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Modern Hebrew, also known as Israeli Hebrew ( he, עברית חדשה, ''ʿivrít ḥadašá ', , '' lit.'' "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew ( ), is the standard form of the
Hebrew language Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the only Canaanite language still spoken and the only tru ...
spoken today. Spoken since ancient times,
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the only Canaanite language still spoken and the only tru ...
, a member of the Canaanite branch of the
Semitic language family
Semitic language family
, was supplanted as the
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious group and a nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish ...
vernacular by the western
dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena: * One usage refers to a variety of a languag ...
of
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Imperial Aramaic: ; square script ) is a language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria, at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, and later became one of the m ...
beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is the official language of
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, '), is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Se ...
; this is the kind of Hebrew used in modernized revisions of Bible in Hebrew language. Of the Canaanite languages, Modern Hebrew is the only language spoken today. Modern Hebrew is spoken by about nine million people, counting native, fluent and non-fluent speakers. Most speakers are citizens of Israel: about five million are Israelis who speak Modern Hebrew as their native language, 1.5 million are immigrants to Israel, 1.5 million are
Arab citizens of Israel Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens who are Arab. Many Arab citizens of Israel self-identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians.See the t ...

Arab citizens of Israel
, whose first language is usually Arabic and half a million are expatriate Israelis or diaspora Jews living outside Israel. The organization that officially directs the development of the Modern Hebrew language, under the law of the State of Israel, is the
Academy of the Hebrew Language The Academy of the Hebrew Language ( he, הָאָקָדֶמְיָה לַלָּשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית, ''ha-akademya la-lashon ha-ivrit'') was established by the Israeli government in 1953 as the "supreme institution for scholarship on the ...

Academy of the Hebrew Language
.


Name

The most common scholarly term for the language is "Modern Hebrew" ( ''ʿivrít ħadašá '). Most people refer to it simply as ''Hebrew'' ( ''Ivrit'').; quote: "Most people refer to Israeli Hebrew simply as Hebrew. Hebrew is a broad term, which includes Hebrew as it was spoken and written in different periods of time and according to most of the researchers as it is spoken and written in Israel and elsewhere today. Several names have been proposed for the language spoken in Israel nowadays, Modern Hebrew is the most common one, addressing the latest spoken language variety in Israel (Berman 1978, Saenz-Badillos 1993:269, Coffin-Amir & Bolozky 2005, Schwarzwald 2009:61). The emergence of a new language in Palestine at the end of the nineteenth century was associated with debates regarding the characteristics of that language.... Not all scholars supported the term Modern Hebrew for the new language. Rosén (1977:17) rejected the term Modern Hebrew, since linguistically he claimed that 'modern' should represent a linguistic entity that should command autonomy towards everything that preceded it, while this was not the case in the new emerging language. He also rejected the term Neo-Hebrew, because the prefix 'neo' had been previously used for Mishnaic and Medieval Hebrew (Rosén 1977:15–16), additionally, he rejected the term Spoken Hebrew as one of the possible proposals (Rosén 1977:18). Rosén supported the term Israeli Hebrew as in his opinion it represented the non-chronological nature of Hebrew, as well as its territorial independence (Rosén 1977:18). Rosén then adopted the term Contemporary Hebrew from Téne (1968) for its neutrality, and suggested the broadening of this term to Contemporary Israeli Hebrew (Rosén 1977:19)" The term "Modern Hebrew" has been described as "somewhat problematic"; quote: The language with which we are concerned in this contribution is also known by the names Contemporary Hebrew and Modern Hebrew, both somewhat problematic terms as they rely on the notion of an unambiguous periodization separating Classical or Biblical Hebrew from the present-day language. We follow instead the now widely-used label coined by Rosén (1955), Israeli Hebrew, to denote the link between the emergence of a Hebrew vernacular and the emergence of an Israeli national identity in Israel/Palestine in the early twentieth century." as it implies unambiguous
periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Institute for the Study of the Ancient Wo ...
from
Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a language in the Canaanite branch of Semitic languages, spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly wes ...
. (חיים רוזן) supported the now widely used term "Israeli Hebrew" on the basis that it "represented the non-chronological nature of Hebrew". In 1999, Israeli linguist
Ghil'ad Zuckermann Ghil'ad Zuckermann ( he, גלעד צוקרמן, ; ) is an Israeli-born language revivalist and linguist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity. Zuckermann is Professor of Linguistics and Chair o ...
proposed the term "Israeli" to represent the multiple origins of the language.


