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Islamism (also often called
political Islam Political Islam is any interpretation of Islam as a source of political identity and action. It can refer to a wide range of individuals and/or groups who advocate the formation of state and society according to their understanding of Islamic prin ...
or
Islamic fundamentalism Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who are of the view that Muslim majority countries should return to the fundamentals of an Islamic state, which truly show the essence of the system of Islam, in terms of its socio-p ...
) is a political
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of ...
which posits that modern
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
and
regions In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wor ...

regions
should be reconstituted in
constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be ...

constitutional
,
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...

economic
and
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
terms, in accordance with what is conceived as a revival or a return to authentic Islamic practice in its . Ideologies dubbed Islamist may advocate a "
revolutionary A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates a revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term ''revolutionary'' refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor. D ...
" strategy of Islamizing society through exercise of state power, or alternately a "
reformist Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to ...
" strategy to re-Islamizing society through
grassroots A grassroots movement is one that uses the people in a given district, region or community as the basis for a political or economic movement. Grassroots movements and organizations use collective action from the local level to effect change at th ...

grassroots
social and political
activism Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in Social change, social, Political campaign, political, Economics, economic, or Natural environment, environmental reform with the desire to make Social change, changes in so ...

activism
. Roy, ''Failure of Political Islam'', 1994: p. 24 Islamists may emphasize the implementation of
sharia Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action ...
,Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism
by Dale C. Eikmeier From ''Parameters'', Spring 2007, pp. 85–98. Accessed 6 February 2012
pan-Islamic Pan-Islamism ( ar, الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political) ...
political unity, the creation of
Islamic states An Islamic state is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislatu ...
, or the outright removal of influences; particularly of
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...

Western
or
universal Universal is the adjective for universe. Universal may also refer to: Companies * NBCUniversal, a media and entertainment company ** Universal Animation Studios, an American Animation studio, and a subsidiary of NBCUniversal ** Universal TV, a te ...
economic, military, political, social, or cultural nature in the
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether ...

Muslim world
; that they believe to be incompatible with
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
and a form of Western
neocolonialism Neocolonialism is the practice of using economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumpt ...
. Some analysts such as
Graham E. Fuller Graham E. Fuller (born November 28, 1937) is an American author and political analyst, specializing in Islamic extremism, Islamist extremism. Formerly vice-chair of the National Intelligence Council, he also served as Station Chief in Kabul for ...
describe it as a form of
identity politics Identity politics is a political approach wherein people of a particular gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of at ...
, involving "support for uslimidentity, authenticity, broader regionalism, revivalism, revitalization of the community." The term itself is not popular among many Islamists who believe it inherently implies violent tactics, human rights violations, and political extremism when used by Western mass media. Some authors prefer the term "Islamic activism", while Islamist political figures such as
Rached Ghannouchi Rached Ghannouchi ( ar, راشد الغنوشي, Rāshid al-Ghannūshī; born 22 June 1941), also spelled Rachid al-Ghannouchi or Rached el-Ghannouchi, is a Tunisian politician and is a thinker, co-founder of the Ennahdha Party The Ennahda ...

Rached Ghannouchi
use the term "Islamic movement" rather than Islamism. Central and prominent figures in 20th-century Islamism include ,
Hassan al-Banna Sheikh Sheikh ( , ; ar, شيخ ' , mostly pronounced , plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a grou ...

Hassan al-Banna
,
Sayyid Qutb Sayyid 'Ibrāhīm Ḥusayn Quṭb ( or ; , ; ar, سيد قطب إبراهيم حسين ''Sayyid Quṭb''; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966), known popularly as Sayyid Qutb ( ar, سيد قطب), was an Egyptian Egyptian describes someth ...

Sayyid Qutb
,
Abul A'la Maududi Abul A'la Maududi ( ur, , Abul Alā Mawdūdī – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, Mawdudi; – ) was an Islamic scholar, Islamism, Islamist ideologue, Muslim philosopher, jurist, historian, journalist, activist and scholar active ...
, Hasan al-Turabi,and
Ruhollah Khomeini Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( , ; fa, سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی ; 17 May 19003 June 1989), also known as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian political and religious leader. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic ...

Ruhollah Khomeini
. Many Islamist movements, such as the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
(designated as a
terrorist organization A number of national governments and two international organisations have created lists of organisations that they designate as terrorist. The following list of designated terrorist groups lists groups designated as terrorist by current and for ...
by
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf. The Island country, island nation c ...

