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Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in ar ...
James Cook (7 November 1728 Old Style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer,
navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch ...

navigator
,
cartographer Cartography (; from Greek χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science Science (from the Latin word ''scienti ...
, and
captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in ar ...
in the British
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
, famous for his three voyages between 1768 and 1779 in the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by the continents o ...

Pacific Ocean
and to
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
in particular. He made detailed maps of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
prior to making three voyages to the Pacific, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the
Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands ( haw, Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the Pacific Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the Hawaii (island), island o ...
, and the first recorded circumnavigation of
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest c ...
and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the
Saint Lawrence River The St. Lawrence River is a large river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its c ...
during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the
Admiralty Admiralty usually refers to: * Admiralty (United Kingdom), military department in command of the Royal Navy from 1707 to 1964 *The rank of admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank ...
and the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by Charles II of ...
. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of
HMS ''Endeavour''
HMS ''Endeavour''
for the first of three Pacific voyages. In these voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and on a scale not previously charted by Western explorers. He surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to detain the ruling chief of the
island of Hawaii Hawaii (, anglicized Hawaii ) is the largest island in the United States, located in the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...
,
Kalaniʻōpuʻu Kalaniōpuu-a-Kaiamamao (c. 1729 – April 1782) was the aliʻi nui (supreme monarch) of the island of Hawaiʻi. He was called ''Terreeoboo, King of Owhyhee'' by James Cook and other Europeans. His name has also been written as Kaleiopuu. Biog ...
, to reclaim a cutter taken from one of his ships after his crew took wood from a burial ground. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge that influenced his successors well into the 20th century, and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him.


Early life and family

James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 ( NS) in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November (N.S.) in the
parish church A parish church (or parochial church) in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Je ...
of
St Cuthbert Cuthbert (c. 634 – 20 March 687), possibly Cutimbetas/ Stombast, was an Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United King ...
, where his name can be seen in the church register. He was the second of eight children of James Cook (1693–1779), a Scottish farm labourer from
Ednam Parish church, Ednam Ednam is a small village near Kelso in the Scottish Borders The Scottish Borders ( sco, the Mairches, 'the Marches'; gd, Crìochan na h-Alba) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the City of Edinburgh, ...
in Roxburghshire, and his locally born wife, Grace Pace (1702–1765), from
Thornaby-on-Tees Thornaby-on-Tees also referred to as (Thornaby), is a market town A market town is a European Human settlement, settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host market (place), markets (market righ ...
. In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at
Great Ayton Great Ayton is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, ...
, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years' schooling, he began work for his father, who had been promoted to farm manager. Despite not being formally educated he became capable in mathematics, astronomy and charting by the time of his ''Endeavour'' voyage. For leisure, he would climb a nearby hill,
Roseberry Topping Roseberry Topping is a distinctive in , . It is situated near and . Its summit has a distinctive half-cone shape with a jagged , which has led to many comparisons with the much higher in the .Howard Peach, ''Curious Tales of Old North Yorksh ...
, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. , his parents' last home, which he is likely to have visited, is now in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
, Australia, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved to the fishing village of
Staithes Staithes is a seaside village in the Scarborough (borough), Scarborough borough of North Yorkshire, England. Easington and Roxby Becks, two brooks that run into Staithes Beck, form the border between the Borough of Scarborough and Redcar and Cle ...

Staithes
, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and
haberdasher In British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ...
William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of
Whitby Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation which ...

Whitby
to be introduced to Sanderson's friends John and Henry Walker. The Walkers, who were
Quakers Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Ref ...
, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast. His first assignment was aboard the
collier Collier or colliers may refer to: Coal industry * Collier, coal miner or coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of o ...
''Freelove'', and he spent several years on this and various other
coasters The Coasters are an American rhythm and blues/rock and roll vocal group who had a string of hits in the late 1950s. Beginning with "Searchin'" and "Young Blood (The Coasters song), Young Blood", their most memorable songs were written by the song ...
, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, navigation and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship. His three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
. After passing his examinations in 1752, he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to
mate Mate may refer to: Science * Mate, one of a pair of animals involved in: ** Mate choice, intersexual selection ** Mating * Multi-antimicrobial extrusion protein, or MATE, an efflux transporter family of proteins Person or title * Mate (colloqu ...
aboard the collier
brig A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged Square rig is a generic type of Sail-plan, sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spar (sailing), spars which are perpendicular, or wikt:sq ...

brig
''Friendship''. In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest c ...
. Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more quickly in military service and entered the Navy at
Wapping Wapping () is a district in East London East London is a popularly and informally defined part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United King ...

Wapping
on 17 June 1755. Cook married , the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn in Wapping and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at
St Margaret's Church, Barking St Margaret's Church or the Church of St Margaret of Antioch is a Church of England parish church in Barking, London, Barking, East London. The church is a Grade I listed building built on a site dating back to the 13th century within the grounds ...
, Essex. The couple had six children: James (1763–1794), Nathaniel (1764–1780, lost aboard which foundered with all hands in a hurricane in the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
), Elizabeth (1767–1771), Joseph (1768–1768), George (1772–1772) and Hugh (1776–1793, who died of scarlet fever while a student at
Christ's College, Cambridge Christ's College is a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education ...
). When not at sea, Cook lived in the
East End of London The East End of London, often referred to within the London area simply as the East End, is the historic core of wider East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London and north of the River Thames. It does not have uni ...
. He attended , where his son James was baptised. Cook has no direct descendants—all of his children died before having children of their own.


