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Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a in . Established in 1861, MIT has since played a key role in the development of modern technology and science, ranking it among the top in the world. Founded in response to the increasing , MIT adopted a European and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and . The institute has an that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the , and encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the , the Bates Center, and the , as well as affiliated laboratories such as the and s. , , 26 winners, and 8 have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 recipients, 29 recipients, 50 , 80 , 41 s, 16 , and have been affiliated with MIT. The institute also has a strong and MIT alumni have founded or co-founded . MIT is a member of the (AAU).


History


Foundation and vision

In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the to use newly filled lands in , Boston for a "", but the proposal failed. A charter for the of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by , was signed by , the , on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a graduate of and professor at , wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances. He did not wish to found a , but a combination with elements of both professional and ,Lewis 1949, p. 8. proposing that:
The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the , emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.


Early developments

Two days after MIT was chartered, the of the broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865. The new institute was founded as part of the to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the , which developed as the . In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech". The institute adopted the and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President . Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science. The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed president (and former MIT faculty) 's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's . There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually, the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge ''Bucentaur'' built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of on a tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River. The "New Technology" campus was designed by and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist of , who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded . Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million ($ million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.


Curricular reforms

In the 1930s, President and Vice-President (effectively ) emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios. The Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering".Lewis 1949, p. 13. Unlike schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on than on or for its funding. The school was elected to the in 1934. Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at MIT that "the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school", a "partly unjustified" perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities.Bourzac, Katherine
"Rethinking an MIT Education: The faculty reconsiders the General Institute Requirements"
', Monday, March 12, 2007
The and the were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of and . Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more presidents and between 1966 and 1980.


Defense research

MIT's involvement in surged during . In 1941, was appointed head of the federal and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT. Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at MIT's , established in 1940 to assist the in developing . The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area. Other defense projects included -based and other complex s for , , and under 's ; the development of a for flight simulations under ; and and photography under . By the end of the war, MIT became the nation's largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush), employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone and receiving in excess of $100 million ($ billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946. Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war at MIT included and guidance systems for s and . These activities affected MIT profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of "any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute" to match the return to peacetime, remembering the "academic tranquility of the prewar years", though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities. The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of , president of MIT between 1930 and 1948; , president from 1948 to 1957; and , chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, MIT no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government. In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the and MIT's defense research. In this period MIT's various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam as well as guidance systems for nuclear missiles. The was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems. MIT ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the facility in 1973 in response to the protests. The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities. Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to "greater strength and unity" after these times of turmoil. However six MIT students were sentenced to prison terms at this time and some former student leaders, such as and , are still indignant about MIT's role in military research and its suppression of these protests. ('s film, ''November Actions'', records some of these tumultuous events.) In the 1980s, there was more controversy at MIT over its involvement in SDI (space weaponry) and CBW (chemical and biological warfare) research. More recently, MIT's research for the military has included work on robots, drones and 'battle suits'.


Recent history

MIT has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and technologies, students, staff, and faculty members at , the , and the wrote some of the earliest interactive s like ' and created much of modern and culture. Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: 's and the subsequent were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the was founded in 1985 by and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology; the was founded at the in 1994 by ; the project has made course materials for over 2,000 MIT classes available online free of charge since 2002; and the initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005. MIT was named a in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs. Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the ; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into , , , , and ; and a number of new "backlot" buildings on Vassar Street including the . Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School's eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest. In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing . In 2001, inspired by the and s, MIT launched to make the lecture notes, s, syllabi, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed. While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high, OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages. In 2011, MIT announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its "MITx" program, for a modest fee. The "" online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with and its analogous "Harvardx" initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content. In March 2009 the MIT faculty adopted an to make its scholarship online. MIT has its own police force. Three days after the of April 2013, patrol officer was fatally shot by the suspects and , setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day. One week later, Collier's memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the MIT community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada. On November 25, 2013, MIT announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to "an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of the MIT community and in all aspects of his life". The announcement further stated that "Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness". In September 2017, the school announced the creation of an research lab called the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. will spend $240 million over the next decade, and the lab will be staffed by MIT and IBM scientists. In October 2018 MIT announced that it would open a new dedicated to the study of artificial intelligence, named after lead donor and CEO . The focus of the new college is to study not just AI, but interdisciplinary AI education, and how AI can be used in fields as diverse as history and biology. The cost of buildings and new faculty for the new college is expected to be $1 billion upon completion. The (LIGO) was designed and constructed by a team of scientists from , MIT, and industrial contractors, and funded by the . It was designed to open the field of through the detection of s predicted by . Gravitational waves were by the LIGO detector in 2015. For contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves, two Caltech physicists, and , and MIT physicist won the in 2017. Weiss, who is also an MIT graduate, designed the laser interferometric technique, which served as the essential blueprint for the LIGO. In 2021, MIT researchers in the field of Computer Science and developed an AI system that makes robots better at handling objects. The simulated, anthropomorphic hand created could manipulate more than 2,000 objects. And the system didn’t need to know what it was about to pick up to find a way to move it around in its hand.