Background

The history of the Hebrew language can be divided into four major periods: *
Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a language in the Canaanite branch of Semitic languages, spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly wes ...
, until about the 3rd century BCE; the language of most of the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel and Ezra ...
*
Mishnaic Hebrew Mishnaic Hebrew is a form of the Hebrew language that is found in the Talmud. The forms of the Hebrew in the Talmud can be divided into Classical Hebrew for direct quotations from the Hebrew Bible, and Mishnaic Hebrew can be further sub-divided int ...
, the language of the
Mishnah The Mishnah or Mishna (; he, מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb ''shanah'' , or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the Oral Torah. It is also the ...
and
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the T ...
*
Medieval Hebrew Medieval Hebrew was a literary and liturgical language that existed between the 4th and 19th century. It was not commonly used as a spoken language, but mainly in written form by rabbis, scholars and poets. Medieval Hebrew had many features that ...
, from about the 6th to the 13th century CE * Modern Hebrew, the language of the modern State of Israel Jewish contemporary sources describe Hebrew flourishing as a spoken language in the
kingdoms of Israel and Judah The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were two related Israelite kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Southern Levant. After an emergent and large polity was suddenly formed based on the Gibeon-Gibeah plateau and destroyed ...
, during about 1200 to 586 BCE. Scholars debate the degree to which Hebrew remained a spoken vernacular following the
Babylonian captivity The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. After the Battle of Carchemish in ...
, when
Old Aramaic Old Aramaic refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, known from the Aramaic inscriptions discovered since the 19th century. Emerging as the language of the city-states of the Arameans in the Levant in the Early Iron Age, Old Aramaic ...
became the predominant international language in the region. Hebrew died out as a vernacular language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining after the
Bar Kokhba revolt The Bar Kokhba revolt ( he, מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא, links=no; ''Mered Bar Kokhba'') was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire. Fought circa 132–136 CE, it was th ...
of 132–136 CE, which devastated the population of
Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian ''Yehūḏā''; el, Ἰουδαία, ; la, Iūdaea) is the ancient, historic, Biblical Hebrew, contemporaneous Latin, and the modern-day n ...

Judea
. After
the exile ''The eXile'' was a Moscow-based English-language biweekly free tabloid newspaper, aimed at the city's expatriate community, which combined outrageous, sometimes satirical, content with investigative reporting. In October 2006, co-editor Jake Rud ...
Hebrew became restricted to
liturgical Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a communal response to and participation in the sacred through activities reflecting praise, thanksgiving, remembrance, supplicat ...
use.


Revival

Hebrew had been spoken at various times and for a number of purposes throughout the Diaspora, and during the
Old Yishuv The Old Yishuv ( he, היישוב הישן, ''haYishuv haYashan'') were the Jewish communities of the southern Syrian provinces in the Ottoman period, up to the onset of Zionist aliyah and the consolidation of the New Yishuv by the end of World War ...
it had developed into a spoken
lingua franca A lingua franca is a language used for communication between speakers of different languages. Lingua Franca or lingua franca may also refer to: * Mediterranean Lingua Franca, the lingua franca of the Mediterranean Basin for which the term is orig ...
among the Jews of Palestine.
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda Eliezer Ben‑Yehuda ( he, אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֵּן־יְהוּדָה‬}; ; born Eliezer Yitzhak Perlman, 7 January 1858 – 16 December 1922) was a Hebrew lexicographer and newspaper editor. He was the driving force behind the revival of th ...
then led a
revival of the Hebrew language The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Palestine toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used ...
as a mother tongue in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modern Hebrew used Biblical Hebrew
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language. A morpheme is not necessarily the same as a word. The main difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme sometimes does not stand alone, but a word, by definition, always st ...
s, Mishnaic spelling and grammar, and Sephardic pronunciation. Many
idioms An idiom is a phrase or expression that typically presents a figurative, non-literal meaning attached to the phrase; but some phrases become figurative idioms while retaining the literal meaning of the phrase. Categorized as formulaic language, an ...
and
calque In linguistics, a calque () or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal word-for-word or root-for-root translation. When used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while ...
s were made from
Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a High German–derived language historically spoken by Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community wit ...

Yiddish
. Its acceptance by the early Jewish immigrants to
Ottoman Palestine Ottoman Syria refers to divisions of the Ottoman Empire within the region of Syria, usually defined as being east of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the Euphrates River, north of the Arabian Desert and south of the Taurus Mountains. Ottoman Syria ...
was caused primarily by support from the organisations of
Edmond James de Rothschild Baron Abraham Edmond Benjamin James de Rothschild (19 August 1845 – 2 November 1934) was a French member of the Rothschild banking family. A strong supporter of Zionism, his large donations lent significant support to the movement during its ea ...