Start of Royal Navy career

Cook's first posting was with , serving as able seaman and
master's mate Master's mate is an obsolete rating which was used by the British Royal Navy, Royal Navy, United States Navy and merchant services in both countries for a senior petty officer who assisted the sailing master, master. Master's mates evolved into the ...
under Captain Joseph Hamar for his first year aboard, and Captain
Hugh Palliser Admiral (Royal Navy), Admiral Sir Hugh Palliser, 1st Baronet (26 February 1723 – 19 March 1796) was a Royal Navy officer. As captain of the 60-gun HMS Eagle (1745), HMS ''Eagle'' he engaged and defeated the French 50-gun ''Duc d'Aquitain'' off ...
thereafter. In October and November 1755, he took part in ''Eagles capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to
boatswain A boatswain ( , ), bo's'n, bos'n, or bosun, also known as a Petty Officer, deck boss, or a qualified member of the deck department, is the seniormost rate of the deck department The deck department is an organisational team on board and sh ...
in addition to his other duties. His first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was briefly master of ''Cruizer'', a small cutter attached to ''Eagle'' while on patrol. In June 1757 Cook formally passed his
master Master or masters may refer to: Ranks or titles *Ascended master Ascended masters in the Ascended Master Teachings of a number of movements in the theosophical tradition are believed to be spiritually enlightened beings who in past incarn ...
's examinations at
Trinity House "Three In One" , formation = , founding_location = Deptford, London, England , status = Royal Charter corporation and registered charity , purpose = Maintenance of lighthouses, buoys and beacons , he ...

Trinity House
,
Deptford Deptford is an area on the south bank of the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known a ...

Deptford
, qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet. He then joined the frigate HMS ''Solebay'' as master under Captain Robert Craig.


Newfoundland

During the Seven Years' War, Cook served in North America as master aboard the
fourth-rate Image:The British vessel Europa approaching Port Mahon, Minorca - Anton Schranz.jpg, HMS ''Europa'' approaching Port Mahon, link=Special:FilePath/The_British_vessel_Europa_approching_Port_Mahon,_Minorca_-_Anton_Schranz.jpg In the rating system o ...
Navy vessel . With others in ''Pembroke''s crew, he took part in the major amphibious assault that captured the
Fortress of Louisbourg The Fortress of Louisbourg (french: Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a National Historic Sites of Canada, National Historic Site and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century Kingdom of France, French fortress at Louisbou ...

Fortress of Louisbourg
from the French in 1758, and in the siege of
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec), officially Québec (), is the capital city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the juri ...

Quebec City
in 1759. Throughout his service he demonstrated a talent for
surveying Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land survey ...

surveying
and
cartography Cartography (; from χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using s. Combining , , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that rea ...
and was responsible for mapping much of the entrance to the
Saint Lawrence River The St. Lawrence River is a large river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its c ...
during the siege, thus allowing General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack during the 1759
Battle of the Plains of Abraham The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec (french: Bataille des Plaines d'Abraham, Première bataille de Québec), was a pivotal battle in the (referred to as the to describe the North American ). The battle, whi ...
. Cook's surveying ability was also put to use in mapping the jagged coast of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
in the 1760s, aboard . He surveyed the northwest stretch in 1763 and 1764, the south coast between the
Burin Peninsula The Burin Peninsula ( ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usual ...
and
Cape Ray Cape Ray is a headland located at the southwestern extremity of the island of Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic re ...
in 1765 and 1766, and the west coast in 1767. At this time, Cook employed local pilots to point out the "rocks and hidden dangers" along the south and west coasts. During the 1765 season, four pilots were engaged at a daily pay of 4
shilling The shilling is a historical coin, and the name of a unit of modern currencies A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-D ...
s each: John Beck for the coast west of " Great St Lawrence", Morgan Snook for
Fortune Bay Fortune Bay ( French: ''baie Fortune'') is a fairly large natural bay located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the south coast of Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Can ...
, John Dawson for Connaigre and
Hermitage Bay Hermitage Bay is an expansive bay stretching out along the south coast of Newfoundland. It is a body of Gulf of St. Lawrence which is near the Connaigre Peninsula. On its south, it is bordered by the Hermitage peninsula and the communities of Seal C ...
, and John Peck for the " Bay of Despair". While in Newfoundland, Cook also conducted astronomical observations, in particular of the eclipse of the sun on 5 August 1766. By obtaining an accurate estimate of the time of the start and finish of the eclipse, and comparing these with the timings at a known position in England it was possible to calculate the longitude of the observation site in Newfoundland. This result was communicated to the Royal Society in 1767. His five seasons in Newfoundland produced the first large-scale and accurate maps of the island's coasts and were the first scientific, large scale, hydrographic surveys to use precise
triangulation In trigonometry Trigonometry (from Greek '' trigōnon'', "triangle" and '' metron'', "measure") is a branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathe ...

triangulation
to establish land outlines. They also gave Cook his mastery of practical surveying, achieved under often adverse conditions, and brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society at a crucial moment both in his career and in the direction of British overseas discovery. Cook's maps were used into the 20th century, with copies being referenced by those sailing Newfoundland's waters for 200 years. Following on from his exertions in Newfoundland, Cook wrote that he intended to go not only "farther than any man has been before me, but as far as I think it is possible for a man to go".