Campus

MIT's campus in the city of spans approximately a mile along the north side of the basin. The campus is divided roughly in half by , with most dormitories and student life facilities to the west and most academic buildings to the east. The bridge closest to MIT is the , which is known for being marked off in a – the . The station is located on the northeastern edge of the campus, in . The Cambridge neighborhoods surrounding MIT are a mixture of high tech companies occupying both modern office and rehabilitated industrial buildings, as well as socio-economically diverse residential neighborhoods. In early 2016, MIT presented its updated Kendall Square Initiative to the City of Cambridge, with plans for mixed-use educational, retail, residential, startup incubator, and office space in a dense high-rise plan. The will eventually be moved immediately adjacent to a Kendall Square subway entrance, joining the on the eastern end of the campus. Each building at MIT (possibly preceded by a ''W'', ''N'', ''E'', or ''NW'') designation, and most have a name as well. Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to primarily by number while residence halls are referred to by name. The organization of building numbers roughly corresponds to the order in which the buildings were built and their location relative (north, west, and east) to the original center cluster of Maclaurin buildings. Many of the buildings are connected above ground as well as through an extensive network of tunnels, providing protection from the Cambridge weather as well as a venue for . is one of the most powerful university-based s in the United States. The prominence of the reactor's containment building in a densely populated area has been controversial, but MIT maintains that it is well-secured. In 1999 donated US$20 million to MIT for the construction of a computer laboratory named the "William H. Gates Building", and designed by architect . While Microsoft had previously given financial support to the institution, this was the first personal donation received from Gates. MIT Nano, also known as Building 12, is an interdisciplinary facility for nanoscale research. Its and research space, visible through expansive glass facades, is the largest research facility of its kind in the nation. With a cost of US$400 million, it is also one of the costliest buildings on campus. The facility also provides state-of-the-art nanoimaging capabilities with vibration damped imaging and metrology suites sitting atop a slab of concrete underground. Other notable campus facilities include a pressurized for testing research, a for testing ship and ocean structure designs, and previously , which was the largest fusion device operated by any university. MIT's campus-wide wireless network was completed in the fall of 2005 and consists of nearly 3,000 access points covering of campus. In 2001, the sued MIT for violating the and the with regard to its storage and disposal procedures. MIT settled the suit by paying a $155,000 fine and launching three environmental projects. In connection with capital campaigns to expand the campus, the Institute has also extensively renovated existing buildings to improve their energy efficiency. MIT has also taken steps to reduce its environmental impact by running campus shuttles, subsidizing , and building a low-emission plant that serves most of the campus electricity, heating, and cooling requirements. MIT has substantial holdings in Cambridge on which it pays es, plus an additional voluntary (PILOT) on academic buildings which are legally tax-exempt. , it is the largest taxpayer in the city, contributing approximately 14% of the city's annual revenues. Holdings include , parts of , and many properties in and neighboring the educational buildings. The land is held for investment purposes and potential long-term expansion.


Architecture

, now the School of Architecture and Planning, was the first formal architecture program in the United States, and it has a history of commissioning progressive buildings. The first buildings constructed on the Cambridge campus, completed in 1916, are sometimes called the "Maclaurin buildings" after Institute president who oversaw their construction. Designed by , these imposing buildings were built of , a first for a non-industrial – much less university – building in the US. Bosworth's design was influenced by the of the early 1900s and features the -esque Great Dome housing the Barker Engineering Library. The Great Dome overlooks Killian Court, where ceremonies are held each year. The friezes of the limestone-clad buildings around Killian Court are engraved with the names of important scientists and philosophers. The spacious Building 7 atrium at is regarded as the entrance to the and the rest of the campus. 's Baker House (1947), 's and (1955), and 's , Dreyfus, Landau, and buildings represent high forms of post-war . More recent buildings like 's (2004), 's (2002), 's Building 46 (2005), and 's Media Lab Extension (2009) stand out among the Boston area's classical architecture and serve as examples of contemporary campus "starchitecture". These buildings have not always been well received; in 2010, ' included MIT in a list of twenty schools whose campuses are "tiny, unsightly, or both".