Bahrain
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
,
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
,
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
and the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
), have been willing to pursue their ends by peaceful political processes, rather than revolutionary means.Hamid, Shadi (October 1, 2015)
What most people get wrong about political Islam
''Brookings''. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
Others, notably Qutb, called for
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Na ...

violence
, and his followers are generally considered
Islamic extremists Islamic extremism, Islamist extremism or radical Islam is extremism associated with the religion of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, wheth ...
. However, Qutb openly denounced the killing of innocents. According to
Robin Wright Robin Gayle Wright (born April 8, 1966) is an American actress and director. She has won a Golden Globe Award and a Satellite Award, and has received eleven Emmy Award nominations for her work in television. Wright first gained attention for he ...
, Islamist movements have "arguably altered the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
more than any trend since the modern states gained independence", redefining "politics and even borders". Following the
Arab Spring The Arab Spring ( ar, الربيع العربي) was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Arab world in the early 2010s. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low stand ...
, some Islamist currents became heavily involved in
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...

democratic
politics, while others spawned "the most aggressive and ambitious Islamist
militia A militia () is generally an army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-b ...
" to date, such as the
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are ...
(ISIL). Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts. The term can refer to diverse forms of social and political activism advocating that public and political life should be guided by Islamic principles. In academic usage, the term ''Islamism'' does not specify what vision of "Islamic order" or sharia is being advocated, or how the advocates intend to bring about that vision.


Terminology

The term ''Islamism'', which originally denoted the religion of Islam, first appeared in the English language as ''Islamismus'' in 1696, and as ''Islamism'' in 1712. The term appears in the U.S. Supreme Court decision in ''In Re Ross'' (1891). By the turn of the twentieth century the shorter and purely Arabic term "Islam" had begun to displace it, and by 1938, when Orientalist scholars completed ''The
Encyclopaedia of Islam The ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' (''EI'') is an encyclopaedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or dis ...
'', ''Islamism'' seems to have virtually disappeared from English usage. The term "Islamism" acquired its contemporary connotations in French academia in the late 1970s and early 1980s. From French, it began to migrate to the English language in the mid-1980s, and in recent years has largely displaced the term
Islamic fundamentalism Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who are of the view that Muslim majority countries should return to the fundamentals of an Islamic state, which truly show the essence of the system of Islam, in terms of its socio-p ...
in academic circles. The new use of the term "Islamism" at first functioned as "a marker for scholars more likely to sympathize" with new Islamic movements; however, as the term gained popularity it became more specifically associated with political groups such as the
Taliban The Taliban (; ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students or 'seekers'), which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban Islamic Movement and/or Islamic Movement of Taliban is a Deobandi Deobandi ( hi, देव ...

Taliban
or the Algerian
Armed Islamic Group The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from french: Groupe islamique armé; ar, الجماعة الإسلامية المسلّحة), was one of the two main Islamist insurgents groups that fought the Algerian government and army An army (from Latin '' ...
, as well as with highly publicized acts of violence. "Islamists" who have spoken out against the use of the term, insisting they are merely "Muslims", include
Ayatollah Ayatollah ( or ; fa, آیت‌الله, āyatollāh) is an Honorific, honorific title for high-ranking Twelver Shia clergy in Iran that came into widespread usage in the 20th century. Etymology The title is originally derived from Arabic word ' ...

Ayatollah
Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah Grand Ayatollah Marji ( ar, مرجع ''marjiʿ''; plural: ''marājiʿ''), also known as a marji' taqlīd ( ar, مرجع تقليد) or marji' dīnī ( ar, مرجع ديني), literally meaning "source to follow" or "religious reference", is a ...
(1935-2010), the spiritual mentor of
Hezbollah Hezbollah (; ar, حزب الله ', literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God", also Romanization of Arabic, transliterated Hizbullah or Hizballah, among others) is a Lebanese Shia Islam, Shia Islamist political party and militant group, ...
, and
Abbassi Madani Abbassi Madani () (28 February 1931 – 24 April 2019) was an Algerian politician who was the President of the Islamic Salvation Front. As its leader, he became the voice of a large part of the dispossessed Algerian youth. Career Madani was born a ...
(1931- ), leader of the Algerian
Islamic Salvation Front The Islamic Salvation Front ( ar, الجبهة الإسلامية للإنقاذ, ''al-Jabhah al-Islāmiyah lil-Inqādh''; french: Front Islamique du Salut, FIS) was an Islamist political party A political party is an organization that coor ...
. A 2003 article in the ''
Middle East Quarterly ''Middle East Quarterly'' (''MEQ'') is a quarterly journal, a publication of the think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing ...
'' states:
In summation, the term Islamism enjoyed its first run, lasting from Voltaire to the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
, as a synonym for Islam. Enlightened scholars and writers generally preferred it to
Mohammed ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...

