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, image_map = Manitoba in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Manitoba's location in the centre of Southern Canada , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital =
Winnipeg Winnipeg () is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a at the of the country. It is Canada's , with a population of 1,278,365 as of 2016. The easternmost of the three , Manitoba covers of widely varied ...

Winnipeg
, largest_city =
Winnipeg Winnipeg () is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a at the of the country. It is Canada's , with a population of 1,278,365 as of 2016. The easternmost of the three , Manitoba covers of widely varied ...

Winnipeg
, largest_metro =
Winnipeg Metro Region The Winnipeg Metro Region (formerly called the Winnipeg Capital Region) is a metropolitan area located in the Red River of the North, Red River Valley in the south central portion of the province of Manitoba, Canada. It contains the provincial capi ...
, official_lang =
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
, Viceroy =
Janice Filmon Janice Clare Filmon (née Wainwright; born ) is the 25th lieutenant governor of Manitoba, since 2015. Her appointment became effective June 19, 2015. She is the viceregal representative of Queen Elizabeth II of Canada in the Province of Manito ...

Janice Filmon
, ViceroyType = Lieutenant Governor , Premier =
Heather Stefanson Heather Dorothy Stefanson (born May 11, 1970) is a Canadian politician who has served as the 24th premier of Manitoba since November 2, 2021. She is the leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba and sits as a member of the Legisl ...

Heather Stefanson
, PremierParty =
Progressive Conservative Progressive Conservative may refer to an advocate of progressive conservatism. Progressive Conservative may also refer to: Canada * Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, a former Canadian federal party; a successor of the original Conservati ...
, Legislature = Legislative Assembly of Manitoba , area_rank = 8th , area_total_km2 = 649950 , area_land_km2 = 548360 , area_water_km2 = 101593 , PercentWater = 15.6 , population_demonym = Manitoban , population_rank = 5th , population_total = 1278365 , population_ref = , population_est = 1386333 , pop_est_as_of = Q4 2021 , pop_est_ref = , DensityRank = 8th , Density_km2 = 2.3 , GDP_year = 2015 , GDP_total = C$65.862 billion , GDP_rank = 6th , GDP_per_capita = C$50,820 , GDP_per_capita_rank = 9th , AdmittanceOrder = 5th , AdmittanceDate = 15 July 1870 , HouseSeats = 14 , SenateSeats = 6 , timezone1 =
Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...
, utc_offset1 = -06:00 , timezone1_DST = Central DST , utc_offset1_DST = -05:00 , PostalAbbreviation = , PostalCodePrefix = Manitoba ( ) is a
province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North America, British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations mad ...
at the longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's fifth-most populous province, with a population of 1,278,365 as of 2016. The easternmost of the three
prairie provinces The Canadian Prairies (usually referred to as simply the Prairies in Canada) is a region in Western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a list of regions of Canada, region of ...
, Manitoba covers of widely varied landscape, from
arctic tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...
and the
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay ( iu, text=ᑲᖏᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓗᐊ, translit=Kangiqsualuk ilua or iu, text=ᑕᓯᐅᔭᕐᔪᐊᖅ, translit=Tasiujarjuaq; french: baie d'Hudson), sometimes called Hudson's Bay (usually historically), is a large body of sal ...
coastline in the
north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...

north
to dense
boreal forest Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (di ...
, large freshwater
lakes A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable ove ...
, and
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
grassland in the central and
southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...
regions.
Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
have inhabited what is now Manitoba for thousands of years. In the early 17th century, British and French
fur traders The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal ecosystem, boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have ...
began arriving in the area and establishing settlements. The
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
secured control of the region in 1673 and created a territory named
Rupert's Land Rupert's Land (french: Terre de Rupert), or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 ...
, which was placed under the administration of the
Hudson's Bay Company The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; french: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian, now American-owned, retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with va ...
. Rupert's Land, which included all of present-day Manitoba, grew and evolved from 1673 until 1869 with significant settlements of Indigenous and
Métis people The Métis (; ) are Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous peoples in the three Canadian Prairies, Prairie Provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta), as well as parts of Ontario, British Columbia, the Northwest Territories, and the ...
in the
Red River Colony The Red River Colony (or Selkirk Settlement) was a colonization project set up in 1811 by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, on of land. This land was granted to him by the Hudson's Bay Company, which is referred to as the Selkirk Concession, wh ...

Red River Colony
. In 1869, negotiations with the
Government of Canada The government of Canada (french: Gouvernement du Canada) is the body responsible for the federation, federal administration of Canada. A constitutional monarchy, the Crown is the Corporation sole#The Crown, corporation sole, assuming distinct r ...
for the creation of the province of Manitoba commenced. During the negotiations, several factors led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the
Red River Rebellion The Red River Rebellion (french: Rébellion de la rivière Rouge), also known as the Red River Resistance, Red River uprising, or First Riel Rebellion, was the sequence of events that led up to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by ...
. The resolution of the conflict and further negotiations led to Manitoba becoming the fifth province to join Canadian Confederation, when the
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the Monarch, the Senate of Canada, Senate, and the House of C ...

Parliament of Canada
passed the ''
Manitoba Act The ''Manitoba Act, 1870'' (french: link=no, Loi de 1870 sur le Manitoba)Originally entitled (until renamed in 1982) ''An Act to amend and continue the Act 32 and 33 Victoria, chapter 3; and to establish and provide for the Government of the Provin ...
'' on July 15, 1870. Manitoba's
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
is
Winnipeg Winnipeg () is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a at the of the country. It is Canada's , with a population of 1,278,365 as of 2016. The easternmost of the three , Manitoba covers of widely varied ...

Winnipeg
, the seventh most populous municipality in Canada. Winnipeg is the seat of government, home to the
Legislative Assembly of Manitoba The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba (french: Assemblée législative du Manitoba) is the deliberative assembly of the Manitoba Legislature in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Manitoba. Fifty-seven members are elected t ...
and the
Provincial Court The provincial and territorial courts in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific O ...
. Four of the province's five universities, all four of its professional sports teams, and most of its cultural activities (including
Festival du Voyageur The Festival du Voyageur is an annual 10-day winter festival A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion Religion is a social system, social ...
and Folklorama) are located in Winnipeg. The city has train and bus stations and an international airport; a Canadian Forces base,
CFB Winnipeg Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg , (CFB Winnipeg) is a Royal Canadian Air Force base located within the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Co-located at the Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport, CFB Winnipeg is home to many flight opera ...
, operates from the airport and is the regional headquarters of the
North American Aerospace Defense Command North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD ), known until March 1981 as the North American Air Defense Command, is a combined organization of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as th ...
.


