leaves J9 of the M40 motorway, M40 north of Oxford, passes west of Oxford to Newbury, Berkshire, Newbury and Winchester to the south and joins the M3 motorway (Great Britain), M3 north of Southampton. Since the completion of the Newbury bypass in 1998, this section of the A34 has been an entirely grade separated dual carriageway. Historically the A34 led to Bicester, Banbury, Stratford-upon-Avon,
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can ...

Birmingham
and Manchester, but since the completion of the M40 it disappears at J9 and re-emerges north at Solihull. * A40 road (Great Britain), A40 – leading east dualled to J8 of the M40 motorway, then an alternative route to High Wycombe and
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
; leading west part-dualled to Witney then bisecting Cheltenham, Gloucester, Monmouth, Abergavenny, passing Brecon, Llandovery, Carmarthen and Haverfordwest to reach Fishguard. * A44 road, A44 – which begins in Oxford, leading past Evesham to Worcester, England, Worcester, Hereford and Aberystwyth. * A420 road, A420 – which also begins in Oxford and leads to
Bristol Bristol () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...

Bristol
passing Swindon and Chippenham.


Motorway

The city is served by the M40 motorway, which connects
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
to
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can ...

Birmingham
. The M40 approached Oxford in 1974, leading from London to Waterstock, where the A40 continued to Oxford. When the M40 extension to Birmingham was completed in January 1991, it curved sharply north, and a mile of the old motorway became a spur. The M40 comes no closer than away from the city centre, curving to the east of Otmoor. The M40 meets the A34 road, A34 to the north of Oxford.


Education


Schools


Universities and colleges

There are two universities in Oxford, the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
and Oxford Brookes University, as well as the specialist further and higher education institution Ruskin College that is an Affiliate of the University of Oxford. The Islamic Azad University also has a Azad University IR in Oxford, campus near Oxford. The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world, and one of the most prestigious higher education institutions of the world, averaging nine applications to every available place, and attracting 40% of its academic staff and 17% of undergraduates from overseas. In September 2016, it was ranked as the world's number one university, according to the ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings''. Oxford is renowned for its tutorial-based method of teaching, with students attending an average of one to one-hour tutorial a week.


The Bodleian Library

The
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
maintains the largest university library system in the United Kingdom, and, with over 11 million volumes housed on of shelving, the Bodleian group is the second-largest library in the United Kingdom, after the British Library. The Bodleian Library is a legal deposit library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the United Kingdom. As such, its collection is growing at a rate of over three miles (five kilometres) of shelving every year.


Media

As well as the BBC national radio stations, Oxford and the surrounding area has several local stations, including BBC Oxford, Heart Thames Valley, Destiny 105, 106 Jack FM (Oxfordshire), Jack FM and Jack FM 2 along with Oxide: Oxford Student Radio (which went on terrestrial radio at 87.7 MHz FM in late May 2005). A local TV station, Six TV: The Oxford Channel, was also available but closed in April 2009; a service operated by That's TV, originally called That's Oxford (now That's Oxfordshire), took to the airwaves in 2015. The city is home to a BBC Television newsroom which produces an opt-out from the main ''South Today'' programme broadcast from Southampton. Local papers include ''The Oxford Times'' (compact; weekly), its sister papers the ''Oxford Mail'' (Tabloid (newspaper format), tabloid; daily) and the ''Oxford Star'' (tabloid; free and delivered), and ''Oxford Journal'' (tabloid; weekly free pick-up). Oxford is also home to several advertising agencies. ''Daily Information'' (known locally as Daily Info) is an events and advertising news sheet which has been published since 1964 and now provides a connected website. ''Nightshift (Oxford Music Magazine), Nightshift'' is a monthly local free magazine that has covered the Oxford music scene since 1991.


