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Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. He is best known for his novel ''
Don Quixote (, ;Oxford English Dictionary,Don Quixote , ) is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ont ...

Don Quixote
'', a work often cited as both the first modern
novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document A document is a written ...

novel
and one of the pinnacles of
world literature World literature is used to refer to the total of the world's national literature and the circulation of works into the wider world beyond their country of origin. In the past, it primarily referred to the masterpieces of Western European lite ...
. Much of his life was spent in poverty and obscurity, while the bulk of his surviving work was produced in the three years preceding his death, when he was supported by the
Count of Lemos Count of Lemos ( es, Conde de Lemos) is a hereditary title in the Peerage of Spain accompanied by the dignity of Grandee Grandee (; es, Grande de España, ) is an official royal and noble ranks, aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish no ...
and did not have to work. Despite this, his influence and literary contribution are reflected by the fact that Spanish is often referred to as "the language of Cervantes". In 1569, Cervantes was forced to leave Spain and moved to Rome, where he worked in the household of a
cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
. In 1570, he enlisted in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment, and was badly wounded at the
Battle of Lepanto The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic states arranged by Pope Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislie ...

Battle of Lepanto
in October 1571. He served as a soldier until 1575, when he was captured by
Barbary pirates 1650 The Barbary pirates, or Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Muslims, Muslim privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast ...
; after five years in captivity, he was ransomed, and returned to
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Madrid
. His first significant novel, titled ''
La Galatea ''La Galatea'' () was Miguel de Cervantes Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April 1616 Old Style and New Style dates, NS) was a Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language, and on ...
'', was published in 1585, but he continued to work as a purchasing agent, then later a government
tax collector A tax collector or a taxman is a person who collects unpaid taxes from other people or corporations. The term could also be applied to those who audit An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether ...
. Part One of ''Don Quixote'' was published in 1605, Part Two in 1615. Other works include the 12 '' Novelas ejemplares'' (''Exemplary Novels''); a long poem, the ''
Viaje del Parnaso Frontispiece of the 1614 edition. ''Viaje del Parnaso'' ("Journey to Parnassus") is a poetic work by Miguel de Cervantes. It was first published in 1614, two years before the author's death. Overview The chief object of the poem is to survey cont ...

Viaje del Parnaso
'' (''Journey to Parnassus''); and ''Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses'' (''Eight Plays and Eight Interludes''). ''
Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda ''Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda'' ("The Travails of Persiles and Sigismunda") is a romance or Byzantine novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, his last work and one that stands in opposition to the more famous novel ''Don Quixote'' by its ...
'' (''The Travails of Persiles and Sigismunda''), was published posthumously in 1616.


Biography

Despite his subsequent renown, much of Cervantes's life is uncertain, including his name, background and what he looked like. Although he signed himself ''Cerbantes'', his printers used ''Cervantes'', which became the common form. In later life, Cervantes used ''Saavedra'', the name of a distant relative, rather than the more usual ''Cortinas'', after his mother. But historian
Luce López-Baralt Luce López-Baralt (born 1944, San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juan (, ; "Saint John the Baptist, John") is the Capital city, capital and most-populous Municipalities of Puerto Rico, municipality in the Commonwealth (U.S. insular area), Commonwealth of ...
, claimed that it comes from the word «shaibedraa» that in crippled Arabic dialect is ''single-handed'', his nickname during his captivity. Another area of dispute is his religious background. It has been suggested that not only Cervantes's father but also his mother may have been
New Christians New Christian ( es, Cristiano Nuevo; pt, Cristão-Novo; ca, Cristià Nou) was a socio-religious designation and legal distinction in the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, Imperium Hispanicum), historically known ...
. According to Anthony Cascardi "While the family might have had some claim to nobility they often found themselves in financial straits. Moreover, they were almost certainly of converso origin, that is, converts to Catholicism of Jewish ancestry. In the Spain of Cervantes' days, this meant living under clouds of official suspicion and social mistrust, with far more limited opportunities than were enjoyed by members of the ‘Old Christian’ caste." It is generally accepted Miguel de Cervantes was born around 29 September 1547, in
Alcalá de Henares Alcalá de Henares () is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River ( ...