Etymology

The name ''Manitoba'' possibly derives from either
Cree The Cree ( cr, Néhinaw, script=Latn, , etc.; french: link=no, Cri) are a North American Indigenous people. They live primarily in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Can ...

Cree
''manitou-wapow'' or
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
''manidoobaa'', both meaning "straits of
Manitou Image:Manitoo.svg, 150px, The word ''manitō'' (in both Cree language, Cree and Ojibwe language, Ojibwe) written in Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics and Cree syllabics. Manitou (), akin to the Iroquois ''orenda'', is the spiritual and fundamental w ...
, the Great Spirit." Alternatively, it may be from the
Assiniboine The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people ( when singular, Assiniboines / Assiniboins when plural; Ojibwe: ''Asiniibwaan'', "stone Sioux"; also in plural Assiniboine or Assiniboin), also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota (or Nakoda ...
"minnetoba," meaning "Lake of the Prairie" (the lake was known to French explorers as ''Lac des Prairies''). The name was chosen by Thomas Spence for the
new republicNew Republic may refer to: Places * New Republic, California, former name of Santa Rita, Monterey County, California * New Republic (Santarem), district in the city of Santarém, Pará Countries * New Republic (Brazil), the restored civilian govern ...
he proposed for the area south of the lake.
Métis The Métis (; ) are Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or au ...
leader
Louis Riel Louis Riel (; ; 22 October 1844 – 16 November 1885) was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a at the of the country. It is Canada's , with a population of 1,278,365 as of 2016. The easternmost of ...

Louis Riel
preferred the name over the proposed alternative of "Assiniboia." It was accepted in Ottawa under the ''
Manitoba Act The ''Manitoba Act, 1870'' (french: link=no, Loi de 1870 sur le Manitoba)Originally entitled (until renamed in 1982) ''An Act to amend and continue the Act 32 and 33 Victoria, chapter 3; and to establish and provide for the Government of the Provin ...
'' of 1870.


History


Indigenous societies and European settlement

Modern-day Manitoba was inhabited by the
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are groups of Canadian indigenous peoples, who are classified as distinct from the Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally s ...
people shortly after the last ice age
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

glacier
s retreated in the southwest about 10,000 years ago; the first exposed land was the Turtle Mountain area. The
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
,
Cree The Cree ( cr, Néhinaw, script=Latn, , etc.; french: link=no, Cri) are a North American Indigenous people. They live primarily in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Can ...

Cree
,
Dene The Dene people () are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are ...
,
Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated ...

Sioux
,
Mandan The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries primarily in what is now North Dakota North Dakota () is a U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly k ...

Mandan
, and
Assiniboine The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people ( when singular, Assiniboines / Assiniboins when plural; Ojibwe: ''Asiniibwaan'', "stone Sioux"; also in plural Assiniboine or Assiniboin), also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota (or Nakoda ...
peoples founded settlements, and other tribes entered the area to trade. In Northern Manitoba,
quartz Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silica (silicon dioxide). The atoms are linked in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen Tetrahedral molecular geometry, tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, ...

quartz
was mined to make
arrowhead An arrowhead or point is the usually sharpened and hardened tip of an arrow s and nock. An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile launched by a bow and arrow, bow. A typical arrow usually consists of a long, stiff, straight ''shaft'' with a weig ...

arrowhead
s. The first farming in Manitoba was along the Red River, where
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American English, North American and Australian English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas, indige ...

corn
and other seed crops were planted before contact with Europeans. In 1611,
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the pro ...
was one of the first Europeans to sail into what is now known as Hudson Bay, where he was abandoned by his crew.
Thomas Button Sir Thomas Button (died April, 1634) was a Wales, Welsh officer of the Royal Navy, notable as an explorer who in 1612–1613 commanded an expedition that unsuccessfully attempted to locate explorer Henry Hudson and to navigate the Northwest Pas ...

Thomas Button
travelled this area in 1612 in an unsuccessful attempt to find and rescue Hudson. When the British ship '' Nonsuch'' sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668–1669, she became the first trading vessel to reach the area; that voyage led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company, to which the British government gave absolute control of the entire Hudson Bay watershed. This watershed was named Rupert's Land, after
Prince Rupert Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, (17 December 1619 (O.S.) / 27 December (N.S) – 29 November 1682) was a German-English army officer, admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is t ...

Prince Rupert
, who helped to subsidize the Hudson's Bay Company.
York Factory York Factory was a settlement and Hudson's Bay Company The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; french: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson ''CBH'') is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trade, fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now ow ...
was founded in 1684 after the original fort of the Hudson's Bay Company, Fort Nelson (built in 1682), was destroyed by rival French traders.
Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye (17 November 1685 – 5 December 1749) was a French Canadian French Canadians (also referred to as Canadiens; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ), or Franco-Canadians (fre ...
, visited the Red River Valley in the 1730s to help open the area for French exploration and trade. As French explorers entered the area, a
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
-based company, the
North West Company The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and t ...
, began trading with the local Indigenous people. Both the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company built fur-trading forts; the two companies competed in southern Manitoba, occasionally resulting in violence, until they merged in 1821 (the Hudson's Bay Company Archives in Winnipeg preserve the history of this era).
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
secured the territory in 1763 after their victory over France in the North American theatre of the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
, better known as the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
in North America; lasting from 1754 to 1763. The founding of the first agricultural community and settlements in 1812 by
Lord Selkirk Earl of Selkirk is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, used since 1646. It is notable in particular for its rules of inheritance subject to unusual and unique provisions. History The title was created on 14 August 1646 for William Douglas-Hamilto ...
, north of the area which is now downtown Winnipeg, led to conflict between British colonists and the Métis. Twenty colonists, including the governor, and one Métis were killed in the
Battle of Seven Oaks The Battle of Seven Oaks was a violent confrontation in the Pemmican War The Pemmican War was a series of armed confrontations during the North American fur trade between the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) and the North West Company (NWC) in the ...
in 1816.