First voyage (1768–1771)

On 25 May 1768, the Admiralty commissioned Cook to command a scientific voyage to the Pacific Ocean. The purpose of the voyage was to observe and record the 1769
transit of Venus A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a inferior and superior planets, superior planet, becoming visible against (and hence obscuring a small portion of) the solar disk. During ...

transit of Venus
across the
Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

Sun
which, when combined with observations from other places, would help to determine the distance of the Earth from the Sun. Cook, at age 39, was promoted to
lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, i ...
to grant him sufficient status to take the command. For its part, the Royal Society agreed that Cook would receive a one hundred
guinea Guinea (), officially the Republic of Guinea (french: link=no, République de Guinée), is a coastal country in West Africa. Guinea borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Guinea-Bissau to the northwest, Senegal to the north, Mali to the no ...
gratuity in addition to his Naval pay. The expedition sailed aboard , departing England on 26 August 1768. Cook and his crew rounded
Cape Horn Cape Horn ( es, Cabo de Hornos, ) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego #REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego#REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire", formerly also Fireland in English) is an archipelag ...
and continued westward across the Pacific, arriving at
Tahiti Tahiti (; Tahitian ; ; previously also known as Otaheite) is the largest island of the Windward group of the Society Islands The Society Islands (french: Îles de la Société, officially ''Archipel de la Société;'' ty, Tōtaiete mā) a ...

Tahiti
on 13 April 1769, where the observations of the transit were made. However, the result of the observations was not as conclusive or accurate as had been hoped. Once the observations were completed, Cook opened the sealed orders, which were additional instructions from the Admiralty for the second part of his voyage: to search the south Pacific for signs of the postulated rich southern continent of ''
Terra Australis Terra Australis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...
''. Cook then sailed to New Zealand where he mapped the complete coastline, making only some minor errors. With the aid of Tupaia, a Tahitian priest who had joined the expedition, Cook was the first European to communicate with the Māori. He then voyaged west, reaching the southeastern coast of Australia on 19 April 1770, and in doing so his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline.At this time, the
International Date Line The International Date Line (IDL) is an internationally accepted demarcation on the Earth#Surface, surface of Earth, running between the South Pole and North Pole and serving as the boundary between one calendar day and the next. It passes ...

International Date Line
had yet to be established, so the dates in Cook's journal are a day earlier than those accepted today.
On 23 April, he made his first recorded direct observation of
indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
at
Brush Island The Brush Island is a continental island, contained within the Brush Island Nature Reserve, a protected nature reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserv ...
near
Bawley Point Bawley Point is a small coastal hamlet in New South Wales, Australia, in the Shoalhaven with a population of 698 people at the . It is located 30 minutes south of Ulladulla, New South Wales, and 30 minutes north of Batemans Bay, New South Wales, ...
, noting in his journal: "... and were so near the Shore as to distinguish several people upon the Sea beach they appear'd to be of a very dark or black Colour but whether this was the real colour of their skins or the C thes they might have on I know not." On 29 April, Cook and crew made their first landfall on the mainland of the continent at a place now known as the Kurnell Peninsula. Cook originally named the area "Stingray Bay", but later he crossed this out and named it "
Botany Bay Botany Bay (Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****A ...
" after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists
Joseph Banks Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English Natural history, naturalist, botanist, and patron of the natural sciences. Banks made his name on the 1766 natural-history expedition to Newfoundland and Labrador. He took part in ...
and
Daniel Solander Daniel Carlsson Solander or Daniel Charles Solander (19 February 1733 – 13 May 1782) was a Swedish naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural envi ...

Daniel Solander
. It is here that Cook made first contact with an aboriginal tribe known as the
Gweagal The Gweagal (also spelt Gwiyagal) are a clan of the Dharawal The Dharawal, or Tharawal, people are Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before History of Au ...
. After his departure from Botany Bay, he continued northwards. He stopped at Bustard Bay (now known as Seventeen Seventy) on 23 May 1770. On 24 May, Cook and Banks and others went ashore. Continuing north, on 11 June a mishap occurred when ''Endeavour'' ran aground on a shoal of the
Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of Colony (biology), colonies of coral polyp (zoology), polyps held tog ...

Great Barrier Reef
, and then "nursed into a river mouth on 18 June 1770". The ship was badly damaged, and his voyage was delayed almost seven weeks while repairs were carried out on the beach (near the docks of modern
Cooktown, Queensland Cooktown is a coastal town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian stat ...
, at the mouth of the
Endeavour River The Endeavour River ( Guugu Yimithirr: ''Wabalumbaal''), inclusive of the Endeavour River Right Branch, the Endeavour River South Branch, and the Endeavour River North Branch, is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usuall ...

Endeavour River
). The voyage then continued and at about midday on 22 August 1770, they reached the northernmost tip of the coast and, without leaving the ship, Cook named it York Cape (now Cape York). Leaving the east coast, Cook turned west and nursed his battered ship through the dangerously shallow waters of
Torres Strait The Torres Strait (), also known as Zenadh Kes, is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both s ...

Torres Strait
. Searching for a vantage point, Cook saw a steep hill on a nearby island from the top of which he hoped to see "a passage into the Indian Seas". Cook named the island Possession Island, where he claimed the entire coastline that he had just explored as British territory. He returned to England via Batavia (modern
Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the lette ...

Jakarta
, Indonesia), where many in his crew succumbed to
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
, and then the
Cape of Good Hope A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially when combined with a Hood (headgear), hood in the Chaperon (headgear), ...

Cape of Good Hope
, arriving at the island of
Saint Helena Saint Helena () is a British possession in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote volcanic tropical island west of the coast of south-western Africa, and east of Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (; ;), or simply Rio, is the List of larges ...

Saint Helena
on 30 April 1771. The ship finally returned to England on 12 July 1771, anchoring in The Downs, with Cook going to Deal.