Alcalá de Henares
. He was the second son of
barber-surgeonImage:F A Maulbertsch Quacksalber.jpg, Franz Anton Maulbertsch, Franz Anton Maulbertsch's ''The Quack'' (c. 1785) shows barber surgeons at work. The barber surgeon, one of the most common European medicine, medical practitioners of the Middle Ages, ...
Rodrigo de Cervantes and his wife, Leonor de Cortinas (). Rodrigo came from Córdoba, Andalusia, where his father Juan de Cervantes was an influential lawyer. No authenticated portrait of the author is known to exist. The one most often associated with Cervantes is attributed to
Juan de Jáuregui Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar (; also known as Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Hurtado de la Sal) (24 November 1583 – 11 January 1641), was a Spain, Spanish poet, scholar and painter in the Spanish Golden Age, Siglo de Oro. Biography Ju ...
, but both names were added at a later date. The
El Greco Domḗnikos Theotokópoulos ( el, Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος ; 1 October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a Greeks, Greek painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissanc ...
painting in the
Museo del Prado The Prado Museum ( ; ), officially known as Museo Nacional del Prado, is the main Spanish national art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It m ...

Museo del Prado
, known as '' Retrato de un caballero desconocido'', or ''Portrait of an Unknown Gentleman'', is cited as 'possibly' depicting Cervantes, but there is no evidence for this. The portrait by
Luis de Madrazo Luis de Madrazo y Kuntz (27 February 1825 – 9 February 1897) was a Spanish painter of portraits and religious scenes from a well-known family that included his father José (a painter), and his brothers Federico (also a painter), Pedro (an ar ...
, at the
Biblioteca Nacional de España The Biblioteca Nacional de España (''National Library of Spain'') is a major public library A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is usually founded from public sources, such as taxes. It is operated by li ...

Biblioteca Nacional de España
, was painted in 1859, based on his imagination. The image that appears on Spanish euro coins of €0.10, €0.20, and €0.50 is based on a bust, created in 1905.


1547 to 1566: Early years

Rodrigo was frequently in debt, or searching for work, and moved constantly. Leonor came from
Arganda del Rey
Arganda del Rey
, and died in October 1593, at the age of 73; surviving legal documents indicate she had seven children, could read and write, and was a resourceful individual with an eye for business. When Rodrigo was imprisoned for debt from October 1553 to April 1554, she supported the family on her own. Cervantes's siblings were Andrés (born 1543), Andrea (born 1544), Luisa (born 1546), Rodrigo (born 1550), Magdalena (born 1554) and Juan. They lived in Córdoba until 1556, when his grandfather died. For reasons that are unclear, Rodrigo did not benefit from his will and the family disappears until 1564 when he filed a lawsuit in
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
. Seville was then in the midst of an economic boom, and Rodrigo managed rented accommodation for his elder brother Andres, who was a junior magistrate. It is assumed Cervantes attended the Jesuit college in Seville, where one of the teachers was Jesuit playwright Pedro Pablo Acevedo, who moved there in 1561 from Córdoba. However, legal records show his father got into debt once more, and in 1566, the family moved to
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Madrid
.


1566 to 1580: Military service and captivity

In the 19th century, a biographer discovered an arrest warrant for a Miguel de Cervantes, dated 15 September 1569, who was charged with wounding Antonio de Sigura in a duel. Although disputed at the time, largely on the grounds such behaviour was unworthy of so great an author, it is now accepted as the most likely reason for Cervantes leaving Madrid. He eventually made his way to Rome, where he found a position in the household of Giulio Acquaviva, an Italian bishop who spent 1568 to 1569 in Madrid, and was appointed
Cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
in 1570. When the 1570 to 1573 Ottoman–Venetian War began, Spain formed part of the Holy League, a coalition formed to support the
Venetian Republic The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic of Venice, italics=yes; ...
. Possibly seeing an opportunity to have his arrest warrant rescinded, Cervantes went to
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
, then part of the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
. The military commander in Naples was Alvaro de Sande, a friend of the family, who gave Cervantes a commission under the Marquis de Santa Cruz. At some point, he was joined in Naples by his younger brother Rodrigo. In September 1571, Cervantes sailed on board the ''Marquesa'', part of the Holy League fleet under Don
John of Austria John of Austria ( es, Juan, german: Johann; 24 February 1547 – 1 October 1578) was an son of . He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, , and is best known for his role as the admiral of the Holy Alliance fleet at th ...