Housing

Undergraduates are guaranteed four-year housing in one of MIT's 11 undergraduate dormitories. Out of the 11 dormitories, 10 are currently active due to one of the residential halls, Burton Conner, undergoing renovation from 2020 to 2022. Those living on campus can receive support and mentoring from live-in graduate student tutors, resident advisors, and faculty housemasters. Because housing assignments are made based on the preferences of the students themselves, diverse social atmospheres can be sustained in different living groups; for example, according to the ''Yale Daily News'' staff's ''The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010'', "The split between East Campus and West Campus is a significant characteristic of MIT. East Campus has gained a reputation as a thriving counterculture." MIT also has 5 dormitories for single graduate students and 2 apartment buildings on campus for married student families. MIT has an active Greek and system, including thirty-six , , and independent living groups (s). , 98% of all undergraduates lived in MIT-affiliated housing; 54% of the men participated in fraternities and 20% of the women were involved in sororities. Most FSILGs are located across the river in near where MIT was founded, and there is also a cluster of fraternities on MIT's West Campus that face the Charles River Basin. After the 1997 alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger, a new pledge at the fraternity, MIT required all freshmen to live in the dormitory system starting in 2002. Because FSILGs had previously housed as many as 300 freshmen off-campus, the new policy could not be implemented until opened in that year. In 2013–2014, MIT abruptly closed and then demolished undergrad dorm Bexley Hall, citing extensive water damage that made repairs infeasible. In 2017, MIT shut down Senior House after a century of service as an undergrad dorm. That year, MIT administrators released data showing just 60% of Senior House residents had graduated in four years. Campus-wide, the four-year graduation rate is 84% (the cumulative graduation rate is significantly higher).


Organization and administration

MIT is chartered as a non-profit organization and is owned and governed by a privately appointed known as the MIT Corporation. The current board consists of 43 members elected to five-year terms, 25 life members who vote until their 75th birthday, 3 elected officers (President, Treasurer, and Secretary), and 4 ' members (the president of the alumni association, the , the Massachusetts Secretary of Education, and the Chief Justice of the ). The board is chaired by Diane Greene SM ’78, co-founded and former CEO of VMware and former CEO of Google Cloud. The Corporation approves the budget, new programs, degrees and faculty appointments, and elects the President to serve as the chief executive officer of the university and preside over the Institute's faculty. MIT's and are managed through a subsidiary called MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo). Valued at $16.4 billion in 2018, MIT's endowment was then the . MIT has five schools (, , , , and ) and one college (), but no schools of law or medicine. While faculty committees assert substantial control over many areas of MIT's curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs, the chair of each of MIT's 32 academic departments reports to the dean of that department's school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President. The current president is , who formerly served as provost under President , the first woman to hold the post.


Academics

MIT is a large, highly residential, research university with a majority of enrollments in graduate and professional programs. The university has been by the since 1929. MIT operates on a with the fall semester beginning after and ending in mid-December, a 4-week "Independent Activities Period" in the month of January, and the spring semester commencing in early February and ceasing in late May. MIT students refer to both their majors and classes using numbers or acronyms alone. Departments and their corresponding majors are numbered in the approximate order of their foundation; for example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is , while Linguistics and Philosophy is . Students majoring in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), the most popular department, collectively identify themselves as "Course 6". MIT students use a combination of the department's course number and the number assigned to the class to identify their subjects; for instance, the introductory calculus-based course is simply "8.01" at MIT.