Confederation

Rupert's Land was ceded to Canada by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869 and incorporated into the Northwest Territories; a lack of attention to Métis concerns caused Métis leader Louis Riel to establish a local provisional government which formed into the Convention of Forty and the subsequent elected
Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia The Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia (french: Assemblée législative d'Assiniboine) was a short-lived legislature set up to pass laws for the North-Western Territory and Rupert's Land under the provisional government led by Louis Riel from 1869 t ...
on 9 March 1870. This assembly subsequently sent three delegates to Ottawa to negotiate with the Canadian government. This resulted in the ''Manitoba Act'' and that province's entry into the Canadian Confederation. Prime Minister John A. Macdonald introduced the ''Manitoba Act'' in the
House of Commons of Canada The House of Commons of Canada (french: Chambre des communes du Canada) is the lower chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Canada, which also comprises the Monarchy of Canada, sovereign (represented by the Governor General of Canada, governor ...
, the bill was given Royal Assent and Manitoba was brought into Canada as a province in 1870. Louis Riel was pursued by British army officer
Garnet Wolseley Field Marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army and as such few persons are appointed to it. It is c ...
because of the rebellion, and Riel fled into exile. The Canadian government blocked the Métis' attempts to obtain land promised to them as part of Manitoba's entry into confederation. Facing racism from the new flood of white settlers from Ontario, large numbers of Métis moved to what would become Saskatchewan and
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital ...

Alberta
.
Numbered Treaties The Numbered Treaties (or Post-Confederation Treaties) are a series of eleven treaties A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and internati ...
were signed in the late 19th century with the chiefs of First Nations that lived in the area. They made specific promises of land for every family. As a result, a reserve system was established under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government. The prescribed amount of land promised to the native peoples was not always given; this led Indigenous groups to assert rights to the land through
land claims A land claim is defined as "the pursuit of recognized territorial ownership by a group or individual". The phrase is usually only used with respect to disputed or unresolved land claims. Some types of land claims include aboriginal land claims ...
, many of which are still ongoing. The original province of Manitoba was a square one-eighteenth of its current size, and was known colloquially as the "postage stamp province". Its borders were expanded in 1881, taking land from the Northwest Territories and the
District of Keewatin Extent of the District of Keewatin before its reorganization in 1905. The District of Keewatin was a territory of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and ...
, but Ontario claimed a large portion of the land; the disputed portion was awarded to Ontario in 1889. Manitoba grew to its current size in 1912, absorbing land from the Northwest Territories to reach 60°N, uniform with the northern reach of its western neighbours Saskatchewan, Alberta and
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British C ...

British Columbia
. The
Manitoba Schools Question 300px, The Wood Lake School, 1896 The Manitoba Schools Question () was a political crisis in the Canadian province of Manitoba , image_map = Manitoba in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Manitoba's location in ...
showed the deep divergence of cultural values in the territory. The Catholic Franco-Manitobans had been guaranteed a state-supported
separate school In Canada, a separate school is a type of school that has constitutional status in three provinces (Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario' ...
system in the original constitution of Manitoba, but a grassroots political movement among English
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants originating in the Ref ...
from 1888 to 1890 demanded the end of French schools. In 1890, the Manitoba legislature passed a law removing funding for French Catholic schools. The French Catholic minority asked the federal government for support; however, the
Orange Order The Loyal Orange Institution, commonly known as the Orange Order, is an international Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protesta ...
and other anti-Catholic forces mobilized nationwide to oppose them. The federal
Conservatives Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to the traditional values or practices of the culture Culture () is an umbrella term w ...
proposed remedial legislation to override Manitoba, but they were blocked by the
Liberals Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
, led by
Wilfrid Laurier Sir Henri Charles Wilfrid Laurier, ( ; ; November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was a Canadian statesman and politician who served as the seventh prime minister of Canada The prime minister of Canada (french: premier ministre du C ...

Wilfrid Laurier
. Once elected Prime Minister in 1896, Laurier implemented a compromise stating Catholics in Manitoba could have their own religious instruction for 30 minutes at the end of the day if there were enough students to warrant it, implemented on a school-by-school basis.


Contemporary era

By 1911,
Winnipeg Winnipeg () is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a at the of the country. It is Canada's , with a population of 1,278,365 as of 2016. The easternmost of the three , Manitoba covers of widely varied ...

Winnipeg
was the third largest city in Canada, and remained so until overtaken by
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth desc ...

Vancouver
in the 1920s. A boomtown, it grew quickly around the start of the 20th century, with outside investors and immigrants contributing to its success. The drop in growth in the second half of the decade was a result of the opening of the
Panama Canal The Panama Canal ( es, Canal de Panamá, link=no) is an artificial waterway in Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a List of transcontinental countries#Nor ...

Panama Canal
in 1914, which reduced reliance on transcontinental railways for trade, as well as a decrease in immigration due to the outbreak of the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
. Over 18,000 Manitoba residents enlisted in the first year of the war; by the end of the war, 14 Manitobans had received the
Victoria Cross The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest and most prestigious award of the British honours system The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom The United ...

Victoria Cross
. During the First World War,
Nellie McClung Nellie Letitia McClung (born Letitia Ellen Mooney; 20 October 18731 September 1951) was a Canadian author, social activist, suffragette A suffragette was a member of an activist women's organization in the early 20th century who, under the ...

Nellie McClung
started the campaign for women's votes. On January 28, 1916, the vote for women was legalized. Manitoba was the first province to allow women to vote in provincial elections. This was two years before Canada as a country granted women the right to vote. After the First World War ended, severe discontent among farmers (over wheat prices) and union members (over wage rates) resulted in an upsurge of radicalism, coupled with a polarization over the rise of
Bolshevism Bolshevism (from Bolsheviks, Bolshevik) is a revolutionary Marxism, Marxist current of political thought and political regime associated with the formation of a rigidly centralized, cohesive and disciplined party of social revolution, focused on o ...