Interlude

Cook's journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero among the scientific community. Among the general public, however, the aristocratic botanist Joseph Banks was a greater hero. Banks even attempted to take command of Cook's second voyage but removed himself from the voyage before it began, and
Johann Reinhold Forster Johann Reinhold Forster (22 October 1729 – 9 December 1798) was a German Continental Reformed church, Reformed (Calvinist) pastor and natural history, naturalist of partially Scottish descent who made contributions to the early ornithology of ...

Johann Reinhold Forster
and his son
Georg Forster Johann George Adam Forster, also known as Georg Forster (, 27 November 1754 – 10 January 1794), was a German naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology Biology is the natural scienc ...

Georg Forster
were taken on as scientists for the voyage. Cook's son George was born five days before he left for his second voyage.


Second voyage (1772–1775)

Shortly after his return from the first voyage, Cook was promoted in August 1771 to the rank of
commander Commander is a common naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfa ...
. In 1772, he was commissioned to lead another scientific expedition on behalf of the Royal Society, to search for the hypothetical Terra Australis. On his first voyage, Cook had demonstrated by circumnavigating New Zealand that it was not attached to a larger landmass to the south. Although he charted almost the entire eastern coastline of Australia, showing it to be continental in size, the Terra Australis was believed to lie further south. Despite this evidence to the contrary,
Alexander Dalrymple Alexander Dalrymple FRS (24 July 1737 – 19 June 1808) was a Scottish geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist and humanist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human ...
and others of the Royal Society still believed that a massive southern continent should exist. Cook commanded on this voyage, while
Tobias Furneaux Captain Tobias Furneaux (21 August 173518 September 1781) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early ...

Tobias Furneaux
commanded its companion ship, . Cook's expedition circumnavigated the globe at an extreme southern
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
, becoming one of the first to cross the
Antarctic Circle The Antarctic Circle is the most southerly of the five major circles of latitude The Mercator projection and its use on a world map. This projection first came into use in the 16th century by the Dutch. A circle of latitude or line of lati ...

Antarctic Circle
on 17 January 1773. In the Antarctic fog, ''Resolution'' and ''Adventure'' became separated. Furneaux made his way to New Zealand, where he lost some of his men during an encounter with Māori, and eventually sailed back to Britain, while Cook continued to explore the Antarctic, reaching 71°10'S on 31 January 1774. Cook almost encountered the mainland of
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
but turned towards Tahiti to resupply his ship. He then resumed his southward course in a second fruitless attempt to find the supposed continent. On this leg of the voyage, he brought a young Tahitian named
Omai 200px, upSir Joshua Reynolds, ''Portrait of Omai, a South Sea Islander who travelled to England with the second expedition of Captain Cook'', 1776 Mai (c.1751-1780), known as Omai in Britain, was a young Ra'iatean man who became the second Pac ...
, who proved to be somewhat less knowledgeable about the Pacific than Tupaia had been on the first voyage. On his return voyage to New Zealand in 1774, Cook landed at the
Friendly Islands Tonga (; Tongan: ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( Tongan: ''Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga''), is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from gr, πολύς ''polys'' "many" and gr, νῆσος ''nēsos'' "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia ...

Friendly Islands
,
Easter Island Easter Island ( rap, Rapa Nui; es, Isla de Pascua) is an island and special territory of Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a continent ...

Easter Island
,
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island (, ; Norfuk language, Norfuk: ''Norf'k Ailen'') is an States and territories of Australia, external territory of Australia located in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia, directly east of Australia's Evans ...
,
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , s ...

New Caledonia
, and
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama Bislama (; ; also known by its earlier French name, ) is a creole language, and one of the official languages of Vanuatu. It is the fi ...

Vanuatu
. Before returning to England, Cook made a final sweep across the South Atlantic from
Cape Horn Cape Horn ( es, Cabo de Hornos, ) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego #REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego#REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire", formerly also Fireland in English) is an archipelag ...
and surveyed, mapped, and took possession for Britain of
South Georgia South Georgia ( es, Isla San Pedro, pt, Ilha São Pedro / Geórgia do Sul) is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British Overseas Territory The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom O ...

South Georgia
, which had been explored by the English merchant
Anthony de la Roché Anthony de la Roché, born sometime in the 17th century, (spelled also ''Antoine de la Roché'', ''Antonio de la Roché'' or ''Antonio de la Roca'' in some sources) was an English merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities ...
in 1675. Cook also discovered and named
Clerke Rocks The Clerke Rocks are a group of small rocky islands some southeast of South Georgia that extend from east to west. The Clerke Rocks include The Office Boys () at the northeastern end and Nobby (Spanish: ''Islote Llamativo'' or ''Roca Notable'' ...
and the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Sandwich Islands ("Sandwich Land"). He then turned north to South Africa and from there continued back to England. His reports upon his return home put to rest the popular myth of Terra Australis. Cook's second voyage marked a successful employment of Larcum Kendall#K1, Larcum Kendall's K1 copy of John Harrison's H4 marine chronometer, which enabled Cook to calculate his longitudinal position with much greater accuracy. Cook's log was full of praise for this time-piece which he used to make charts of the southern Pacific Ocean that were so remarkably accurate that copies of them were still in use in the mid-20th century. Upon his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of post-captain and given an honorary retirement from the Royal Navy, with a posting as an officer of the Greenwich Hospital, London, Greenwich Hospital. He reluctantly accepted, insisting that he be allowed to quit the post if an opportunity for active duty should arise. His fame extended beyond the Admiralty; he was made a Royal Society, Fellow of the Royal Society and awarded the Copley Medal, Copley Gold Medal for completing his second voyage without losing a man to scurvy. Nathaniel Dance-Holland painted his portrait; he dined with James Boswell; he was described in the House of Lords as "the first navigator in Europe". But he could not be kept away from the sea. A third voyage was planned, and Cook volunteered to find the Northwest Passage. He travelled to the Pacific and hoped to travel east to the Atlantic, while a simultaneous voyage travelled the opposite route.