Undergraduate program

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program maintains a balance between professional majors and those in the arts and sciences, and has been dubbed "most selective" by ', admitting few transfer students and 4.1% of its applicants in the 2020–2021 admissions cycle. MIT offers 44 undergraduate degrees across its five schools. In the 2017–2018 academic year, 1,045 bachelor of science degrees (abbreviated "") were granted, the only type of undergraduate degree MIT now awards. In the 2011 fall term, among students who had designated a major, the School of Engineering was the most popular division, enrolling 63% of students in its 19 degree programs, followed by the School of Science (29%), School of Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences (3.7%), Sloan School of Management (3.3%), and School of Architecture and Planning (2%). The largest undergraduate degree programs were in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (), Computer Science and Engineering (), Mechanical Engineering (), Physics (), and Mathematics (). All undergraduates are required to complete a core curriculum called the General Institute Requirements (GIRs). The Science Requirement, generally completed during freshman year as prerequisites for classes in science and engineering majors, comprises two semesters of physics, two semesters of calculus, one semester of chemistry, and one semester of biology. There is a Laboratory Requirement, usually satisfied by an appropriate class in a course major. The Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) Requirement consists of eight semesters of classes in the humanities, arts, and social sciences, including at least one semester from each division as well as the courses required for a designated concentration in a HASS division. Under the Communication Requirement, two of the HASS classes, plus two of the classes taken in the designated major must be "communication-intensive", including "substantial instruction and practice in oral presentation". Finally, all students are required to complete a test; non-varsity athletes must also take four quarters of classes. Most classes rely on a combination of lectures, recitations led by associate professors or graduate students, weekly problem sets ("p-sets"), and periodic quizzes or tests. While the pace and difficulty of MIT coursework has been compared to "drinking from a fire hose", the freshmen retention rate at MIT is similar to other research universities. The "pass/no-record" grading system relieves some pressure for first-year undergraduates. For each class taken in the fall term, freshmen transcripts will either report only that the class was passed, or otherwise not have any record of it. In the spring term, passing grades (A, B, C) appear on the transcript while non-passing grades are again not recorded. (Grading had previously been "pass/no record" all freshman year, but was amended for the Class of 2006 to prevent students from by completing required major classes in their freshman year.) Also, freshmen may choose to join alternative learning communities, such as , , or Terrascope. In 1969, founded the (UROP) to enable undergraduates to collaborate directly with faculty members and researchers. Students join or initiate research projects ("UROPs") for academic credit, pay, or on a volunteer basis through postings on the UROP website or by contacting faculty members directly. A substantial majority of undergraduates participate. Students often become , file s, and/or launch based upon their experience in UROPs. In 1970, the then-Dean of Institute Relations, Benson R. Snyder, published '','' arguing that education at MIT was often slighted in favor of following a set of unwritten expectations and that graduating with good grades was more often the product of figuring out the system rather than a solid education. The successful student, according to Snyder, was the one who was able to discern which of the formal requirements were to be ignored in favor of which unstated norms. For example, organized student groups had compiled ""—collections of problem-set and examination questions and answers for later students to use as references. This sort of gamesmanship, Snyder argued, hindered development of a creative intellect and contributed to student discontent and unrest.


Graduate program

MIT's graduate program has high coexistence with the undergraduate program, and many courses are taken by qualified students at both levels. MIT offers a comprehensive doctoral program with degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and as well as professional degrees. The Institute offers graduate programs leading to academic degrees such as the Master of Science (which is abbreviated as SM at MIT), various Engineer's Degrees, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and Doctor of Science (ScD) and interdisciplinary graduate programs such as the (with ) and a joint program in with . Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. More than 90% of doctoral students are supported by fellowships, research assistantships (RAs), or teaching assistantships (TAs).


MIT Bootcamps

MIT Bootcamps are intense week-long innovation and leadership programs that challenge participants to develop a venture in a week. Each Bootcamp centers around a particular topic, specific to an industry, leadership skill set, or emerging technology. Cohorts are organized into small teams who work on an entrepreneurial project together, in addition to individual learning and team coaching. The program includes a series of online seminars with MIT faculty, practitioners, and industry experts, innovation workshops with bootcamp instructors focused on putting the theory participants have learned into practice, coaching sessions, and informal office hours for learners to exchange ideas freely. Bootcampers are tasked with weekly "deliverables," which are key elements of a business plan, to help guide the group through the decision-making process involved in building an enterprise. The experience culminates in a final pitch session, judged by a panel of experts. MIT Bootcamp instructors include , , , and . MIT Bootcamps were founded by .


Rankings

MIT also places among the top five in many overall rankings of universities (see right) and rankings based on students' . For several years, ', the , and the have ranked MIT's School of Engineering first, as did the 1995 report. In the same lists, MIT's strongest showings apart from in engineering are in computer science, the natural sciences, business, architecture, economics, linguistics, mathematics, and, to a lesser extent, political science and philosophy. has recognized MIT as one of the world's "six super brands" on its ''World Reputation Rankings'', along with , , , and . In 2019, it ranked 3rd among the universities around the world by . In 2017, the rated MIT the #2 university for arts and humanities. MIT was ranked #7 in 2015 and #6 in 2017 of the Nature Index Annual Tables, which measure the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.