John of Austria
, illegitimate half brother of
Phillip II of Spain Philip II ( es, Felipe II; 21 May 152713 September 1598) was King of Spain (1556–1598), King of Portugal (1580–1598, as Philip I, pt, Filipe I), King of Naples and List of monarchs of Sicily, Sicily (both from 1554), and ''jure uxoris'' Kin ...

Phillip II of Spain
; on 7 October, they defeated the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
fleet at the
Battle of Lepanto The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic states arranged by Pope Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislie ...

Battle of Lepanto
. According to his own account, although suffering from malaria, Cervantes was given command of a 12-man
skiff The term skiff is used for a number of essentially unrelated styles of small boats A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles used in water, including boats, ship A ship is a la ...

skiff
, a small boat used for assaulting enemy galleys. The ''Marquesa'' lost 40 dead, and 120 wounded, including Cervantes, who received three separate wounds, two in the chest, and another that rendered his left arm useless. His actions at Lepanto were a source of pride to the end of his life, while Don John approved no less than four separate pay increases for him. In ''
Journey to Parnassus
Journey to Parnassus
'', published two years before his death in 1616, Cervantes claimed to have "lost the movement of the left hand for the glory of the right". As with much else, the extent of his disability is unclear, the only source being Cervantes himself, while commentators cite his habitual tendency to praise himself. However, they were serious enough to earn him six months in hospital at
Messina Messina (, also , ; scn, Missina ; lat, Messana; grc, Μεσσήνη, Messḗnē) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger u ...

Messina
, Sicily. Although he returned to service in July 1572, records show his chest wounds were still not completely healed in February 1573. Based mainly in Naples, he joined expeditions to
Corfu Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek island Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group *Greek language, a branch ...

Corfu
and
NavarinoNavarino or Navarin may refer to: Battle * Battle of Navarino, 1827 naval battle off Navarino, Greece, now known as Pylos Geography * Navarino, Wisconsin, a town, United States * Navarino (community), Wisconsin, an unincorporated community, United ...

Navarino
, and took part in the 1573 occupation of
Tunis Tunis ( ar, تونس ') is the and largest city of . The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as "", has about 2,700,000 inhabitants. , it is the fourth-largest city in the region (after , and ) and the in the . Situated on ...

Tunis
and
La Goulette La Goulette (), known in Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, M ...

La Goulette
, which were recaptured by the Ottomans in 1574. Despite Lepanto, the war overall was an Ottoman victory, and the loss of Tunis a military disaster for Spain. Cervantes returned to
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ; la, Panormus, from grc, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; older ar, بَلَرْم‎, Balarm) is a city in southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), ...

Palermo
, where he was paid off by the Duke of Sessa, who gave him letters of commendation. In early September 1575, Cervantes and Rodrigo left Naples on the
galley A galley is a type of ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fis ...

galley
''Sol''; as they approached
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
on 26 September, their ship was captured by Ottoman corsairs, and the brothers taken to
Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر; Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in ...

Algiers
, to be sold as
slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved per ...
, or – as was the case of Cervantes and his brother – held for ransom, if this would be more lucrative than their sale as slaves. Rodrigo was ransomed in 1577, but his family could not afford the fee for Cervantes, who was forced to remain. Turkish historian Rasih Nuri İleri found evidence suggesting Cervantes worked on the construction of the Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex, which means he spent at least part of his captivity in
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
. By 1580, Spain was occupied with integrating
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
, and suppressing the Dutch Revolt, while the Ottomans were at war with Persia; the two sides agreed a truce, leading to an improvement of relations. After almost five years, and four escape attempts, in 1580 Cervantes was set free by the
Trinitarians The Order of the Most Holy Trinity and of the Captives ( la, Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis et captivorum), also known as the Trinitarian Order or the Trinitarians, is a Catholic religious order founded in Brumetz, Cerfroid, outside Paris, in lat ...

Trinitarians
, a religious charity that specialised in ransoming Christian captives, and returned to Madrid.