Third voyage (1776–1779)


Hawaii

On his last voyage, Cook again commanded HMS ''Resolution'', while Captain Charles Clerke commanded . The voyage was ostensibly planned to return the Pacific Islander
Omai 200px, upSir Joshua Reynolds, ''Portrait of Omai, a South Sea Islander who travelled to England with the second expedition of Captain Cook'', 1776 Mai (c.1751-1780), known as Omai in Britain, was a young Ra'iatean man who became the second Pac ...
to Tahiti, or so the public was led to believe. The trip's principal goal was to locate a Northwest Passage around the American continent. After dropping Omai at Tahiti, Cook travelled north and in 1778 became the first European to begin formal contact with the
Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands ( haw, Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the Pacific Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the Hawaii (island), island o ...
. After his initial landfall in January 1778 at Waimea, Kauai County, Hawaii, Waimea harbour, Kauai, Cook named the archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, fourth Earl of Sandwich—the acting Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, First Lord of the Admiralty.


North America

From the Sandwich Islands, Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California. He sighted the Oregon coast at approximately 44°30′ north latitude, naming Cape Foulweather, after the bad weather which forced his ships south to about 43rd parallel north, 43° north before they could begin their exploration of the coast northward. He unknowingly sailed past the Strait of Juan de Fuca and soon after entered Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island. He anchored near the First Nations village of Yuquot, British Columbia, Yuquot. Cook's two ships remained in Nootka Sound from 29 March to 26 April 1778, in what Cook called Ship Cove, now Resolution Cove, at the south end of Bligh Island (Canada), Bligh Island. Relations between Cook's crew and the people of Yuquot were cordial but sometimes strained. In trading, the people of Yuquot demanded much more valuable items than the usual trinkets that had been acceptable in Hawaii. Metal objects were much desired, but the lead, pewter, and tin traded at first soon fell into disrepute. The most valuable items which the British received in trade were sea otter pelts. During the stay, the Yuquot "hosts" essentially controlled the trade with the British vessels; the natives usually visited the British vessels at Resolution Cove instead of the British visiting the village of Yuquot at Friendly Cove. After leaving Nootka Sound in search of the Northwest Passage, Cook explored and mapped the coast all the way to the Bering Strait, on the way identifying what came to be known as Cook Inlet in Alaska. In a single visit, Cook charted the majority of the North American northwest coastline on world maps for the first time, determined the extent of Alaska, and closed the gaps in Russian (from the west) and Spanish (from the south) exploratory probes of the northern limits of the Pacific. By the second week of August 1778, Cook was through the Bering Strait, sailing into the Chukchi Sea. He headed northeast up the coast of Alaska until he was blocked by sea ice at a latitude of 70°44′ north. Cook then sailed west to the Siberian coast, and then southeast down the Siberian coast back to the Bering Strait. By early September 1778 he was back in the Bering Sea to begin the trip to the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands. He became increasingly frustrated on this voyage and perhaps began to suffer from a stomach ailment; it has been speculated that this led to irrational behaviour towards his crew, such as forcing them to eat walrus meat, which they had pronounced inedible.


Return to Hawaii

Cook returned to Hawaii in 1779. After sailing around the archipelago for some eight weeks, he made landfall at Kealakekua Bay on Hawaii (island), Hawai'i Island, largest island in the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiian Archipelago. Cook's arrival coincided with the ''Makahiki'', a Hawaiian harvest festival of worship for the Polynesian god Lono. Coincidentally the form of Cook's ship, HMS ''Resolution'', or more particularly the mast formation, sails and rigging, resembled certain significant artefacts that formed part of the season of worship. Similarly, Cook's clockwise route around the island of Hawaii before making landfall resembled the processions that took place in a clockwise direction around the island during the Lono festivals. It has been argued (most extensively by Marshall Sahlins) that such coincidences were the reasons for Cook's (and to a limited extent, his crew's) initial Apotheosis, deification by some Hawaiians who treated Cook as an incarnation of Lono. Though this view was first suggested by members of Cook's expedition, the idea that any Hawaiians understood Cook to be Lono, and the evidence presented in support of it, were challenged in 1992.


Death

After a month's stay, Cook attempted to resume his exploration of the northern Pacific. Shortly after leaving Hawaii Island, however, ''Resolution''s foremast broke, so the ships returned to Kealakekua Bay for repairs. Tensions rose, and a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians at Kealakekua Bay, including the theft of wood from a burial ground under Cook's orders. An unknown group of Hawaiians took one of Cook's small boats. The evening when the cutter was taken, the people had become "insolent" even with threats to fire upon them. Cook attempted to kidnap and ransom the Alii Aimoku of Hawaii, King of Hawaiʻi,
Kalaniʻōpuʻu Kalaniōpuu-a-Kaiamamao (c. 1729 – April 1782) was the aliʻi nui (supreme monarch) of the island of Hawaiʻi. He was called ''Terreeoboo, King of Owhyhee'' by James Cook and other Europeans. His name has also been written as Kaleiopuu. Biog ...
. The following day, 14 February 1779, Cook marched through the village to retrieve the king. Cook took the king (Ali'i, aliʻi nui) by his own hand and led him away. One of Kalaniʻōpuʻu's favourite wives, Kanekapolei, and two chiefs approached the group as they were heading to the boats. They pleaded with the king not to go. An old kahuna (priest), chanting rapidly while holding out a coconut, attempted to distract Cook and his men as a large crowd began to form at the shore. At this point, the king began to understand that Cook was his enemy. As Cook turned his back to help launch the boats, he was struck on the head by the villagers and then stabbed to death as he fell on his face in the Breaking wave, surf. He was first struck on the head with a club by a chief named Kalaimanokahoʻowaha or Kanaʻina (namesake of Charles Kana'ina) and then stabbed by one of the king's attendants, Nuaa. The Hawaiians carried his body away towards the back of the town, still visible to the ship through their spyglass. Four marines, Corporal James Thomas, Private Theophilus Hinks, Private Thomas Fatchett and Private John Allen, were also killed and two others were wounded in the confrontation.