Bolshevism
in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
. The most dramatic result was the
Winnipeg general strike The Winnipeg general strike of 1919 was one of the most famous and influential strikes in Canadian history. For six weeks, May 15 to June 26, more than 30,000 strikers brought economic activity to a standstill in Winnipeg, Manitoba, which at the ...
of 1919. It began on 15 May and collapsed on 25 June 1919; as the workers gradually returned to their jobs, the Central Strike Committee decided to end the movement. Government efforts to violently crush the strike, including a Royal North-West Mounted Police charge into a crowd of protesters that resulted in multiple casualties and one death, had led to the arrest of the movement's leaders. In the aftermath, eight leaders went on trial, and most were convicted on charges of , illegal combinations, and seditious
libel Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander, or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort A tort, in commo ...

libel
; four were deported under the '' Canadian Immigration Act''. The
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
(1929–c. 1939) hit especially hard in
Western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study ...
, including Manitoba. The collapse of the world market combined with a steep drop in agricultural production due to drought led to economic diversification, moving away from a reliance on wheat production. The
Manitoba Co-operative Commonwealth Federation The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (Manitoba) (CCF), known informally as the Manitoba CCF, was a provincial branch of the national Canada, Canadian party by the same name. The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, national CCF was the domin ...
, forerunner to the
New Democratic Party of Manitoba The New Democratic Party of Manitoba (french: Nouveau Parti démocratique du Manitoba) is a social democracy, social-democratic political party in Manitoba, Canada. It is the provincial wing of the federal New Democratic Party, and is a successor ...
(NDP), was founded in 1932. Canada entered the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
in 1939. Winnipeg was one of the major commands for the
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, t ...
to train fighter pilots, and there were air training schools throughout Manitoba. Several Manitoba-based regiments were deployed overseas, including
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI, generally referred to as the Patricia's) is one of the three Regular Force infantry regiments of the Canadian Army of the Canadian Armed Forces. Formed in 1914, it is named for Princess Patricia ...

Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
. In an effort to raise money for the war effort, the Victory Loan campaign organized " If Day" in 1942. The event featured a simulated Nazism, Nazi invasion and occupation of Manitoba, and eventually raised over Canadian dollar, C$65 million. Winnipeg was inundated during the 1950 Red River Flood and had to be partially evacuated. In that year, the Red River reached its highest level since 1861 and flooded most of the Red River Valley. The damage caused by the flood led then-Premier Dufferin Roblin, Duff Roblin to advocate for the construction of the Red River Floodway; it was completed in 1968 after six years of excavation. Permanent dikes were erected in eight towns south of Winnipeg, and clay dikes and diversion dams were built in the Winnipeg area. In 1997, the "1997 Red River flood, Flood of the Century" caused over in damages in Manitoba, but the floodway prevented Winnipeg from flooding. In 1990, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney attempted to pass the Meech Lake Accord, a series of constitutional amendments to persuade Quebec to endorse the ''Canada Act 1982''. Unanimous support in the legislature was needed to bypass public consultation. Cree politician Elijah Harper opposed because he did not believe First Nations had been adequately involved in the Accord's process, and thus the Accord failed. Glen Murray (politician), Glen Murray, elected in Winnipeg in 1998, became the first openly gay mayor of a large North American city. The province was impacted by major flooding in 2009 Red River flood, 2009 and 2011 Red River flood, 2011. In 2013, Manitoba was the second province to make accessibility legislation law, protecting the rights of persons with disabilities.


Geography

Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territory of Nunavut to the north, and the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and then north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay. This basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, and east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red River of the North, Red, Assiniboine River, Assiniboine, Nelson, Winnipeg River, Winnipeg, Hayes River, Hayes, Whiteshell River, Whiteshell and Churchill River (Hudson Bay), Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Lake Agassiz, Glacial Lake Agassiz. This region, particularly the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile; receding glaciers left hilly and rocky areas throughout the province. The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering approximately 15.6 percent or of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, and Lake Winnipeg, the List of lakes by area, tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. A total of of traditional First Nations lands and Taiga, boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side were officially designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site known as Pimachiowin Aki in 2018. Baldy Mountain (Manitoba), Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at above sea level, and the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level. Riding Mountain National Park, Riding Mountain, the Pembina Escarpment, Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, and the Canadian Shield are also upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell Provincial Park, Whiteshell, Atikaki Provincial Wilderness Park, Atikaki, and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Kelsey, Manitoba, Carrot Valley Region (near The Pas). Around 11 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba.


Climate

Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation generally decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating influences of mountain ranges or large bodies of water. Because of the generally flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Polar high, Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico. Temperatures exceed numerous times each summer, and the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba, recorded the second-highest humidex ever in Canada in 2007, with 53.0. According to Environment Canada, Manitoba ranked first for clearest skies year round and ranked second for clearest skies in the summer and for the sunniest province in the winter and spring. Southern Manitoba (including the city of Winnipeg), falls into the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfb). This area is cold and windy in the winter and often has blizzards because of the open landscape. Summers are warm with a moderate length. This region is the most humid area in the prairie provinces, with moderate precipitation. Southwestern Manitoba, though under the same climate classification as the rest of Southern Manitoba, is closer to the semi-arid interior of Palliser's Triangle. The area is drier and more prone to droughts than other parts of southern Manitoba. This area is cold and windy in the winter and has frequent blizzards due to the openness of the Canadian Prairie landscape. Summers are generally warm to hot, with low to moderate humidity. Southern parts of the province, just north of Tornado Alley, experience tornadoes, with 16 confirmed touchdowns in 2016. In 2007, on 22 and 23 June, numerous tornadoes touched down, the largest an Elie, Manitoba tornado, F5 tornado that devastated parts of Elie, Manitoba, Elie (the strongest recorded tornado in Canada). The province's northern sections (including the city of Thompson, Manitoba, Thompson) fall in the subarctic climate zone (Köppen climate classification ''Dfc''). This region features long and extremely cold winters and brief, warm summers with little precipitation. Overnight temperatures as low as occur on several days each winter.