1580 to 1616: Later life and death

While Cervantes was in captivity, both Don John and the Duke of Sessa died, depriving him of two potential patrons, while the Spanish economy was in dire straits. This made finding employment difficult; other than a period in 1581 to 1582, when he was employed as an intelligence agent in North Africa, little is known of his movements prior to 1584. In April of that year, Cervantes visited
Esquivias
Esquivias
, to help arrange the affairs of his recently deceased friend and minor poet, Pedro Lainez. Here he met Catalina de Salazar y Palacios (), eldest daughter of the widowed Catalina de Palacios; her husband died leaving only debts, but the elder Catalina owned some land of her own. This may be why in December 1584, Cervantes married her daughter, then between 15 and 18 years old. The first use of the name ''Cervantes Saavedra'' appears in 1586, on documents related to his marriage. Shortly before this, his illegitimate daughter Isabel was born in November. Her mother, Ana Franca, was the wife of a Madrid inn keeper; they apparently concealed it from her husband, but Cervantes acknowledged paternity. When Ana Franca died in 1598, he asked his sister Magdalena to take care of her. In 1587, Cervantes was appointed as a government purchasing agent, then became a tax collector in 1592. They were also subject to price fluctuations, which could go either way; he was briefly jailed several times for 'irregularities', but quickly released. Several applications for positions in
Spanish America Hispanic America (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (usually known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Hispanophone, Spanish-speaking countries of Nort ...

Spanish America
were rejected, although modern critics note images of the colonies appear in his work. From 1596 to 1600, he lived primarily in Seville, then returned to Madrid in 1606, where he remained for the rest of his life. In later years, he received some financial support from the
Count of Lemos Count of Lemos ( es, Conde de Lemos) is a hereditary title in the Peerage of Spain accompanied by the dignity of Grandee Grandee (; es, Grande de España, ) is an official royal and noble ranks, aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish no ...
, although he was excluded from the retinue Lemos took to Naples when appointed
Viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A ...
in 1608. In July 1613, he joined the Third Order Franciscans, then a common way for Catholics to gain spiritual merit. It is generally accepted Cervantes died on 22 April 1616 (NS; the
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
had superseded the Julian in 1582 in Spain and some other countries); the symptoms described, including intense thirst, correspond to
diabetes Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as just diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorder A metabolic disorder is a disorder that negatively alters the body's processing and distribution of macronutrients such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrate ...

diabetes
, then untreatable. In accordance with his will, Cervantes was buried in the
Convent of the Barefoot Trinitarians A convent is either a community of priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the author ...
, in central Madrid. His remains went missing when moved during rebuilding work at the convent in 1673, and in 2014, historian Fernando de Prado launched a project to rediscover them. In January 2015, Francisco Etxeberria, the
forensic anthropologist Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification o ...
leading the search, reported the discovery of caskets containing bone fragments, and part of a board, with the letters 'M.C.'. Based on evidence of injuries suffered at Lepanto, on 17 March 2015 they were confirmed as belonging to Cervantes along with his wife and others. They were formally reburied at a public ceremony in June 2015.


Literary career and legacy

Cervantes claimed to have written over 20 plays, such as ''El trato de Argel'', based on his experiences in captivity. Such works were extremely short-lived, and even
Lope de Vega Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio ( , ; 25 November 156227 August 1635) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other p ...

Lope de Vega
, the best-known playwright of the day, could not live on their proceeds. In 1585, he published ''La Galatea'', a conventional
pastoral A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herd A herd is a social group of certain animals of the same species, either wildness, wild or Domestication, domestic. The form of collective animal behavior associated with this is called ''he ...