Aftermath

The esteem which the islanders nevertheless held for Cook caused them to retain his body. Following their practice of the time, they prepared his body with funerary rituals usually reserved for the chiefs and highest elders of the society. The body was Disembowelment, disembowelled and baked to facilitate Excarnation, removal of the flesh, and the bones were carefully cleaned for preservation as Icon, religious icons in a fashion somewhat reminiscent of the treatment of European saints in the Middle Ages. Some of Cook's remains, thus preserved, were eventually returned to his crew for a formal burial at sea. Clerke assumed leadership of the expedition and made a final attempt to pass through the Bering Strait. He died of tuberculosis on 22 August 1779 and John Gore (Royal Navy captain), John Gore, a veteran of Cook's first voyage, took command of ''Resolution'' and of the expedition. James King (Royal Navy officer), James King replaced Gore in command of ''Discovery''. The expedition returned home, reaching England in October 1780. After their arrival in England, King completed Cook's account of the voyage.


Legacy


Ethnographic collections

The Australian Museum acquired its "Cook Collection" in 1894 from the Government of New South Wales. At that time the collection consisted of 115 artefacts collected on Cook's three voyages throughout the Pacific Ocean, during the period 1768–80, along with documents and memorabilia related to these voyages. Many of the Ethnography, ethnographic artefacts were collected at a time of first contact between Pacific Islander, Pacific Peoples and Europeans. In 1935 most of the documents and memorabilia were transferred to the Mitchell Library in the State Library of New South Wales. The provenance of the collection shows that the objects remained in the hands of Cook's widow Elizabeth Cook, and her descendants, until 1886. In this year John Mackrell, the great-nephew of Isaac Smith (Royal Navy officer), Isaac Smith, Elizabeth Cook's cousin, organised the display of this collection at the request of the NSW Government at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London. In 1887 the London-based Agent-General for the New South Wales Government, Saul Samuel, bought John Mackrell's items and also acquired items belonging to the other relatives Reverend Canon Frederick Bennett, Mrs Thomas Langton, H.M.C. Alexander, and William Adams. The collection remained with the Colonial Secretary of NSW until 1894, when it was transferred to the Australian Museum.


Navigation and science

Cook's 12 years sailing around the Pacific Ocean contributed much to Europeans' knowledge of the area. Several islands, such as the Hawaiian group, were encountered for the first time by Europeans, and his more accurate navigational charting of large areas of the Pacific was a major achievement. To create accurate maps, latitude and longitude must be accurately determined. Navigators had been able to work out latitude accurately for centuries by measuring the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon with an instrument such as a backstaff or Quadrant (instrument), quadrant. Longitude was more difficult to measure accurately because it requires precise knowledge of the time difference between points on the surface of the earth. The Earth turns a full 360 degrees relative to the sun each day. Thus longitude corresponds to time: 15 degrees every hour, or 1 degree every 4 minutes. Cook gathered accurate longitude measurements during his first voyage from his navigational skills, with the help of astronomer Charles Green (astronomer), Charles Green, and by using the newly published The Nautical Almanac, ''Nautical Almanac'' tables, via the Lunar distance (navigation), lunar distance method – measuring the angular distance from the moon to either the sun during daytime or one of eight bright stars during night-time to determine the time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and comparing that to his local time determined via the altitude of the sun, moon, or stars. On his second voyage, Cook used the K1 chronometer made by Larcum Kendall, which was the shape of a large pocket watch, in diameter. It was a copy of the Harrison Number Four, H4 clock made by John Harrison, which proved to be the first to keep accurate time at sea when used on the ship ''Deptford''s journey to Jamaica in 1761–62. He succeeded in circumnavigating the world on his first voyage without losing a single man to scurvy, an unusual accomplishment at the time. He tested several preventive measures, most importantly the frequent replenishment of fresh food. For presenting a paper on this aspect of the voyage to the Royal Society he was presented with the Copley Medal in 1776. Cook became the first European to have extensive contact with various people of the Pacific. He correctly postulated a link among all the Pacific peoples, despite their being separated by great ocean stretches (see Malayo-Polynesian languages). Cook theorised that Polynesians originated from Asia, which scientist Bryan Sykes later verified. In New Zealand the coming of Cook is often used to signify the onset of the colonisation which officially started more than 70 years after his crew became the second group of Europeans to visit that archipelago. Cook carried several scientists on his voyages; they made significant observations and discoveries. Two botanists,
Joseph Banks Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English Natural history, naturalist, botanist, and patron of the natural sciences. Banks made his name on the 1766 natural-history expedition to Newfoundland and Labrador. He took part in ...
and the Swede
Daniel Solander Daniel Carlsson Solander or Daniel Charles Solander (19 February 1733 – 13 May 1782) was a Swedish naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural envi ...