Flora and fauna

Manitoba natural communities may be grouped within five ecozones: Boreal Plains Ecozone (CEC), boreal plains, Prairies Ecozone, prairie, Taiga Shield Ecozone (CEC), taiga shield, Boreal Shield Ecozone (CEC), boreal shield and Hudson Plains Ecozone (CEC), Hudson plains. Three of these—taiga shield, boreal shield and Hudson plain—contain part of the Boreal forest of Canada which covers the province's eastern, southeastern, and northern reaches. Forests make up about , or 48 percent, of the province's land area. The forests consist of pines (Pinus banksiana, Jack Pine, Pinus resinosa, Red Pine, Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine), spruces (Picea glauca, White Spruce, Picea mariana, Black Spruce), Abies balsamea, Balsam Fir, Larix laricina, Tamarack (larch), poplars (Populus tremuloides, Trembling Aspen, Populus balsamifera, Balsam Poplar), birches (Betula papyrifera, White Birch, Betula pumila, Swamp Birch) and small pockets of Thuja occidentalis, Eastern White Cedar. Two sections of the province are not dominated by forest. The province's northeast corner bordering Hudson Bay is above the treeline and is considered tundra. The tallgrass prairie once dominated the south central and southeastern parts including the Red River Valley. Mixed grass prairie is found in the southwestern region. Agriculture has replaced much of the natural prairie but prairie still can be found in parks and protected areas; some are notable for the presence of the endangered Platanthera praeclara, western prairie fringed orchid. Manitoba is especially noted for its northern polar bear population; Churchill, Manitoba, Churchill is commonly referred to as the "Polar Bear Capital". Other large animals, including moose, white-tailed deer, American black bear, black bears, cougars, lynx, and gray wolf, wolves, are common throughout the province, especially in the provincial and national List of protected areas of Manitoba, parks. There is a large population of garter snake, red sided garter snakes near Narcisse, Manitoba, Narcisse; the dens there are home to the world's largest concentration of snakes. Manitoba's bird diversity is enhanced by its position on two major migration routes, with 392 confirmed identified species; 287 of these nesting within the province. These include the great grey owl, the province's official bird, and the endangered peregrine falcon. Manitoba's lakes host 18 species of game fish, particularly species of trout, Pike (fish), pike, and goldeye, as well as many smaller fish.


Demography

At the 2016 census, Manitoba had a population of 1,278,365, more than half of which is in the Winnipeg Capital Region (778,489 as of the 2016 Census). Although initial colonization of the province revolved mostly around homesteading, the last century has seen a shift towards urbanization; Manitoba is the only Canadian province with over fifty-five percent of its population in a single city. According to the Canada 2006 Census, 2006 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Manitoba is English Canadian, English (22.9%), followed by Canadians of German ethnicity, German (19.1%), Scottish Canadian, Scottish (18.5%), Ukrainian Canadian, Ukrainian (14.7%), Irish Canadian, Irish (13.4%), Indigenous Canadians, Indigenous (10.6%), Polish Canadians, Polish (7.3%), Métis people (Canada), Métis (6.4%), French Canadian, French (5.6%), Canadians of Dutch descent, Dutch (4.9%), Russians in Canada, Russian (4.0%), and Icelandic Canadians, Icelandic (2.4%). Almost one-fifth of respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian". Indigenous peoples (including Métis) are Manitoba's fastest-growing ethnic group, representing 13.6 percent of Manitoba's population as of 2001 (some reserves refused to allow census-takers to enumerate their populations or were otherwise incompletely counted). There is a significant Franco-Manitoban minority (148,370). Rural Municipality of Gimli, Gimli, Manitoba is home to the largest Icelanders, Icelandic community outside of Iceland.


Religion

Most Manitobans belong to a Christian denomination: on the 2001 census, 758,760 Manitobans (68.7%) reported being Christian, followed by 13,040 (1.2%) Jewish, 5,745 (0.5%) Buddhist, 5,485 (0.5%) Sikh, 5,095 (0.5%) Muslim, 3,840 (0.3%) Hindu, 3,415 (0.3%) Native American religion, Indigenous spirituality and 995 (0.1%) paganism, pagan. 201,825 Manitobans (18.3%) reported no religious affiliation. The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholicism in Canada, Roman Catholic Church with 292,970 (27%); the United Church of Canada with 176,820 (16%); and the Anglican Church of Canada with 85,890 (8%).


Economy

Manitoba has a moderately strong economy based largely on natural resources. Its Gross Domestic Product was C$50.834 billion in 2008. The province's economy grew 2.4 percent in 2008, the third consecutive year of growth. The average individual income in Manitoba in 2006 was C$25,100 (compared to a national average of C$26,500), ranking fifth-highest among the provinces. As of October 2009, Manitoba's unemployment rate was 5.8 percent. Manitoba's economy relies heavily on agriculture, tourism, electricity, oil, mining, and forestry. Agriculture is vital and is found mostly in the southern half of the province, although grain farming occurs as far north as The Pas. The most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Manitoba is the nation's largest producer of sunflower seed and dry beans, and one of the leading sources of potatoes. Portage la Prairie is a major potato processing centre. Richardson International, one of the largest oat mills in the world, also has a plant in the List of rural municipalities in Manitoba, municipality. Manitoba's largest employers are government and government-funded institutions, including crown corporations and services like List of hospitals in Manitoba, hospitals and List of universities in Manitoba, universities. Major private-sector employers are The Great-West Life Assurance Company, Cargill Ltd., and Richardson International. Manitoba also has large manufacturing and tourism sectors. Churchill's Arctic wildlife is a major tourist attraction; the town is a world capital for polar bear and beluga whale watchers. Manitoba is the only province with an Arctic deep-water seaport, at Churchill. In January 2018, the Canadian Federation of Independent Business claimed Manitoba was the most improved province for tackling red tape.


Economic history

Manitoba's early economy depended on mobility and living off the land. Indigenous Nations (Cree, Ojibwa, Dene, Sioux and Assiniboine) followed herds of bison and congregated to trade among themselves at key meeting places throughout the province. After the arrival of the first European traders in the 17th century, the economy centred on the trade of beaver pelts and other furs. Diversification of the economy came when Lord Selkirk brought the first agricultural settlers in 1811, though the triumph of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) over its competitors ensured the primacy of the fur trade over widespread agricultural colonization. HBC control of Rupert's Land ended in 1868; when Manitoba became a province in 1870, all land became the property of the federal government, with homesteads granted to settlers for farming. Transcontinental railways were constructed to simplify trade. Manitoba's economy depended mainly on farming, which persisted until drought and the Great Depression led to further diversification.