pastoral
romance that received little contemporary notice; despite promising to write a sequel, he never did so. Aside from these, and some poems, by 1605, Cervantes had not been published for 20 years. In ''Don Quixote'', he challenged a form of literature that had been a favourite for more than a century, explicitly stating his purpose was to undermine 'vain and empty'
chivalric romance As a literary genre of high culture, heroic romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose Prose is a form of written (or spoken) language that usually exhibits a natural speech, natural flow of speech and Syntax, grammatical structure—an ...
s. His portrayal of real life, and use of everyday speech in a literary context was considered innovative, and proved instantly popular. First published in January 1605, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza featured in masquerades held to celebrate the birth of
Philip IV
Philip IV
on 8 April. He finally achieved a degree of financial security, while its popularity led to demands for a sequel. In the foreword to his 1613 work, ''Novelas ejemplares'', dedicated to his patron, the Count of Lemos, Cervantes promises to produce one, but was pre-empted by an unauthorised version published in 1614, published under the name
Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, Ávila, Avellaneda is the pseudonym of a man who wrote a sequel to Miguel de Cervantes, Cervantes' ''Don Quixote''. The identity of Avellaneda has been the subject of many theories, but there is no consensus on who h ...
. It is possible this delay was deliberate, to ensure support from his publisher and reading public; Cervantes finally produced the second part of ''Don Quixote'' in 1615. The two parts of ''Don Quixote'' are different in focus, but similar in their clarity of prose, and realism; the first was more comic, and had greater popular appeal. The second part is often considered more sophisticated and complex, with a greater depth of characterisation and philosophical insight. In addition to this, he produced a series of works between 1613 and his death in 1616. They include a collection of tales titled ''Exemplary Novels''. This was followed by ''Viaje del Parnaso'', or ''Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes'', and ''
Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda ''Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda'' ("The Travails of Persiles and Sigismunda") is a romance or Byzantine novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, his last work and one that stands in opposition to the more famous novel ''Don Quixote'' by its ...
'', completed just before his death, and published posthumously in January 1617. He was rediscovered by English writers in the mid-18th century; literary editor John Bowle argued Cervantes was as significant as any of the Greek and Roman authors then popular, and published an annotated edition in 1781. Now viewed as a significant work, at the time it proved a failure. However, ''Don Quixote'' has been translated into all major languages, in 700 editions. Mexican author
Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (; ; November 11, 1928 – May 15, 2012) was a Mexican novelist and essayist. Among his works are ''The Death of Artemio Cruz'' (1962), ''Aura (Fuentes), Aura'' (1962), ''Terra Nostra (novel), Terra Nostra'' (1975), ''The O ...

Carlos Fuentes
suggested Cervantes and his contemporary
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

William Shakespeare
form part of a narrative tradition, which includes
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
,
Dante Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to Mononymous person, simply as Dante (, also ; – 14 September 1321), was an Italian Italian poetry, poet, writer and philosopher. His ''Divine Co ...

Dante
,
Defoe
Defoe
,
Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Dickens
,
Balzac
Balzac
, and
JoyceJoyce may refer to: People * Joyce (name), list of people and fictional characters with the given name or surname *Joyce (singer), Joyce, (born 1948), Brazilian singer-songwriter * James Joyce (1882–1941), Irish modernist writer Places * Joyce, W ...
.
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine M ...

Sigmund Freud
claimed he learnt Spanish to read Cervantes in the original; he particularly admired ''
The Dialogue of the Dogs "The Dialogue of the Dogs" ("El coloquio de los perros"; also "The Conversation of the Dogs" or "Dialogue between Cipión and Berganza") is a short story originating from the fantasy world of Ensign Campuzano, a character from another short story, ...
'' (''El coloquio de los perros''), from ''Exemplary Tales''. Two dogs, Cipión and Berganza, share their stories; as one talks, the other listens, occasionally making comments. From 1871 to 1881, Freud and his close friend, Eduard Silberstein, wrote letters to each other, using the pennames Cipión and Berganza. The tricentennial of ''Don Quixote'' publication in 1905 was marked with celebrations in Spain; the 400th anniversary of his death in 2016, saw the production of ''Cervantina'', a celebration of his plays by the Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico in Madrid. The Miguel de Cervantes Virtual Library, the largest
digital archive An archive is an accumulation of historical records – in any media – or the physical facility in which they are located. Archives contain primary source In the study of history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece An ...
of Spanish-language historical and literary works in the world, is named after the author. Cervantes influenced the popular musical play of 1965, ''
Man of La Mancha ''Man of La Mancha'' is a 1965 musical with a book by Dale Wasserman, music by Mitch Leigh, and lyrics by Joe Darion. It is adapted from Wasserman's non-musical 1959 teleplay ''I, Don Quixote'', which was in turn inspired by Miguel de Cervante ...
''. The musical the song included "The Impossible Dream", which captured Cervantes' philosophy.


Bibliography

As listed in ''Complete Works of Miguel de Cervantes'': * ''
La Galatea ''La Galatea'' () was Miguel de Cervantes Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April 1616 Old Style and New Style dates, NS) was a Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language, and on ...
'' (1585); * ''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha'' (1605): First volume of ''
Don Quixote (, ;Oxford English Dictionary,Don Quixote , ) is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ont ...