Daniel Solander
, sailed on the first voyage. The two collected over 3,000 plant species. Banks subsequently strongly promoted British settlement of Australia, leading to the establishment of New South Wales as a penal settlement in 1788. Artists also sailed on Cook's first voyage. Sydney Parkinson was heavily involved in documenting the botanists' findings, completing 264 drawings before his death near the end of the voyage. They were of immense scientific value to British botanists. Cook's second expedition included William Hodges, who produced notable Landscape art, landscape paintings of
Tahiti Tahiti (; Tahitian ; ; previously also known as Otaheite) is the largest island of the Windward group of the Society Islands The Society Islands (french: Îles de la Société, officially ''Archipel de la Société;'' ty, Tōtaiete mā) a ...

Tahiti
,
Easter Island Easter Island ( rap, Rapa Nui; es, Isla de Pascua) is an island and special territory of Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a continent ...

Easter Island
, and other locations. Several officers who served under Cook went on to distinctive accomplishments. William Bligh, Cook's sailing master, was given command of in 1787 to sail to Tahiti and return with breadfruit. Bligh became known for the Mutiny on the Bounty, mutiny of his crew, which resulted in his being set adrift in 1789. He later became Governor of New South Wales, where he was the subject of another mutiny—the 1808 Rum Rebellion. George Vancouver, one of Cook's Midshipman, midshipmen, led a Vancouver Expedition, voyage of exploration to the Pacific Coast of North America from 1791 to 1794. In honour of Vancouver's former commander, his ship was named . George Dixon (Royal Navy officer), George Dixon, who sailed under Cook on his third expedition, later commanded his own. Henry Roberts (Royal Navy officer), Henry Roberts, a lieutenant under Cook, spent many years after that voyage preparing the detailed charts that went into Cook's posthumous atlas, published around 1784. Cook's contributions to knowledge gained international recognition during his lifetime. In 1779, while the Thirteen Colonies, American colonies were American Revolutionary War, fighting Britain for their independence, Benjamin Franklin wrote to captains of colonial warships at sea, recommending that if they came into contact with Cook's vessel, they were to "not consider her an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in her, nor obstruct her immediate return to England by detaining her or sending her into any other part of Europe or to America; but that you treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness ... as common friends to mankind."


Memorials

A U.S. coin, the 1928 Hawaii Sesquicentennial half-dollar, carries Cook's image. Minted for the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage (10,008) has made this example of Early United States commemorative coins both scarce and expensive. The Kealakekua Bay, site where he was killed in Hawaii was marked in 1874 by a white obelisk set on of chained-off beach. This land, although in Hawaii, was deeded to the United Kingdom by Princess Likelike and her husband, Archibald Scott Cleghorn, to the British Consul to Hawaii, James Hay Wodehouse, in 1877. A nearby town is named Captain Cook, Hawaii; several Hawaiian businesses also carry his name. The Apollo 15 Apollo Command/Service Module, Command/Service Module ''Endeavour'' was named after Cook's ship, , as was the . In addition, the first Crew Dragon capsule flown by SpaceX was named for ''Endeavour.'' Another shuttle, Space Shuttle Discovery, ''Discovery'', was named after Cook's . The first institution of higher education in North Queensland, Australia, was named after him, with James Cook University opening in Townsville in 1970. Numerous institutions, landmarks and place names reflect the importance of Cook's contributions, including the Cook Islands, Cook Strait, Cook Inlet and the Cook (crater), Cook crater on the Moon. Aoraki / Mount Cook, the highest summit in New Zealand, is named for him. Another Mount Cook (Saint Elias Mountains), Mount Cook is on the border between the U.S. state of Alaska and the Canadian Yukon territory, and is designated Boundary Peak 182 as one of the official List of Boundary Peaks of the Alaska – British Columbia/Yukon border, Boundary Peaks of the Hay–Herbert Treaty. A life-size statue of Cook upon a column stands in Hyde Park, Sydney, Hyde Park located in the centre of Sydney. A large aquatic monument is planned for Cook's landing place at
Botany Bay Botany Bay (Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****A ...
, Sydney. One of the earliest monuments to Cook in the United Kingdom is located at The Vache, erected in 1780 by Admiral
Hugh Palliser Admiral (Royal Navy), Admiral Sir Hugh Palliser, 1st Baronet (26 February 1723 – 19 March 1796) was a Royal Navy officer. As captain of the 60-gun HMS Eagle (1745), HMS ''Eagle'' he engaged and defeated the French 50-gun ''Duc d'Aquitain'' off ...
, a contemporary of Cook and one-time owner of the estate. A large obelisk was built in 1827 as a monument to Cook on Easby Moor overlooking his boyhood village of
Great Ayton Great Ayton is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, ...
, along with a smaller monument at the former location of Cook's cottage. There is also a monument to Cook in the church of St Andrew the Great, St Andrew's Street, Cambridge, where his sons Hugh, a student at Christ's College, and James were buried. Cook's widow Elizabeth was also buried in the church and in her will left money for the memorial's upkeep. The 250th anniversary of Cook's birth was marked at the site of his birthplace in Marton by the opening of the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum, located within Stewart Park Middlesbrough, Stewart Park (1978). A granite vase just to the south of the museum marks the approximate spot where he was born. Tributes also abound in post-industrial Middlesbrough, including a primary school, shopping square and the ''Bottle 'O Notes'', a public artwork by Claes Oldenburg, that was erected in the town's Central Gardens in 1993. Also named after Cook is James Cook University Hospital, a major teaching hospital which opened in 2003 with a railway station serving it called James Cook railway station, James Cook opening in 2014. The Royal Research Ship RRS James Cook, RRS ''James Cook'' was built in 2006 to replace the RRS Charles Darwin, RRS ''Charles Darwin'' in the UK's Royal Research Fleet, and Stepney Historical Trust placed a plaque on Free Trade Wharf in the Highway, Shadwell to commemorate his life in the East End of London. A Statue of Captain James Cook, The Mall, statue erected in his honour can be viewed near Admiralty Arch on the south side of The Mall, London, The Mall in London. In 2002, Cook was placed at number 12 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. In 1959, the Cooktown Re-enactment Association first performed a re-enactment of Cook's 1770 landing at the site of modern Cooktown, Australia, and have continued the tradition each year, with the support and participation of many of the local Guugu Yimithirr people.