Culture


Museums and galleries

Oxford is home to many List of museums in Oxford, museums, art museum, galleries, and collections, most of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions. The majority are departments of the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
. The first of these to be established was the Ashmolean Museum, the world's first university museum, and the oldest museum in the UK. Its first building was erected in 1678–1683 to house a cabinet of curiosities given to the University of Oxford in 1677. The museum reopened in 2009 after a major redevelopment. It holds significant collections of art and archaeology, including works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, J. M. W. Turner, Turner, and Pablo Picasso, Picasso, as well as treasures such as the Scorpion Macehead, the Parian Chronicle, Parian Marble and the Alfred Jewel. It also contains "Messiah Stradivarius, The Messiah", a pristine Stradivarius violin, regarded by some as one of the finest examples in existence. The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, University Museum of Natural History holds the University's zoological, entomological and geological specimens. It is housed in a large neo-Gothic building on Parks Road, in the University's Science Area, Oxford, Science Area. Among its collection are the skeletons of a ''Tyrannosaurus, Tyrannosaurus rex'' and ''Triceratops'', and the most complete remains of a dodo found anywhere in the world. It also hosts the Charles Simonyi, Simonyi Professorship of the Simonyi Professorship for the Public Understanding of Science, Public Understanding of Science, currently held by Marcus du Sautoy. Adjoining the Museum of Natural History is the Pitt Rivers Museum, founded in 1884, which displays the University's archaeological and anthropological collections, currently holding over 500,000 items. It recently built a new research annexe; its staff have been involved with the teaching of anthropology at Oxford since its foundation, when as part of his donation General Augustus Pitt Rivers stipulated that the University establish a lectureship in anthropology. The Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, Museum of the History of Science is housed on
Broad StreetBroad Street may refer to: United Kingdom *Broad Street railway station (England), in London *Broad Street (ward), in London *Broad Street, Birmingham *Broad Street, Bristol *Broad Street, Oxford *Broad Street, Reading *Broad Street, Suffolk, hamle ...

Broad Street
in the world's oldest-surviving purpose-built museum building. It contains 15,000 artefacts, from antiquity to the 20th century, representing almost all aspects of the history of science. In the University's Faculty of Music on St Aldate's, Oxford, St Aldate's is the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, a collection mostly of instruments from Western classical music, from the medieval period onwards. Christ Church Picture Gallery holds a collection of over 200 old master paintings. The University also has an archive at the Oxford University Press Museum. Other museums and galleries in Oxford include Modern Art Oxford, the Museum of Oxford, the
Oxford Castle Oxford Castle is a large, partly ruined Norman medieval castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), ...

Oxford Castle
, Science Oxford and The Story Museum.


Art

Art Art museums, galleries in Oxford include the Ashmolean Museum, the Christ Church Picture Gallery, and Modern Art Oxford. William Turner (artist), William Turner (aka "Turner of Oxford", 1789–1862), was a watercolourist who painted landscapes in the Oxford area. The Oxford Art Society was established in 1891. The later watercolourist and drafter, draughtsman Ken Messer (1931–2018) has been dubbed "The Oxford Artist" by some, with his architectural paintings around the city. In 2018, ''The Oxford Art Book'' featured many contemporary local artists and their depictions of Oxford scenes. The annual Oxfordshire Artweeks is well-represented by artists in Oxford itself.


Music

Holywell Music Room is said to be the oldest purpose-built music room in Europe, and hence Britain's first concert hall. Tradition has it that George Frideric Handel performed there, though there is little evidence. Joseph Haydn was awarded an honorary doctorate by Oxford University in 1791, an event commemorated by three concerts of his music at the Sheldonian Theatre, directed by the composer and from which his Symphony No. 92 (Haydn), Symphony No. 92 earned the nickname of the "Oxford" Symphony. Victorian composer Sir John Stainer was organist at Magdalen College, Oxford, Magdalen College and later Professor of Music at the university, and is buried in Holywell Cemetery. Oxford, and its surrounding towns and villages, have produced many successful bands and musicians in the field of popular music. The most notable Oxford act is Radiohead, who all met at nearby Abingdon School, though other well known local bands include Supergrass, Ride (band), Ride, Swervedriver, Lab 4, Talulah Gosh, the Candyskins, Medal (band), Medal, The Egg (band), the Egg, Unbelievable Truth, Hurricane No. 1, Crackout (band), Crackout, Goldrush (band), Goldrush and more recently, Young Knives, Foals (band), Foals, Glass Animals, Dive Dive and Stornoway (band), Stornoway. These and many other bands from over 30 years of the Oxford music scene's history feature in the documentary film ''Anyone Can Play Guitar (film), Anyone Can Play Guitar?''. In 1997, Oxford played host to BBC Radio 1, Radio 1's Sound City, with acts such as Travis (band), Travis, Bentley Rhythm Ace, Embrace (English band), Embrace, Spiritualized and DJ Shadow playing in various venues around the city including Oxford Brookes University. It is also home to several brass bands, notably the City of Oxford Silver Band, founded in 1887.