Military bases

CFB Winnipeg Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg , (CFB Winnipeg) is a Royal Canadian Air Force base located within the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Co-located at the Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport, CFB Winnipeg is home to many flight opera ...
is a Canadian Forces base, Canadian Forces Base at the Winnipeg International Airport. The base is home to flight operations support divisions and several training schools, as well as the 1 Canadian Air Division and Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command, NORAD Region Headquarters. 17 Wing of the Canadian Forces is based at CFB Winnipeg; the Wing has three squadrons and six schools. It supports 113 units from Thunder Bay to the Saskatchewan/Alberta border, and from the 49th parallel north to the Northern Canada, high Arctic. 17 Wing acts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet fighter–bombers assigned to the Canadian NORAD Region. The two 17 Wing squadrons based in the city are: the 402 ("City of Winnipeg" Squadron), which flies the Canadian designed and produced de Havilland Canada Bombardier Dash 8, CT-142 Dash 8 navigation trainer in support of the 1 Canadian Forces Flight Training School's Air Combat Systems Officer and Airborne Electronic Sensor Operator training programs (which trains all Canadian Air Combat Systems Officer); and the 435 ("Chinthe" Transport and Rescue Squadron), which flies the Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed C-130 Hercules tanker/transport in airlift search and rescue roles, and is the only Air Force squadron equipped and trained to conduct Aerial refueling, air-to-air refuelling of fighter aircraft. CFB Shilo, Canadian Forces Base Shilo (CFB Shilo) is an Operations and Training base of the Canadian Forces east of Brandon. During the 1990s, Canadian Forces Base Shilo was designated as an Area Support Unit, acting as a local base of operations for Southwest Manitoba in times of military and civil emergency. CFB Shilo is the home of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, 1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, both battalions of the 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group, and the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, Royal Canadian Artillery. The Second Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (2 PPCLI), which was originally stationed in Winnipeg (first at Fort Osborne, then in Kapyong Barracks), has operated out of CFB Shilo since 2004. CFB Shilo hosts a training unit, 3rd Canadian Division Training Centre. It serves as a base for support units of Land Force Western Area, 3rd Canadian Division, also including 3 CDSG Signals Squadron, Shared Services Unit (West), 11 CF Health Services Centre, 1 Dental Unit, 1 Military Police Regiment, and an Integrated Personnel Support Centre. The base houses 1,700 soldiers.


Government and politics

After the control of Rupert's Land was passed from Great Britain to the Government of Canada in 1869, Manitoba attained full-fledged rights and responsibilities of self-government as the first Canadian province carved out of the Northwest Territories. The
Legislative Assembly of Manitoba The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba (french: Assemblée législative du Manitoba) is the deliberative assembly of the Manitoba Legislature in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Manitoba. Fifty-seven members are elected t ...
was established on 14 July 1870. Political parties first emerged between 1878 and 1883, with a two-party system (Manitoba Liberal Party, Liberals and Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba, Conservatives). The Progressive Party of Manitoba, United Farmers of Manitoba appeared in 1922, and later merged with the Liberals in 1932. Other parties, including the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), appeared during the Great Depression; in the 1950s, Manitoban politics became a three-party system, and the Liberals gradually declined in power. The CCF became the New Democratic Party of Manitoba (NDP), which came to power in 1969. Since then, the Progressive Conservatives and the NDP have been the dominant parties. Like all Canadian provinces, Manitoba is governed by a unicameralism, unicameral legislative assembly. The executive (government), executive branch is formed by the governing party; the party leader is the premier of Manitoba, the head of the executive branch. The head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, is represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba, who is appointed by the Governor General of Canada on advice of the Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister. The head of state is primarily a ceremonial role, although the List of lieutenant governors of Manitoba, Lieutenant Governor has the official responsibility of ensuring Manitoba has a duly constituted government. The Legislative Assembly consists of the 57 Members elected to represent the people of Manitoba. The List of premiers of Manitoba, premier of Manitoba is
Heather Stefanson Heather Dorothy Stefanson (born May 11, 1970) is a Canadian politician who has served as the 24th premier of Manitoba since November 2, 2021. She is the leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba and sits as a member of the Legisl ...

Heather Stefanson
of the PC Party, after Brian Pallister's resignation. The province is represented in federal politics by 14 Members of Parliament and six Senate of Canada, Senators. Manitoba's judiciary consists of the Manitoba Court of Appeal, Court of Appeal, the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba, Court of Queen's Bench, and the
Provincial Court The provincial and territorial courts in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific O ...
. The Provincial Court is primarily for criminal law; 95 per cent of criminal cases in Manitoba are heard here. The Court of Queen's Bench is the highest trial court in the province. It has four jurisdictions: family law (child and family services cases), civil law (common law), civil law, criminal law (for indictable offences), and appeals. The Court of Appeal hears appeals from both benches; its decisions can only be appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada.


Official languages

Both English and French are official languages of the legislature of Manitoba, legislature and Provincial Court of Manitoba, courts of Manitoba, according to section 23 of the
Manitoba Act The ''Manitoba Act, 1870'' (french: link=no, Loi de 1870 sur le Manitoba)Originally entitled (until renamed in 1982) ''An Act to amend and continue the Act 32 and 33 Victoria, chapter 3; and to establish and provide for the Government of the Provin ...
of 1870 (part of the Constitution of Canada). In April 1890, the Manitoba legislature attempted to abolish the official status of French and ceased to publish bilingual legislation. However, in 1985, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in the Reference re Manitoba Language Rights that section 23 still applied, and that legislation published only in English was invalid (unilingual legislation was declared valid for a temporary period to allow time for translation). Although French is an official language for the purposes of the legislature, legislation, and the courts, the ''Manitoba Act'' does not require it to be an official language for the purpose of the executive branch (except when performing legislative or judicial functions). Hence, Manitoba's government is not completely bilingual. The Manitoba French Language Services Policy of 1999 is intended to provide a comparable level of provincial government services in both official languages. According to the 2006 Census, 82.8 percent of Manitoba's population spoke only English, 3.2 percent spoke only French, 15.1 percent spoke both, and 0.9 percent spoke neither. In 2010, the provincial government of Manitoba passed the ''Aboriginal Languages Recognition Act'', which gives official recognition to seven indigenous languages:
Cree The Cree ( cr, Néhinaw, script=Latn, , etc.; french: link=no, Cri) are a North American Indigenous people. They live primarily in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Can ...