Collaborations

The university historically pioneered research and training collaborations between academia, industry and government.  In 1946, President Compton, Harvard Business School professor , and Massachusetts Investor Trust chairman Merrill Grisswold founded , the first American firm.  In 1948, Compton established the MIT Industrial Liaison Program. Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, American politicians and business leaders accused MIT and other universities of contributing to a by taxpayer-funded research and technology to international – especially – firms that were competing with struggling American businesses. On the other hand, MIT's extensive collaboration with the federal government on research projects has led to several MIT leaders serving as since 1940. MIT established a Washington Office in 1991 to continue effective for research funding and national . The began an investigation in 1989, and in 1991 filed an against MIT, the eight colleges, and eleven other institutions for allegedly engaging in during their annual "Overlap Meetings", which were held to prevent bidding wars over promising prospective students from consuming funds for need-based scholarships. While the Ivy League institutions , MIT contested the charges, arguing that the practice was not anti-competitive because it ensured the availability of aid for the greatest number of students. MIT ultimately prevailed when the Justice Department dropped the case in 1994. MIT's proximityMIT's Building 7 and Harvard's Johnston Gate, the traditional entrances to each school, are apart along . to ("the other school up the ") has led to a substantial number of research collaborations such as the and the . In addition, students at the two schools can for credits toward their own school's degrees without any additional fees. A cross-registration program between MIT and has also existed since 1969, and in 2002 the launched an undergraduate exchange program between MIT and the . MIT also has a long term partnership with , for both student exchanges and research collaboration. More modest cross-registration programs have been established with , , , and the . MIT maintains substantial research and faculty ties with independent research organizations in the Boston area, such as the , the , and the . Ongoing international research and educational collaborations include th
Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS Institute)
Singapore-MIT Alliance, MIT-, MIT- International Logistics Program, and projects in other countries through the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) program. The mass-market magazine ' is published by MIT through a subsidiary company, as is a special edition that also serves as an . The is a major , publishing over 200 books and 30 journals annually, emphasizing science and technology as well as arts, architecture, new media, current events, and social issues.


Libraries, collections and museums

The MIT library system consists of five subject libraries: Barker (Engineering), Dewey (Economics), Hayden (Humanities and Science), Lewis (Music), and Rotch (Arts and Architecture). There are also various specialized libraries and archives. The libraries contain more than 2.9 million printed volumes, 2.4 million microforms, 49,000 print or electronic journal subscriptions, and 670 reference databases. The past decade has seen a trend of increased focus on digital over print resources in the libraries. Notable collections include the Lewis Music Library with an emphasis on 20th and 21st-century music and electronic music, the 's rotating exhibitions of contemporary art, and the Compton Gallery's cross-disciplinary exhibitions. MIT allocates a percentage of the budget for all new construction and renovation to commission and support its extensive public art and outdoor sculpture collection. The was founded in 1971 and collects, preserves, and exhibits artifacts significant to the culture and . The museum now engages in significant educational outreach programs for the general public, including the annual , the first celebration of this kind in the United States. Since 2005, its official mission has been, "to engage the wider community with MIT's science, technology and other areas of scholarship in ways that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century".


Research

MIT was elected to the in 1934 and is among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity"; research expenditures totaled $952 million in 2017. The federal government was the largest source of sponsored research, with the granting $255.9 million, $97.5 million, $65.8 million, $61.4 million, and $27.4 million. MIT employs approximately 1300 researchers in addition to faculty. In 2011, MIT faculty and researchers disclosed 632 inventions, were issued 153 patents, earned $85.4 million in cash income, and received $69.6 million in royalties. Through programs like the Deshpande Center, MIT faculty leverage their research and discoveries into multi-million-dollar commercial ventures. In electronics, , , s, and controls were invented or substantially developed by MIT researchers. was a pioneer in and . developed much of modern and discovered the application of to design theory. In the domain of computer science, MIT faculty and researchers made fundamental contributions to , , , , , and . At least nine laureates and seven recipients of the in engineering have been or are currently associated with MIT. Current and previous physics faculty have won eight , four , and three s predominantly for their contributions to subatomic and quantum theory. Members of the chemistry department have been awarded three and one Wolf Prize for the discovery of novel syntheses and methods. MIT biologists have been awarded six for their contributions to genetics, immunology, oncology, and molecular biology. Professor was one of the principal leaders of the . atoms, synthetic , , and the genetic bases for (also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and were first discovered at MIT. transformed the study of cognitive science with his paper "What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain". Researchers developed a system to convert MRI scans into 3D printed physical models. In the domain of humanities, arts, and social sciences, as of October 2019 MIT economists have been awarded seven and nine s. Linguists and authored seminal texts on and . The , founded in 1985 within the and known for its unconventional research, has been home to influential researchers such as educator and creator . Spanning many of the above fields, s (the so-called "Genius Grants") have been awarded to 50 people associated with MIT. Five –winning writers currently work at or have retired from MIT. Four current or former faculty are members of the . Allegations of or improprieties have received substantial press coverage. Professor , a , became embroiled in a misconduct investigation starting in 1986 that led to Congressional hearings in 1991. Professor has accused the MIT administration since 2000 of attempting to potential research misconduct at the Lincoln Lab facility involving a test, though a final investigation into the matter has not been completed. Associate Professor was dismissed in 2005 following allegations of scientific misconduct and found guilty of the same by the in 2009. In 2019, named 54 members of MIT's faculty to its list of "Highly Cited Researchers". That number places MIT 8th among the world's universities.