Theatres and cinemas

* Oxford Playhouse#Burton Taylor Studio, Burton Taylor Studio, Gloucester Street * New Theatre Oxford, New Theatre, George Street, Oxford, George Street * Odeon Cinemas, Odeon Cinema, George Street * Odeon Cinema, Magdalen Street * Curzon Cinema, Westgate, Bonn Square * Old Fire Station Theatre, George Street * O'Reilly Theatre, Blackhall Road, Oxford, Blackhall Road * Oxford Playhouse,
Beaumont Street Beaumont Street is a street in the centre of Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capita ...
* Pegasus Theatre, Magdalen Road * Phoenix Picturehouse, Walton Street, Oxford, Walton Street * Ultimate Picture Palace, Cowley Road, Oxford, Cowley Road * Vue Cinemas, Vue Cinema, Grenoble Road *The North Wall Arts Centre, South Parade *Creation Theatre Company


Literature and film

Well-known Oxford-based authors include: * Brian Aldiss, who lived in Oxford. * Vera Brittain, undergraduate at Somerville College, Oxford, Somerville. * John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, attended Brasenose College, Oxford, Brasenose College. Best known for his ''The Thirty-nine Steps'', authored 32 novels and many more volumes of history, poetry and essays. * A.S. Byatt, undergraduate at Somerville. * Lewis Carroll (real name Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland was a student and Mathematical Lecturer of Christ Church, Oxford, Christ Church. * Susan Cooper, undergraduate at Somerville, best known for her The Dark Is Rising Sequence, ''The Dark Is Rising'' sequence. * Colin Dexter, who wrote and set his Inspector Morse detective novels in Oxford. * John Donaldson (author), John Donaldson (d. 1989), a poet resident in Oxford in later life. * Siobhan Dowd, Oxford resident, who was an undergraduate at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, Lady Margaret Hall. * Victoria Glendinning, undergraduate at Somerville. * Kenneth Grahame, educated at St Edward's School, Oxford, St Edward's School. * J. I. M. Stewart, Michael Innes (J. I. M. Stewart), of Christ Church. * P. D. James, born and died in Oxford. * C. S. Lewis, student at
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and Fellow of Magdalen. * T. E. Lawrence, "Lawrence of Arabia", Oxford resident, undergraduate at Jesus College, Oxford, Jesus, postgraduate at Magdalen College, Oxford, Magdalen. * Iris Murdoch, undergraduate at Somerville and fellow of St Anne's College, Oxford, St Anne's. * Carola Oman, novelist and biographer, was born and brought up in the city. * Iain Pears, undergraduate at Wadham College, Oxford, Wadham and Oxford resident, whose novel ''An Instance of the Fingerpost'' is set in the city. * Philip Pullman, undergraduate at Exeter College, Oxford, Exeter, teacher and resident in the city. * Dorothy L. Sayers, undergraduate at Somerville. * J. R. R. Tolkien, undergraduate at Exeter and later professor of English at
Merton Merton may refer to: People * Merton (surname) * Merton (given name) * Merton (YouTube), American YouTube personality Fictional characters * Merton Matowski, an alternate name for "Moose" Mason, an Archie Comics character * List of Downton Ab ...
* John Wain, undergraduate at St John's College, Oxford, St John's and later Professor of Poetry at Oxford University 1973–78. * Oscar Wilde, a 19th-century poet and author who attended Oxford from 1874 to 1878. * Athol Williams, South African poet, postgraduate at Hertford College, Oxford, Hertford and Regent's Park College, Oxford, Regent's Park from 2015 to 2020. * Charles Williams (British writer), Charles Williams, editor at Oxford University Press. Oxford appears in the following works: * the poems The Scholar Gypsy and Thyrsis (poem), Thyrsis by Matthew Arnold. 'Thyrsis' includes the lines: And that sweet city with her dreaming spires, She needs not June for beauty's heightening, * ''The Scarlet Pimpernel'' * "Harry Potter" (all the films to date) * ''The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica'' by James A. Owen * ''Jude the Obscure'' (1895) by Thomas Hardy (in which Oxford is thinly disguised as "Christminster") * ''Zuleika Dobson'' (1911) by Max Beerbohm * ''Gaudy Night'' (1935) by Dorothy L. Sayers * ''Brideshead Revisited'' (1945) by Evelyn Waugh * ''A Question of Upbringing'' (1951 ) by Anthony Powell * ''Alice in Wonderland (1951 film), Alice in Wonderland'' (1951 ) by Walt Disney * ''Second Generation (1964 novel), Second Generation'' (1964) by Raymond Williams * ''Young Sherlock Holmes'' (1985) by Steven Spielberg * ''Inspector Morse (TV series), Inspector Morse'' (1987-2000) * ''Where the Rivers Meet'' (1988) trilogy set in Oxford by John Wain * ''All Souls'' (1989) by Javier Marías * ''The Children of Men'' (1992) by P. D. James * ''Doomsday Book (novel), Doomsday Book'' (1992) by Connie Willis * ''His Dark Materials'' trilogy (1995 onwards) by Philip Pullman * ''Tomorrow Never Dies'' (1997) * ''The Saint (1997 film), The Saint'' (1997) * ''102 Dalmatians'' (2000) * ''Endymion Spring'' (2006) by Matthew Skelton * ''Lewis (TV series), Lewis'' (2006–15) * ''The Oxford Murders (film), The Oxford Murders'' (2008) * ''Mr. Nice (book), Mr. Nice'' (1996), autobiography of Howard Marks, subsequently a 2010 film * ''A Discovery of Witches'' (2011) by Deborah Harkness * ''X-Men: First Class'' (2011) * ''Endeavour (TV series), Endeavour'' (2012 onwards) * ''The Reluctant Cannibals'' (2013) by Ian Flitcroft * ''Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again'' (2018)