Edmond James de Rothschild
in the 1880s and the official status it received in the 1922 constitution of the
British Mandate for Palestine The Mandate for Palestine was a League of Nations mandate for British administration of the territories of Palestine and Transjordan, both of which had been conceded by the Ottoman Empire following the end of World War I in 1918. The mandate w ...
. Ben-Yehuda codified and planned Modern Hebrew using 8,000 words from the Bible and 20,000 words from rabbinical commentaries. Many new words were borrowed from Arabic, due to the language's common semitic roots with Hebrew, but changed to fit Hebrew phonology and grammar, for example the words ''gerev'' (sing.) / ''garbayim'' (pl.) are now applied to "socks," a diminutive of the Arabic ''ğuwārib'' ("socks"). In addition, early Jewish immigrants, borrowing from the local Arabs, and later immigrants from Arab lands introduced many loanwords from Arabic (such as '' na'ana'', ''
zaatar Za'atar ( ar, زَعْتَر, ) is a culinary herb or family of herbs. It is also the name of a spice mixture that includes the herb along with toasted sesame seeds, dried sumac, often salt, as well as other spices. As a family of related Middl ...
'', '''', '''', '' ḥilba'', '' lubiya'', ''
hummus Hummus (, ; ar, حُمُّص, 'chickpeas'; full Arabic name: ''ḥummuṣ bi-ṭ-ṭaḥīna'' ar, حمص بالطحينة, 'chickpeas with tahini') is a Middle Eastern dip, spread, or savory dish made from cooked, mashed chickpeas blended wit ...
'', ''
gezer Gezer, or Tel Gezer ( he, גֶּזֶר), in ar, تل الجزر – Tell Jezar or Tell el-Jezari, the site of the abandoned Arab village of Abu Shusheh, is an archaeological site in the foothills of the Judaean Mountains at the border of the Shfela ...
'', '' rayḥan'', etc.), as well as much of Modern Hebrew's slang. Despite Ben-Yehuda's fame as the renewer of Hebrew, the most productive renewer of Hebrew words was poet Haim Nahman Bialik. One of the phenomena seen with the revival of the Hebrew language is that old meanings of words were occasionally changed for altogether different meanings, such as ''bardelas'' (), which in Mishnaic Hebrew meant "
hyena Hyenas, or hyaenas (from Ancient Greek , ), are feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae . With only four extant species (in three genera), it is the fifth-smallest biological family in the Carnivora and one of the smallest in the clas ...
", but in Modern Hebrew it now means "
cheetah The cheetah (''Acinonyx jubatus'') is a large cat native to Africa and central Iran. It is the fastest land animal, estimated to be capable of running at with the fastest reliably recorded speeds being , and as such has several adaptations ...
;" or ''shezīph'' () which is now used for "
plum A plum is a fruit of some species in ''Prunus'' subg. ''Prunus'.'' Mature plum fruits may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bloom". Dried plums are ...
," but formerly meant "
jujube ''Ziziphus jujuba'', commonly called jujube (; sometimes jujuba), red date, Chinese date, Chinese jujube is a species in the genus of ''Ziziphus'' (some of whose other species are also sometimes referred to as ''jujube''), in the buckthorn ...
." The word ''kishū’īm'' (formerly "cucumbers") is now applied to a variety of
summer squash 240px, 'Zephyr', a variety of straightnecked summer squash Summer squash are squashes that are harvested when immature, while the rind is still tender and edible. Nearly all summer squashes are varieties of ''Cucurbita pepo'', though not all ''Cucur ...
(Cucurbita pepo var. cylindrica), a plant native to the
New World The "New World" is a eurocultural term applied to the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, ...
. Another example is the word ''kǝvīš'' (), which now denotes a "street" or a "road," but is actually an
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Imperial Aramaic: ; square script ) is a language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria, at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, and later became one of the m ...
adjective meaning "trodden down; blazed", rather than a common noun. It was originally used to describe "a ''blazed'' trail." What is now a flower called in Modern Hebrew "kalanit" (''
Anemone coronaria ''Anemone'' () is a genus of flowering plants in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. Plants of the genus are commonly called windflowers. They are native to the temperate and subtropical regions of all continents except Australia, New Zealand and ...
'') was, formerly, called in Hebrew "''shoshanat ha-melekh''" ("the king's flower"). For a simple comparison between the Sephardic and Yemenite versions of Mishnaic Hebrew, see
Yemenite Hebrew Yemenite Hebrew ( ''ʿivrith Teymonith''), also referred to as Temani Hebrew, is the pronunciation system for Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews. Yemenite Jews brought their language to Israel through immigration. Their first organized immig ...
.