Cree
, Dakota language, Dakota, Dene language, Dene, Inuktitut, Michif, Ojibway language, Ojibway and Oji-Cree language, Oji-Cree.


Transportation

Manitoba has two Class I railroad, Class I railways: Canadian National Railway (CN) and Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). Winnipeg is centrally located on the main lines of both carriers, and both maintain large inter-modal terminals in the city. Via Rail offers transcontinental and Northern Manitoba passenger service from Union Station (Winnipeg), Winnipeg's Union Station. Numerous small regional and short-line railways also run trains within Manitoba: the Hudson Bay Railway (1997), Hudson Bay Railway, the Southern Manitoba Railway, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba, Greater Winnipeg Water District Railway, and Central Manitoba Railway. Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport, Manitoba's largest List of airports in Manitoba, airport, is one of only a few 24-hour unrestricted airports in Canada and is part of the National Airports System. A new, larger terminal opened in October 2011. It is the seventh List of the busiest airports in Canada, busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic, serving 4,484,343 passengers in 2018, and the 11th busiest airport by aircraft movements. The airport handles approximately of cargo annually, making it the third largest cargo airport in the country. Winnipeg is a major sorting facility for both FedEx and Purolator Courier, Purolator, and receives daily trans-border service from United Parcel Service, UPS. The Port of Churchill is the only Arctic deep-water port in Canada. It is nautically closer to ports in Northern Europe and Russia than any other port in Canada. It has four deep-sea berths for the loading and unloading of grain, general cargo and tanker vessels. The port is served by the Hudson Bay Railway. The port and railway came under complete community and Indigenous ownership in 2021, after AGT Food and Ingredients and Fairfax Financial transferred their shares in Arctic Gateway to OneNorth – a consortium of community and Indigenous partners which owned the other fifty percent of Arctic Gateway's shares.


Education

Public schools follow a provincially mandated curriculum in either French or English. There are sixty-five funded independent schools in Manitoba, including three boarding schools. These schools must follow the Manitoban curriculum and meet other provincial requirements. There are forty-four non-funded independent schools, which are not required to meet those standards. Public schools in Manitoba fall under the regulation of one of thirty-seven List of school districts in Manitoba, school divisions within Minister of Education, Citizenship and Youth (Manitoba), the provincial education system (except for the Manitoba Band Operated Schools, which are administered by the federal government). In 2021, the provincial government announced a plan to merge all English-language school divisions into 15 regional catchment areas, overseen by a provincial education authority. There are five universities in Manitoba, regulated by the Minister of Advanced Education and Literacy (Manitoba), Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy. Four of these universities are in Winnipeg: the University of Manitoba, the largest and most comprehensive; the University of Winnipeg, a liberal arts college, liberal arts school primarily focused on undergrad studies downtown; Université de Saint-Boniface, the province's only French-language university; and the Canadian Mennonite University, a religious-based institution. The Université de Saint-Boniface, established in 1818 and now affiliated with the University of Manitoba, is the oldest university in Western Canada. Brandon University, formed in 1899 and in Brandon, is the province's only university not in Winnipeg. Manitoba has fifty-four public library systems. Of these, Winnipeg Public Library has the largest collections, at 1.1 million items as of 2020.


Culture


Arts

The Minister of Culture, Heritage, Tourism and Sport (Manitoba), Minister of Culture, Heritage, Tourism and Sport is responsible for promoting and, to some extent, financing Manitoban culture. Manitoba is the birthplace of the Red River Jig, a combination of Indigenous pow-wows and European Reel (dance), reels popular among early settlers. Manitoba's traditional music has strong roots in Métis and First Nations culture, in particular the old-time music, old-time fiddle, fiddling of the Métis. Manitoba's cultural scene also incorporates classical European traditions. The Winnipeg-based Royal Winnipeg Ballet (RWB), is Canada's oldest ballet and North America's longest continuously operating ballet company; it was granted its royal title in 1953 under Queen Elizabeth II. The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra (WSO) performs classical music and new compositions at the Centennial Concert Hall. Manitoba Opera, founded in 1969, also performs out of the Centennial Concert Hall. Le Cercle Molière (founded 1925) is the oldest French-language theatre in Canada, and Royal Manitoba Theatre Centre (founded 1958) is Canada's oldest English-language regional theatre. Manitoba Theatre for Young People was the first English-language theatre to win the Canadian Institute of the Arts for Young Audiences Award, and offers plays for children and teenagers as well as a theatre school. The Winnipeg Art Gallery (WAG), Manitoba's largest art gallery and the sixth largest in the country, hosts an art school for children; the WAG's permanent collection comprises over twenty thousand works, with a particular emphasis on Manitoban and Canadian art. The 1960s pop group The Guess Who was formed in Manitoba, and later became the first Canadian band to have a No. 1 hit in the United States; Guess Who guitarist Randy Bachman later created Bachman–Turner Overdrive (BTO) with fellow Winnipeg-based musician Fred Turner (musician), Fred Turner. Fellow rocker Neil Young, grew up in Manitoba, and later played in Buffalo Springfield, and Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young. Folk rock band Crash Test Dummies formed in the late 1980s in Winnipeg and were the 1992 Juno Awards Group of the Year. Several prominent Canadian films were produced in Manitoba, such as ''The Stone Angel (film), The Stone Angel'', based on the Margaret Laurence book of the The Stone Angel, same title, ''The Saddest Music in the World'', ''Foodland (film), Foodland'', ''For Angela'', and ''My Winnipeg''. Major films shot in Manitoba include ''The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford'' and ''Capote (film), Capote'', both of which received Academy Award nominations. ''Falcon Beach'', an internationally broadcast television drama, was filmed at Winnipeg Beach, Manitoba. Manitoba has a strong literary tradition. Bertram Brooker won the first-ever Governor General's Awards, Governor General's Award for Fiction in 1936. Cartoonist Lynn Johnston, author of the comic strip ''For Better or For Worse'', was a finalist for a 1994 Pulitzer Prize and inducted into the Canadian Cartoonist Hall of Fame. Margaret Laurence's ''The Stone Angel'' and ''A Jest of God'' were set in Manawaka, a fictional town representing Neepawa, Manitoba, Neepawa; the latter title won the Governor General's Award in 1966. Carol Shields won both the Governor General's Award and the Pulitzer Prize for ''The Stone Diaries''. Gabrielle Roy, a Franco-Manitoban writer, won the Governor General's Award three times. A quote from her writings is featured on the Canadian $20 bill. Joan Thomas was nominated for the Governor General's Award twice and won in 2019 for ''Five Wives''. The province has also been home to many of the key figures in Mennonite literature, including Governor General Award-winning Miriam Toews, Giller winner David Bergen, Armin Wiebe and many others. Sandra Birdsell, whose fiction focusses on her Métis people (Canada), Métis and Mennonite heritage, was thrice nominated for the Governor General's Literary Award for English Language Fiction, and also for the Scotiabank Giller Prize in 2001.