Sport


Football

The city's leading football club, Oxford United F.C., Oxford United, are currently in EFL League One, League One, the third tier of league association football, football, though they enjoyed some success in the past in the upper reaches of the league. They were elected to the English Football League, Football League in 1962, reached the Football League Third Division, Third Division after three years and the Football League Second Division, Second Division after six, and most notably reached the Football League First Division, First Division in 1985 – 23 years after joining the Football League. They spent three seasons in the top flight, winning the EFL Cup, Football League Cup a year after promotion. The 18 years that followed relegation in 1988 saw their fortunes decline gradually, though a brief respite in 1996 saw them win promotion to the new (post Premier League) Division One in 1996 and stay there for three years. They were relegated to the National League (English football), Football Conference in 2006, staying there for four seasons before returning to the Football League in 2010. They play at the Kassam Stadium (named after former chairman Firoz Kassam), which is near the Blackbird Leys housing estate and has been their home since relocation from the Manor Ground, Oxford, Manor Ground in 2001. The club's notable former managers include Ian Greaves, Jim Smith (footballer), Jim Smith, Maurice Evans (footballer, born 1936), Maurice Evans, Brian Horton, Ramon Diaz and Denis Smith (footballer, born 1947), Denis Smith. Notable former players include John Aldridge, Ray Houghton, Tommy Caton, Matt Elliott (footballer), Matt Elliott, Dean Saunders and Dean Whitehead. Oxford City F.C. is a semi-professional football club, separate from Oxford United. It plays in the National League South, Conference South, the sixth tier, two levels below the Football League in the English football league system, pyramid. Oxford City Nomads F.C. was a semi-professional association football, football club who ground-shared with Oxford City and played in the Hellenic Football League, Hellenic league.


American football

Oxford Saints is Oxford's senior American Football team. One of the longest-running American football clubs in the UK, the Saints were founded in 1983 and have competed for over 30 years against other British teams across the country.


Speedway and greyhound racing

Oxford Cheetahs motorcycle speedway team has raced at Oxford Stadium in Cowley, Oxfordshire, Cowley on and off since 1939. The Cheetahs competed in the Elite League (speedway), Elite League and then the Conference League (speedway), Conference League until 2007. They were Britain's most successful club in the late 1980s, becoming British League champions in 1985, 1986 and 1989. Four-times world champion Hans Nielsen (speedway rider), Hans Nielsen was the club's most successful rider. Greyhound racing took place at the Oxford Stadium from 1939 until 2012 and hosted some of the sport's leading events such as the Pall Mall Stakes, The Cesarewitch and Trafalgar Cup. The stadium remains intact but unused after closing in 2012.


Rowing

Oxford University Boat Club compete in the world-famous The Boat Race, Boat Race. Since 2007 the club has been based at a training facility and boathouse in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Wallingford, south of Oxford, after the original boathouse burnt down in 1999. Oxford is also home to the City of Oxford Rowing Club, based near Donnington Bridge.


Cricket

Oxford University Cricket Club is Oxford's most famous club with more than 300 Oxford players gaining international honours, including Colin Cowdrey, Douglas Jardine and Imran Khan. Oxfordshire County Cricket Club play in the Minor Counties League.


Rugby league

In 2013, Oxford Rugby League entered rugby league's semi-professional RFL League 1, Championship 1, the third tier of British rugby league. Oxford Cavaliers, who were formed in 1996, compete at the next level, the Conference League South. Oxford University (The Blues) and Oxford Brookes University (The Bulls) both compete in the rugby league BUCS university League.