Discoveries and innovation


Natural sciences

* – discovered genetic basis of human cancer. * – independently isolated, in 1970 at MIT, two RNA tumor viruses: and again . * – and from 1895 to 1898. Done for of food. Applications later found useful in , , and .


Computer and applied sciences

* – and developed a faster , now one of the world's largest platforms, responsible for serving between 15 and 30 percent of all web traffic. * – MIT researchers , and developed one of the first practical and started a company . * – , while a master's degree student at MIT, developed the digital circuit design theory which paved the way for modern computers. * – developed by at . * – development began during the 1970s at the . * – developed the black box at . That lab later made the possible through the it designed for . * – formally founded the in 1983 by launching the at MIT. * - Development was started in 2009, by , , , and , all at MIT at that time, and continued with the contribution of a dedicated MIT Julia Lab * – invented Lisp at MIT in 1958. * – Yet-Ming Chiang and his group at MIT showed a substantial improvement in the performance of lithium batteries by boosting the material's conductivity by it with , and . * , one of the oldest general-purpose computer algebra systems; the GPL-licensed version remains in wide use.. See also * – the movement started in 1999 when the in Germany published videos of s online for its ''timms'' initiative (Tübinger Internet Multimedia Server). The OCW movement only took off, however, with the launch of MIT OpenCourseWare and the Open Learning Initiative at in October 2002. The movement was soon reinforced by the launch of similar projects at , , the and the . * – autonomous drone that uses to swarm with many other Perdix drones. * – groundbreaking research in s, , and the . funded project. * – developed at MIT's during . * – invented by at MIT (presented in his PhD thesis). It pioneered the way for (HCI). Sketchpad is considered to be the ancestor of modern (CAD) programs as well as a major breakthrough in the development of in general. * – first computer program for s, originally released for the by . MIT alumni and rented time sharing at night on an MIT mainframe computer (that cost $1/hr for use). * – founded in 1994 by , (W3C) is the main international for the * – pioneering architecture-independent system for graphical user interfaces that has been widely used for and systems.


Companies and entrepreneurship

MIT alumni and faculty have founded numerous companies, some of which are shown below: * , 1965, co-founders , (SB, SM) and Matthew Lorber (SB) * , 1988, co-founder Bennett Golub, (SB, SM, PhD) * , 1964, founder (SB, PhD) * , 2006, co-founder (SM) * , 2007, founders (SB) and (drop-out) * , 1982, co-founder (MBA) * , 1939, co-founder (SM) * '','' 2005, co-founder (SM) * , 1968, co-founder (PhD) * , 1940, founder (SB), sons (SB, PhD), (SB) * , 1985, co-founders (SM, PhD) and (SB, SM) * , 1922, co-founder (DEng, Professor) * , 1982, founder (SB) * , 1930, founder (SB, SM) * , 1987, founder (SB, SM) * , 1998, co-founder (SM) * , 2000, co-founder (MBA)


Traditions and student activities

The faculty and student body place a high value on and on technical proficiency. MIT has never awarded an , nor does it award s, s, or upon graduation. However, MIT has twice awarded honorary professorships: to in 1949 and in 1993. Many students and alumni wear a large, heavy, distinctive known as the "". Originally created in 1929, the ring's official name is the "Standard Technology Ring". The undergraduate ring design (a separate graduate student version exists as well) varies slightly from year to year to reflect the unique character of the MIT experience for that class, but always features a three-piece design, with the MIT seal and the class year each appearing on a separate face, flanking a large rectangular bezel bearing an image of a . The , representing the informal school motto "I Hate This Fucking Place" and jocularly as "I Have Truly Found Paradise", "Institute Has The Finest Professors", "Institute of Hacks, TomFoolery and Pranks", "It's Hard to Fondle Penguins", and other variations, has occasionally been featured on the ring given its historical prominence in student culture.