Don Quixote
''. * '' Novelas ejemplares'' (1613): a collection of 12 short stories of varied types about the social, political, and historical problems of Cervantes's Spain: ** " La gitanilla" ("The Gypsy Girl") ** "El amante liberal" ("The Generous Lover") ** "
Rinconete y Cortadillo "Rinconete y Cortadillo" (or "Novela de Rinconete y Cortadillo") is one of the twelve short stories included in '' Novelas Ejemplares'', by Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April ...
" ("Rinconete & Cortadillo") ** "La española inglesa" ("The English Spanish Lady") ** " El licenciado Vidriera" ("The Lawyer of Glass") ** "La fuerza de la sangre" ("The Power of Blood") ** " El celoso extremeño" ("The Jealous Man From Extremadura") ** " La ilustre fregona" ("The Illustrious Kitchen-Maid") ** "Novela de las dos doncellas" ("The Novel of the Two Damsels") ** "Novela de la señora Cornelia" ("The Novel of Lady Cornelia") ** "Novela del casamiento engañoso" ("The Novel of the Deceitful Marriage") ** " El coloquio de los perros" ("The Dialogue of the Dogs") * ''Segunda Parte del Ingenioso Cavallero
ic
ic
Don Quixote de la Mancha'' (1615): Second volume of ''
Don Quixote (, ;Oxford English Dictionary,Don Quixote , ) is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ont ...

Don Quixote
''. * ''
Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda ''Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda'' ("The Travails of Persiles and Sigismunda") is a romance or Byzantine novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, his last work and one that stands in opposition to the more famous novel ''Don Quixote'' by its ...
'' (1617).


Other works

Generally considered a mediocre poet, few of his poems survive; some appear in ''
La Galatea ''La Galatea'' () was Miguel de Cervantes Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April 1616 Old Style and New Style dates, NS) was a Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language, and on ...
'', while he also wrote ''Dos Canciones à la Armada Invencible''. His
sonnets A sonnet is a poetic form Poetry (derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located ...
are considered his best work, particularly ''Al Túmulo del Rey Felipe en Sevilla'', ''Canto de Calíope'' and ''Epístola a Mateo Vázquez''. ''
Viaje del Parnaso Frontispiece of the 1614 edition. ''Viaje del Parnaso'' ("Journey to Parnassus") is a poetic work by Miguel de Cervantes. It was first published in 1614, two years before the author's death. Overview The chief object of the poem is to survey cont ...

Viaje del Parnaso
'', or ''Journey to Parnassus'', is his most ambitious verse work, an
allegory As a literary device A narrative technique (known for literary fiction Literary fiction is a term used in the book-trade to distinguish novels that are regarded as having literary merit, from most commercial or "genre" fiction. However, the b ...

allegory
that consists largely of reviews of contemporary poets. He published a number of dramatic works, including ten extant full-length plays: * ''Trato de Argel''; based on his own experiences, deals with the life of Christian slaves in Algiers; * ''
La Numancia ''The Siege of Numantia'' () is a tragedy Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a form of drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: ...
''; intended as a patriotic work, dramatization of the long and brutal siege of
Numantia Numantia ( es, Numancia) was an ancient Celtiberian settlement, whose remains are located 7 km north of the city of Soria Soria () is a municipality and a Spanish city, located on the Douro river in the east of the autonomous community ...
, by
Scipio Aemilianus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus (185–129 BC), known as Scipio Aemilianus or Scipio Africanus the Younger, was a Roman general and statesman noted for his military exploits in the Third Punic War The Third Punic War (149 ...
, completing the transformation of the
Iberian peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian peninsula
into the Roman province
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
, or España. * ''El gallardo español'', * ''Los baños de Argel'', * ''La gran sultana, Doña Catalina de Oviedo'', * ''La casa de los celos'', * ''El laberinto de amor'', * ''La entretenida'', * ''El rufián dichoso'', * ''Pedro de Urdemalas'', a sensitive play about a ''picaro'', who joins a group of Gypsies for love of a girl. He also wrote 8 short farces (
''entremeses''
''entremeses''
): * ''El juez de los divorcios'', * ''El rufián viudo llamado Trampagos'', * ''La elección de los Alcaldes de Daganzo'', * ''La guarda cuidadosa'' (The Vigilant Sentinel), * ''El vizcaíno fingido'', * ''El retablo de las maravillas'', * '' La cueva de Salamanca'', * ''El viejo celoso'' (The Jealous Old Man). These plays and entremeses, except for ''Trato de Argel'' and ''La Numancia'', made up ''Ocho Comedias y ocho entreméses nuevos, nunca representados'' (''Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes, Never Before Performed''), which appeared in 1615. The dates and order of composition of Cervantes's entremeses are unknown. Faithful to the spirit of Lope de Rueda, Cervantes endowed them with novelistic elements, such as simplified plot, the type of descriptions normally associated with a novel, and character development. Cervantes included some of his dramas among the works he was most satisfied with.