Festivals

Festivals take place throughout the province, with the largest centred in Winnipeg. The Winnipeg Folk Festival has an annual attendance of over 70,000. The
Festival du Voyageur The Festival du Voyageur is an annual 10-day winter festival A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion Religion is a social system, social ...
is an annual ten-day event held in Winnipeg's French Quarter, and is Western Canada's largest winter festival. It celebrates Canada's fur-trading past and French-Canadian heritage and culture. Folklorama, a multicultural festival run by the Folk Arts Council, receives around 400,000 pavilion visits each year, of which about thirty percent are from non-Winnipeg residents. The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is an annual Fringe theatre, alternative theatre festival, the second-largest festival of its kind in North America (after the Edmonton International Fringe Festival).


Museums

Manitoban museums document different aspects of the province's heritage. The Manitoba Museum is the largest museum in Manitoba and focuses on Manitoban history from prehistory to the 1920s. The full-size replica of the Nonsuch is the museum's showcase piece. The Manitoba Children's Museum at The Forks, Winnipeg, The Forks presents exhibits for children. There are two museums dedicated to the native flora and fauna of Manitoba: the Living Prairie Museum, a tall grass prairie preserve featuring 160 species of grasses and wildflowers, and FortWhyte Alive, a park encompassing prairie, lake, forest and wetland habitats, home to a large herd of bison. The Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre houses the largest collection of marine reptile fossils in Canada. Other museums feature the history of Western Canada Aviation Museum, aviation, Marine Museum of Manitoba, marine transport, and Winnipeg Railway Museum, railways in the area. The Canadian Museum for Human Rights is the first Canadian national museum outside of the National Capital Region (Canada), National Capital Region.


Media

Winnipeg has two daily newspapers: the ''Winnipeg Free Press'', a broadsheet with the highest circulation numbers in Manitoba, as well as the ''Winnipeg Sun'', a smaller Tabloid (newspaper format), tabloid-style paper. There are several ethnic weekly newspapers, including the weekly French-language ''La Liberté (Canada), La Liberté'', and regional and national magazines based in the city. Brandon has two newspapers: the daily ''Brandon Sun'' and the weekly ''Wheat City Journal''. Many small towns have local newspapers. There are five English-language television stations and one French-language station based in Winnipeg. The Global Television Network (owned by Canwest) is headquartered in the city. Winnipeg is home to twenty-one AM and FM radio stations, two of which are French-language stations. Brandon's five local radio stations are provided by Astral Media and Westman Communications Group. In addition to the Brandon and Winnipeg stations, radio service is provided in rural areas and smaller towns by Golden West Broadcasting, Corus Entertainment, and local broadcasters. CBC Radio broadcasts local and national programming throughout the province. Native Communications is devoted to indigenous programming and broadcasts to many of the isolated native communities as well as to larger cities.


Sports

Manitoba has five professional sports teams: the Winnipeg Blue Bombers (Canadian Football League), the Winnipeg Jets (National Hockey League), the Manitoba Moose (American Hockey League), the Winnipeg Goldeyes (American Association of Independent Professional Baseball, American Association), and Valour FC (Canadian Premier League). The province was previously home to another team called the Winnipeg Jets (1972–96), Winnipeg Jets, which played in the World Hockey Association and National Hockey League from 1972 until 1996, when financial troubles prompted a sale and move of the team, renamed the Phoenix Coyotes. A second incarnation of the Winnipeg Jets returned, after True North Sports & Entertainment bought the Atlanta Thrashers and moved the team to Winnipeg in time for the 2011 hockey season. Manitoba has two Canadian Hockey League, major junior-level hockey teams, the Western Hockey League's Brandon Wheat Kings and Winnipeg Ice, and one junior football team, the Winnipeg Rifles of the Canadian Junior Football League. The province is represented in university athletics by the university of Manitoba Bisons, the university of Winnipeg Wesmen, and the Brandon University Brandon Bobcats, Bobcats. All three teams compete in the Canada West Universities Athletic Association, a regional division of U Sports. Curling is an important winter sport in the province with Manitoba producing more Tim Hortons Brier#Top 3 finishes table, men's national champions than any other province, while additionally in the Scotties Tournament of Hearts#Top 3 finishes table, top 3 women's national champions, as well as multiple world champions in the sport. The province also hosts the world's largest curling tournament in the MCA Bonspiel. Though not as prominent as hockey and curling, long track speed skating also features as a notable and top winter sport in Manitoba. The province has produced some of the world's best female speed skaters including Susan Auch and the country's top Olympic Games, Olympic medal earners Cindy Klassen and Clara Hughes.


See also

*Outline of Manitoba


References


Further reading

* * *


External links


Government of Manitoba
* {{Authority control Manitoba, Provinces of Canada 1870 establishments in Canada Canadian Prairies States and territories established in 1870