Rugby union

Oxford Harlequins RFC is the city's main Rugby Union team and currently plays in the South West Division. Oxford R.F.C is the oldest city team and currently plays in the Berks, Bucks and Oxon Championship. Their most famous player was arguably Michael James Parsons known as Jim Parsons who was capped by England. Oxford University RFC are the most famous club with more than 300 Oxford players gaining International honours; including Phil de Glanville, Joe Roff, Tyrone Howe, Anton Oliver, Simon Halliday, David Kirk and Rob Egerton. London Welsh RFC moved to the Kassam Stadium in 2012 to fulfil their English Premiership (rugby union), Premiership entry criteria regarding stadium capacity. At the end of the 2015 season, following relegation, the club left Oxford.


Hockey

There are several field hockey clubs based in Oxford. The Oxford Hockey Club (formed after a merger of City of Oxford HC and Rover Oxford HC in 2011) plays most of its home games on the pitch at Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus and also uses the pitches at Headington Girls' School and Iffley Road. Oxford Hawks has two astroturf pitches at Banbury Road, Oxford, Banbury Road North, by Cutteslowe Park, Oxford, Cutteslowe Park to the north of the city.


Ice hockey

Oxford City Stars is the local Ice Hockey Team which plays at Oxford Ice Rink. There is a senior/adults’ team and a junior/children's team. The Oxford University Ice Hockey Club was formed as an official University sports club in 1921, and traces its history back to a match played against
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in St Moritz, Switzerland in 1885. The club currently competes in Checking Division 1 of the British Universities Ice Hockey Association.


Other sports

Headington Road Runners based at the OXSRAD sports facility in Marsh Lane, Oxford, Marsh Lane (next to Oxford City F.C.) is Oxford's only road running club with an average annual membership exceeding 300. It was the club at which double Olympic Games, Olympian Mara Yamauchi started her running career.


Religion

*Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford *St Mary's Church, Oxford, St. Mary the Virgin Church


International relations

Oxford is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: *Bonn, Germany *Grenoble, France *Leiden, Netherlands *Manizales, Colombia *León, Nicaragua, León, Nicaragua *Perm, Russia, Perm, Russia *Ramallah, State of Palestine, Palestine *Wrocław, Poland *Padua, Italy


Freedom of the City

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Oxford.


Individuals

* Vice-Admiral (Royal Navy), Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, Rt Hon Lord Nelson : 22 July 1802. * Arthur Annesley, 11th Viscount Valentia, Rt Hon Lord Valentia : 6 December 1900. * Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy), Admiral of the Fleet Reginald Tyrwhitt, Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt : 3 February 1919. * Admiral of the Fleet David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty, Rt Hon Lord Beatty : 25 June 1919. * Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, Rt Hon Lord Haig : 25 June 1919. * Michael Sadler (educationist), Sir Michael Sadler : 18 May 1931. * Benjamin R. Jones: 4 September 1942. * William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield, Rt Hon Lord Nuffield : 15 January 1951. * Robert Menzies, Rt Hon Sir Robert Menzies : 6 June 1953. * Alic Halford Smith: 10 February 1955. * Vivian Smith, 1st Baron Bicester, Rt Hon Lord Bicester: 1 March 1955. * Clement Attlee, Rt Hon Lord Attlee : 16 January 1956. * Basil Blackwell, Sir Basil Blackwell: 12 January 1970. * Olive Gibbs : 17 June 1982. * Nelson Mandela: 23 June 1997. * Aung San Suu Kyi: 15 December 1997 (Revoked by Oxford City Council on 27 November 2017). * Colin Dexter : 26 February 2001. * Professor Richard Doll, Sir Richard Doll : 16 September 2002. * Roger Bannister, Sir Roger Bannister : 12 May 2004. * Philip Pullman, Sir Philip Pullman : 24 January 2007. * Professor Christopher Brown (museum director), Christopher Brown : 2 July 2014. * Benny Wenda: 17 July 2019.


Military units

* Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry: 1 October 1945. * 1st Green Jackets (43rd and 52nd): 7 November 1958. * Royal Green Jackets: 1 January 1966. * The Rifles: 1 February 2007.


See also

* Bishop of Oxford * Earl of Oxford * List of attractions in Oxford * List of Oxford architects * Mayors of Oxford * Oxfam * Oxford bags * The Oxfordian (stage), Oxfordian Age – a subdivision of the Jurassic Period named for Oxford


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * * * * * * * *


External links

*
Oxford City Council official website

Thames Valley Guide – Oxford
{{Authority control Oxford, Cities in South East England County towns in England History of Oxford, *Oxford Local authorities adjoining the River Thames Local government in Oxfordshire Populated places established in the 8th century Tourism in Oxford, *Oxford Non-metropolitan districts of Oxfordshire 8th-century establishments in England Towns in Oxfordshire Oxfordian (stage),