Influence


Places

* Cervantes, Lugo, Cervantes. A municipality in the province of Lugo, Galicia, Spain, but the name of the town is not based on Miguel de Cervantes (nor is there any evidence tying him or his family to this town). * Cervantes, Ilocos Sur, Cervantes. A Municipalities of the Philippines, municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. * Cervantes, Western Australia, Cervantes. A township situated north of the Western Australian state capital Perth in Australia.


Television

* Cervantes is a recurring character in the Spanish television show ''El ministerio del tiempo'', portrayed by actor :es:Pere Ponce, Pere Ponce. * Cervantes played a prominent role in the episode "Gentlemen of Spain" of the TV series ''Sir Francis Drake (TV series), Sir Francis Drake'' (1961–1962). He was portrayed by the actor Nigel Davenport and the plot had him heroically rescuing other Christian captives from the Barbary pirates.


See also

* Casa de Cervantes * Instituto Cervantes * Miguel de Cervantes European University * Miguel de Cervantes Health Care Centre * Miguel de Cervantes Liceum * ''Miguel de Cervantes Memorial'' * Miguel de Cervantes University


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* ''Cervantes: A Collection of Critical Essays'', ed. Lowry Nelson, 1969. * ''Critical Essays on Cervantes'' / ed. Ruth S. El Saffar, 1986. * ''Scenes from World Literature and Portraits of Greatest Authors'', Manuel Vázquez Montalbán and Willi Glasauer, Círculo de Lectores, 1988. * ''Cervantes's Don Quixote (Modern Critical Interpretations)'', ed. Harold Bloom, 2001. * ''The Cambridge Companion to Cervantes'', ed. Anthony J. Cascardi, 2002. * ''Miguel de Cervantes (Modern Critical Views)'', ed. Harold Bloom, 2005. * ''Cervantes' Don Quixote: A Casebook'', ed. Roberto González Echevarría, 2005. * ''Le Barbaresque'', Olivier Weber, Groupe Flammarion, Flammarion, 2011. * Pérez, Rolando.
What is Don Quijote/Don Quixote And…And…And the Disjunctive Synthesis of Cervantes and Kathy Acker.
''Cervantes ilimitado: cuatrocientos años del Quijote''. Ed. Nuria Morgado. ALDEEU, 2016. 75–100.
Pérez, Rolando. Cervantes’s “Republic”: On Representation, Imitation, and Unreason. eHumanista 47. 2021-: 89-111. x


External links

* * * * * * *
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish web site with multiple Cervantes links and audio of whole of Don Quixote



with biographies and chronology
Information about Miguel de Cervantes

Cervantine Collection of the Biblioteca de Catalunya


The Cervantes Project. Jean Canavaggio, Canavaggio, Jean.
Cervantes's Birthplace Museum


From the Rare Book and Special Collection Division at the Library of Congress
Cervantes's short biography in Spanish

Cervantes chatbot in Spanish
{{DEFAULTSORT:Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel De Miguel de Cervantes, 1547 births 1616 deaths 16th-century dramatists and playwrights 16th-century male writers 16th-century Spanish novelists 16th-century Spanish poets 16th-century Spanish writers 17th-century male writers 17th-century Spanish dramatists and playwrights 17th-century Spanish novelists 17th-century Spanish poets 17th-century Spanish writers Accountants Barbary pirates Baroque writers Burials in Madrid Deaths from diabetes History of Algiers History of literature History of poetry History of theatre People from Alcalá de Henares Ransom Roman Catholic writers Spanish Golden Age Spanish male dramatists and playwrights Spanish male novelists Spanish male poets Spanish novelists Spanish people with disabilities Spanish Roman Catholics Spanish naval personnel Tax collectors Spanish duellists Spanish Catholic poets 16th century in Algiers