Classification

Modern Hebrew is classified as an Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language of the Semitic languages, Semitic family and the Canaanite branch of the North-West semitic subgroup.Weninger, Stefan, Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet CE Watson, Gábor Takács, Vermondo Brugnatelli, H. Ekkehard Wolff et al. ''The Semitic Languages''. An International Handbook. Berlin–Boston (2011). While Modern Hebrew is largely based on Mishnaic Hebrew, Mishnaic and Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Hebrew as well as Sephardi Hebrew, Sephardi and Ashkenazi Hebrew, Ashkenazi liturgical and literary tradition from the Medieval Hebrew, Medieval and Haskalah eras and retains its Semitic character in its morphology and in much of its syntax, the consensus among scholars is that Modern Hebrew represents a fundamentally new linguistic system, not directly continuing any previous linguistic state. Modern Hebrew is considered to be a koiné language based on historical layers of Hebrew that incorporates foreign elements, mainly those introduced during the most critical revival period between 1880 and 1920, as well as new elements created by speakers through natural linguistic evolution.Reshef, Yael. ''Revival of Hebrew: Grammatical Structure and Lexicon''. Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics. (2013). A minority of scholars argue that the revived language had been so influenced by various substrate languages that it is genealogically a hybrid with Indo-European. Those theories have not been met with general acceptance, and the consensus among a majority of scholars is that Modern Hebrew, despite its non-Semitic influences, can correctly be classified as a Semitic language.


Alphabet

Modern Hebrew is written from right to left using the Hebrew alphabet, which is an abjad, or consonant-only script of 22 letters based on the "square" letter form, known as ''Ashurit'' (Assyrian), which was developed from the Aramaic alphabet, Aramaic script. A Cursive Hebrew, cursive script is used in handwriting. When necessary, vowels are indicated by diacritic marks above or below the letters known as ''Niqqud, Nikkud'', or by use of ''Matres lectionis#Usage in Hebrew, Matres lectionis'', which are consonantal letters used as vowels. Further diacritics like Dagesh and Shin (letter)#Sin and Shin Dot, Sin and Shin dots are used to indicate variations in the pronunciation of the consonants (e.g. ''bet''/''vet'', ''shin''/''sin''). The letters "", "", "", each modified with a Geresh, represent the consonants , , . may also be written as "תש" and "טש". is represented interchangeably by a simple vav "ו", non-standard double vav "וו" and sometimes by non-standard geresh modified vav "ו׳".


Phonology

Modern Hebrew has fewer phonemes than Biblical Hebrew but it has developed its own phonological complexity. Israeli Hebrew has 25 to 27 consonants, depending on whether the speaker has pharyngeals, and 5 to 10 vowels, depending on whether diphthongs and long and short vowels are counted, depending on the speaker and the analysis. This table lists the consonant phonemes of Israeli Hebrew in International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA transcription: :1 In modern Hebrew for ח has been absorbed by that was traditionally only for fricative כ, but some (mainly older) Mizrahi speakers still separate them. :2 The glottal consonants are elided in most unstressed syllables and sometimes also in stressed syllables, but they are pronounced in careful or formal speech. In modern Hebrew, for ע has merged with (א), but some speakers (particularly older Mizrahi speakers) still separate them. :3 Commonly transcribed . This is usually pronounced as a uvular fricative or approximant or velar fricative , and sometimes as a uvular or alveolar trill or alveolar flap , depending on the background of the speaker. :4 The phonemes were introduced through borrowings. :5 The phoneme was introduced through borrowings, but it can appear in native words as a sequence of and as in . Obstruents often assimilate in voicing: voiceless obstruents () become voiced () when they appear immediately before voiced obstruents, and vice versa. Hebrew has five basic vowel phonemes: Long vowels occur unpredictably if two identical vowels were historically separated by a pharyngeal or glottal consonant, and the first was stressed. Any of the five short vowels may be realized as a schwa when it is far from lexical stress. There are two diphthongs, and . Most lexical words have lexical stress on one of the last two syllables, the last syllable being more frequent in formal speech. Loanwords may have stress on the antepenultimate syllable or even earlier.