Activities

MIT has over 500 recognized student activity groups, including a , ' student newspaper, an annual , a , and weekly screenings of popular films by the . Less traditional activities include the "world's largest open-shelf " in English, a , and a vibrant scene. Students, faculty, and staff are involved in over 50 educational outreach and public service programs through the , Edgerton Center, and MIT Public Service Center. Fraternities and sororities provide a base of activities in addition to housing. Approximately 1,000 undergrads, 48% of men and 30% of women, participate in one of several dozen Greek Life men's, women's and co-ed chapters on the campus. The is a four-week-long "term" offering hundreds of optional classes, lectures, demonstrations, and other activities throughout the month of January between the Fall and Spring semesters. Some of the most popular recurring IAP activities are Autonomous Robot Design (course 6.270), Robocraft Programming (6.370), and MasLab , the annual , and . More than 250 students pursue annually at companies in the US and abroad. Many MIT students also engage in "hacking", which encompasses both the that are generally off-limits (such as rooftops and steam tunnels), as well as . Examples of high-profile hacks have included the , reconstructing a atop the Great Dome, and adorning the statue with the .


Athletics

MIT sponsors 31 varsity sports and has one of the three broadest NCAA Division III athletic programs. MIT participates in the , the , the , Division I for women's crew, and the for Men's Water Polo. Men's crew competes outside the NCAA in the . The intercollegiate sports teams, called the MIT Engineers won 22 Team National Championships, 42 Individual National Championships. MIT is the all-time Division III leader in producing s (302) and rank second across all NCAA Divisions only behind the University of Nebraska. MIT Athletes won 13 awards and ranks first among NCAA Division III programs, and third among all divisions. In April 2009, budget cuts led to MIT eliminating eight of its 41 sports, including the mixed men's and women's teams in alpine skiing and pistol; separate teams for men and women in ice hockey and gymnastics; and men's programs in golf and wrestling.


People


Students

MIT enrolled 4,602 undergraduates and 6,972 graduate students in 2018–2019. Undergraduate and graduate students came from all 50 US states as well as from 115 foreign countries. MIT received 33,240 applications for admission to the undergraduate Class of 2025: it admitted 1,365 (4.1 percent). In 2019, 29,114 applications were received for graduate and advanced degree programs across all departments; 3,670 were admitted (12.6 percent) and 2,312 enrolled (63 percent). Undergraduate tuition and fees for 2019-2020 was $53,790 for nine months. 59% of students were awarded a need-based MIT scholarship. Graduate tuition and fees for 2019-2020 was also $53,790 for nine months, and summer tuition was $17,800. Financial support for graduate students are provided in large part by individual departments. They include fellowships, traineeships, teaching and research assistantships, and loans. The annual increase in expenses had led to a student tradition (dating back to the 1960s) of tongue-in-cheek "tuition riots". MIT has been nominally al since admitting in 1870. Richards also became the first female member of MIT's faculty, specializing in . Female students remained a small minority prior to the completion of the first wing of a women's dormitory, , in 1963. Between 1993 and 2009 the proportion of women rose from 34 percent to 45 percent of undergraduates and from 20 percent to 31 percent of graduate students. , women outnumbered men in Biology, Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Architecture, Urban Planning, and Biological Engineering.


Faculty and staff

, MIT had 1,030 members. Faculty are responsible for lecturing classes, for advising both graduate and undergraduate students, and for sitting on academic committees, as well as for conducting original research. Between 1964 and 2009 a total of seventeen faculty and staff members affiliated with MIT won s (thirteen of them in the latter 25 years). As of October 2020, 37 MIT faculty members, past or present, have won Nobel Prizes, the majority in or . , current faculty and teaching staff included 67 s, 6 s, and 22 s. Faculty members who have made extraordinary contributions to their research field as well as the MIT community are granted appointments as s for the remainder of their tenures. , a molecular , served as MIT's president from 2004 to 2012. She was the first woman to hold the post. MIT faculty members have often been recruited to lead other colleges and universities. Founding faculty-member became president of Harvard University in 1869, a post he would hold for 40 years, during which he wielded considerable influence both on American higher education and on secondary education. MIT alumnus and faculty member played a central role in the development of the (Caltech), and other faculty members have been key founders of in nearby . former provost served as president of ; former provost is chancellor of ; former associate provost is president of ; and former professor is president of . Former dean of the School of Science was the chancellor of the (2004–2013); former professor was president of (RISD, 2008–2013); former professor was president of (1997–2006); and MIT alumnus and former assistant professor served as chancellor of the system (1984–1992). In addition, faculty members have been recruited to lead governmental agencies; for example, former professor is president of the , urban studies professor served as the associate director of the , and biology professor was a co-chair of the . In 2013, faculty member was nominated by President Obama and later confirmed as . Former professor Hans Mark served as Secretary of the Air Force from 1979 to 1981. Alumna and Institute Professor Sheila Widnall served as Secretary of the Air Force between 1993 and 1997, making her the first female Secretary of the Air Force and first woman to lead an entire branch of the US military in the Department of Defense. , MIT was the second-largest employer in the city of Cambridge. Based on feedback from employees, MIT was ranked #7 as a place to work, among US colleges and universities . Surveys cited a "smart", "creative", "friendly" environment, noting that the tilts towards a "strong work ethic" but complaining about "low pay" compared to an industry position.