Cultural references

Cook was a subject in many literary creations; one of the earliest was "Captain Cook" by Letitia Elizabeth Landon (L.E.L.). In 1931, Kenneth Slessor's poem "Five Visions of Captain Cook" was the "most dramatic break-through" in Australian poetry of the 20th century according to poet Douglas Stewart (poet), Douglas Stewart. The Australian slang phrase "Have a Captain Cook" means to have a look or conduct a brief inspection.


Controversy

The period 2018 to 2021 marked the 250th anniversary of Cook's first voyage of exploration. A number of countries, including Australia and New Zealand, arranged official events to commemorate the voyage leading to widespread public debate about Cook's legacy. In the leadup to the commemorations, various memorials to Cook in Australia and New Zealand were vandalised and there were public calls for their removal or modification due to their alleged promotion of colonialist narratives. On 1 July 2021, a statue of James Cook in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, was torn down following an earlier peaceful protest about the deaths of Indigenous residential school children in Canada. There were also campaigns for the return of Indigenous artefacts taken during Cook's voyages (see Gweagal, Gweagal Shield). Alice Proctor argues that the controversies over public representations of Cook and the display of Indigenous artefacts from his voyages are part of a broader debate over the Indigenous decolonization, decolonisation of museums and public spaces and resistance to colonialist narratives. While a number of commentators argue that Cook was an enabler of British colonialism in the Pacific, Blainey, among others, notes that it was Banks who promoted Botany Bay as a site for colonisation after Cook's death. Cambridge professor Robert Tombs defended Cook, associating him with the values of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment and positing him as "The leading figure in an age of scientific exploration".


See also

* New Zealand places named by James Cook * Australian places named by James Cook * European and American voyages of scientific exploration * Exploration of the Pacific * List of places named after Captain James Cook * List of sea captains * ''Death of Cook'' (paintings)


References


Notes


Citations


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * * *
Volume I
* * * Richardson, Brian. (2005) ''Longitude and Empire: How Captain Cook's Voyages Changed the World'' (University of British Columbia Press.) . * Sydney Daily Telegraph (1970) ''Captain Cook: His Artists – His Voyages'' The Sydney Daily Telegraph Portfolio of Original Works by Artists who sailed with Captain Cook. Australian Consolidated Press, Sydney * Thomas, Nicholas ''The Extraordinary Voyages of Captain James Cook''. Walker & Co., New York. (2003) * Jenny Uglow, Uglow, Jenny, "Island Hopping" (review of ''Captain James Cook: The Journals'', selected and edited by Philip Edwards, London, Folio Society, three volumes and a chart of the voyages, 1,309 pp.; and William Frame with Laura Walker, ''James Cook: The Voyages'', McGill-Queen University Press, 224 pp.), ''The New York Review of Books'', vol. LXVI, no. 2 (7 February 2019), pp. 18–20. * * * Withey, Lynne. ''Voyages of discovery: Captain Cook and the exploration of the Pacific'' (Univ of California Press, 1989).


External links


Captain Cook Society


* *


Biographical dictionaries

* * *


Journals


''The Endeavour'' journal (1)
an
''The Endeavour'' journal (2)
as kept by James Cook – digitised and held by the National Library of Australia
The South Seas Project
maps and online editions of the Journals of James Cook's First Pacific Voyage, 1768–1771. Includes full text of journals kept by Cook, Joseph Banks and Sydney Parkinson, as well as the complete text of John Hawkesworth's 1773 Account of Cook's first voyage.

at th
British Atmospheric Data Centre
* * *
Log book of Cook's second voyage
high-resolution digitised version in Cambridge Digital Library

held at Auckland Libraries


Collections and museums


The Library of the Royal Geographical Society of South Australia specialises in collecting works on Captain James Cook, his voyages and HMS Endeavour

Cook's Pacific Encounters: Cook-Forster Collection online
Images and descriptions of more than 300 artefacts collected during the three Pacific voyages of James Cook.
Images and descriptions of items associated with James Cook at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
*


Captain Cook Memorial Museum Whitby

Cook's manuscript maps
of the south-east coast of Australia, held at the American Geographical Society Library at UW Milwaukee. * {{DEFAULTSORT:Cook, James James Cook, 1728 births 1779 deaths 18th-century English people 18th-century explorers Death in Hawaii English explorers of the Pacific British military personnel of the French and Indian War British navigators British people executed abroad Circumnavigators of the globe English cartographers English explorers of North America English hydrographers English people of Scottish descent English sailors Explorers of Alaska Explorers of Antarctica Explorers of Australia Explorers of British Columbia Explorers of New Zealand Explorers of Oregon Explorers of Washington (state) Fellows of the Royal Society Hydrographers Maritime writers People from Middlesbrough Persons of National Historic Significance (Canada) Recipients of the Copley Medal Royal Navy officers Q150 Icons Sea captains