Pronunciation

While the pronunciation of Modern Hebrew is based on Sephardi Hebrew, the pronunciation has been affected by the immigrant communities that have settled in Israel in the past century and there has been a general coalescing of speech patterns. The pharyngeal [] for the phoneme ''chet'' () of Sephardi Hebrew has merged into [] which Sephardi Hebrew only used for fricative ''chaf'' (). The pronunciation of the phoneme ''ayin'' () has merged with the pronunciation of ''aleph'' (), which is either [] or unrealized [∅] and has come to dominate Modern Hebrew, but in many variations of liturgical Sephardi Hebrew, it is [], a voiced pharyngeal fricative. The letter ''vav'' () is realized as [], which is the standard for both Ashkenazi and most variations of Sephardi Hebrew. The Jews of History of the Jews in Iraq, Iraq, History of the Jews in Syria, Aleppo, Yemen and some parts of North Africa pronounced ''vav'' as []. Yemenite Jews, during their liturgical readings in the synagogues, still use the latter, older pronunciation. The pronunciation of the letter ''resh'' () has also largely shifted from Sephardi [] to either [] or [].


Morphology

Modern Hebrew Morphology (linguistics), morphology (formation, structure, and interrelationship of words in a language) is essentially Biblical Hebrew, Biblical. Modern Hebrew showcases much of the inflectional morphology of the classical upon which it was based. In the formation of new words, all verbs and the majority of nouns and adjectives are formed by the classically Semitic devices of Semitic root, triconsonantal roots (''shoresh'') with nonconcatenative morphology, affixed patterns (''mishkal''). Mishnaic attributive patterns are often used to create nouns, and Classical patterns are often used to create adjectives. Blended words are created by merging two bound stems or parts of words.


Syntax

The syntax of Modern Hebrew is mainly Mishnaic but also shows the influence of different contact languages to which its speakers have been exposed during the revival period and over the past century.


Word order

The word order of Modern Hebrew is predominately SVO (subject–verb–object). Biblical Hebrew was originally verb–subject–object (VSO), but drifted into SVO. Modern Hebrew maintains classical syntactic properties associated with VSO languages: it is preposition and postposition, prepositional, rather than postpositional, in making case and adverbial relations, auxiliary verbs precede main verbs; main verbs precede their complements, and noun modifiers (adjectives, determiners other than the definite article , and noun adjuncts) follow the head noun; and in genitive case, genitive constructions, the possessee noun precedes the possessor. Moreover, Modern Hebrew allows and sometimes requires sentences with a predicate initial.


Lexicon

Modern Hebrew has expanded its vocabulary effectively to meet the needs of casual vernacular, of science and technology, of journalism and belles-lettres. According to
Ghil'ad Zuckermann Ghil'ad Zuckermann ( he, גלעד צוקרמן, ; ) is an Israeli-born language revivalist and linguist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity. Zuckermann is Professor of Linguistics and Chair o ...
:


Loanwords

Modern Hebrew has loanwords from Arabic (both from the local Palestinian Arabic, Levantine dialect and from the Judeo-Arabic languages, dialects of Jewish immigrants from Arab countries),
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Imperial Aramaic: ; square script ) is a language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria, at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, and later became one of the m ...
,
Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a High German–derived language historically spoken by Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community wit ...

Yiddish
, Judaeo-Spanish, German language, German, Polish language, Polish, Russian language, Russian, English language, English and other languages. Simultaneously, Israeli Hebrew makes use of words that were originally loanwords from the languages of surrounding nations from ancient times: Canaanite languages as well as Akkadian. Mishnaic Hebrew borrowed many nouns from Aramaic (including Persian words borrowed by Aramaic), as well as from Greek and to a lesser extent Latin.The Latin "familia", from which English "family" is derived, entered Mishnaic Hebrew - and thence, Modern Hebrew - as "pamalya" (פמליה) meaning "entourage". (The original Latin "familia" referred both to a prominent Roman's family and to his household in general, including the entourage of slaves and freedmen which accompanied him in public - hence, both the English and the Hebrew one are derived from the Latin meaning.) In the Middle Ages, Hebrew made heavy semantic borrowing from Arabic, especially in the fields of science and philosophy. Here are typical examples of Hebrew loanwords:


See also

*
Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a language in the Canaanite branch of Semitic languages, spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly wes ...


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

*wikt:Appendix:Modern Hebrew Swadesh list, Modern Hebrew Swadesh list
The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew - introduction
by Tel Aviv University * Hebrew Today
Should You Learn Modern Hebrew or Biblical Hebrew?


by David Steinberg

by Chaim Menachem Rabin
Academy of the Hebrew Language: How a Word is Born
{{Authority control Modern Hebrew, Canaanite languages Hebrew language, Hebrew Hebrew words and phrases Jewish languages Language revival Languages of Israel Subject–verb–object languages