Notable alumni

Many of MIT's over 120,000 alumni have achieved considerable success in scientific research, public service, education, and . , 41 MIT alumni have won Nobel Prizes, 48 have been selected as s, 61 have been selected as s, and 3 have been selected as . Alumni in United States politics and public service include former , former Representative , former Representative , Representative , Senator , former chairman , and former chairman . MIT alumni in international politics include , , , , former Governor of the Reserve Bank of India , former , former , former , former , former Minister of Education and Culture of The Republic of Indonesia , former Jordanian Minister of Education, Higher Education and Scientific Research and former Jordanian Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources . Alumni in sports have included Olympic fencing champion . MIT alumni founded or co-founded many notable companies, such as , , , , , , , , , , , , and . According to the British newspaper ', "a survey of living MIT alumni found that they have formed 25,800 companies, employing more than three million people including about a quarter of the workforce of Silicon Valley. Those firms collectively generate global revenues of about $1.9 trillion (£1.2 trillion) a year". If the companies founded by MIT alumni were a country, they would have the 11th-highest GDP of any country in the world. MIT alumni have prominent institutions of higher education, including the system, , the , , , , , , , the , , , , , , , , , and . , the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world, was founded and led by MIT alumnus for more than three decades. More than one third of the have included , a contribution exceeding that of any university excluding the . Of the , four graduated from MIT (among them Pilot ). Alumnus and former faculty member led the and became instrumental in the rocket-program. Noted alumni in non-scientific fields include author , sculptor , guitarist of the band , the British ' and ' correspondent and political advisor , ' columnist and Nobel Prize-winning economist , ' author , architect , -winning architects and . File:Buzz Aldrin.jpg, astronaut , ScD 1963 (MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics) File:Kofi Annan.jpg, Former UN Secretary-General , SM 1972 (MIT Sloan School of Management) File:President Virgilio Barco.png, (1986–1990) , 1943 (MIT Civil and Environmental Engineering) File:Ben Bernanke official portrait.jpg, Former Federal Reserve Bank chairman , PhD 1979 (MIT Department of Economics) File:Esther Duflo - Pop!Tech 2009 - 001 (cropped).jpg, Economics Nobel laureate , PhD 1999 (MIT Department of Economics), also an MIT professor File:Richard Feynman Nobel.jpg, Physicist and Nobel laureate , SB 1939 (MIT Department of Physics) File:Edward Michael Fincke.jpg, Astronaut and USAF Colonel , SB 1989 (MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics), SB 1989 (MIT Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences) File:Daniel Chester French 1902 crop.jpg, Sculptor , Did not graduate File:Paul Krugman-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-8.jpg, Economics Nobel laureate , PhD 1977 (MIT Department of Economics) File:Ronald mcnair.jpg, and physicist , PhD 1976 (MIT Department of Physics) File:Benjamin Netanyahu.jpg, Israeli Former Prime Minister , SB 1975 (MIT Architecture), SM 1976 (MIT Sloan School of Management) File:I.M. Pei.JPG, Architect , BArch 1940 (MIT Architecture) File:ClaudeShannon MFO3807.jpg, , PhD 1940 (MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science) File:Alfred P. Sloan on the cover of TIME Magazine, December 27, 1926.jpg, CEO of , SB 1895 (MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science) File:TomScholz.JPG, "" guitarist , SB 1969, SM 1970 (MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering) File:Michael Massimino.jpg, Astronaut and engineer , PhD 1992 (MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering) File:Robert Woodward Nobel.jpg, Chemist and Nobel laureate , SB 1936, PhD 1937


See also

* , campus bookstore * * *


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

: ''Also see th
bibliography
maintained by MIT'
Institute Archives & Special Collections
and in .'' * * * * * * * * * * * * Nelkin, Dorothy. (1972). ''The University and Military Research: Moral politics at MIT (science, technology and society)''. New York: Cornell University Press. . * *
Postle, Denis. (1965). ''How to be First''. BBC documentary on MIT available at reidplaza.com
* Renehan, Colm. (2007)
''Peace Activism at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1975 to 2001: A case study''
PhD thesis, Boston: Boston College. * * * * * * *


External links

* * {{Good article Private universities and colleges in Massachusetts