Mohammed
anism. Eventually both terms yielded to Islam, the Arabic name of the faith, and a word free of either pejorative or comparative associations. There was no need for any other term, until the rise of an ideological and political interpretation of Islam challenged scholars and commentators to come up with an alternative, to distinguish Islam as modern ideology from Islam as a faith... To all intents and purposes, Islamic fundamentalism and Islamism have become synonyms in contemporary American usage.
The
Council on American–Islamic Relations The Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) is a Muslim civil rights and advocacy group. It is headquartered on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., with regional offices nationwide. Through civil rights actions, media relations, civic engage ...
complained in 2013 that the
Associated Press The Associated Press (AP) is an American non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, publ ...

Associated Press
's definition of "Islamist"—a "supporter of government in accord with the laws of Islam who view the Quran as a political model"—had become a pejorative shorthand for "Muslims we don't like". Mansoor Moaddel, a sociologist at
Eastern Michigan University Eastern Michigan University (EMU, EMich or simply Eastern), is a public university, public research university in Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States. The university was founded in 1849 as Michigan State Normal School. Today, the university is gove ...
, criticized it as "not a good term" because "the use of the term Islamist does not capture the phenomena that is quite heterogeneous." The
AP Stylebook The ''AP Stylebook'', also known by its full name ''The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law'', is an American-English grammar style and usage guide created by American journalists working for or connected with the Associated Pres ...
entry for ''Islamist'' reads as follows:
"An advocate or supporter of a political movement that favors reordering government and society in accordance with laws prescribed by Islam. Do not use as a synonym for Islamic fighters, militants, extremists or radicals, who may or may not be Islamists. Where possible, be specific and use the name of militant affiliations: al-Qaida-linked, Hezbollah, Taliban, etc. Those who view the Quran as a political model encompass a wide range of Muslims, from mainstream politicians to militants known as jihadi."


Overview


Definitions

Islamism has been defined as: * "the belief that Islam should guide social and political as well as personal life", * a form of "religionized politics" and an instance of
religious fundamentalism Fundamentalism usually has a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places ...
* "political movement that favors reordering government and society in accordance with laws prescribed by Islam" (from
Associated Press The Associated Press (AP) is an American non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, publ ...

Associated Press
's definition of "Islamist") * " he term 'Islamist' has become shorthand for'Muslims we don't like.'" (from
Council on American–Islamic Relations The Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) is a Muslim civil rights and advocacy group. It is headquartered on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., with regional offices nationwide. Through civil rights actions, media relations, civic engage ...
's complaint about AP's earlier definition of Islamist) * "a theocratic ideology that seeks to impose any version of Islam over society ''by law''". (
Maajid Nawaz Maajid Usman Nawaz (; born 2 November 1977) is a British activist and radio presenter. He is the founding chairman of Quilliam, a counter-extremism think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, re ...
, a former Islamist turned critic). Subsequently, clarified as "the desire to impose any given interpretation of Islam on society". * "the slamicideology that guides society as a whole and that eacheslaw must be in conformity with the Islamic sharia",Shepard, W. E. ''Sayyid Qutb and Islamic Activism: A Translation and Critical Analysis of Social Justice in Islam''. Leiden, New York: E.J. Brill. (1996). p. 40 * a term "used by outsiders to denote a strand of activity which they think justifies their misconception of Islam as something rigid and immobile, a mere tribal affiliation."Coming to Terms, Fundamentalists or Islamists? Martin Kramer
originally in ''Middle East Quarterly'' (Spring 2003), pp. 65–77.
* a movement so broad and flexible it reaches out to "everything to everyone" in Islam, making it "unsustainable". ** an alternative social provider to the poor masses; ** an angry platform for the disillusioned young; ** a loud trumpet-call announcing "a return to the pure religion" to those seeking an identity; ** a "progressive, moderate religious platform" for the affluent and liberal; ** ... and at the extremes, a violent vehicle for rejectionists and radicals.Osman, Tarek, ''Egypt on the brink'', 2010, p. 111 * an Islamic "movement that seeks cultural differentiation from the West and reconnection with the pre-colonial symbolic universe", * "the organised political trend ..that seeks to solve modern political problems by reference to Muslim texts ..the whole body of thought which seeks to invest society with Islam which may be integrationist, but may also be traditionalist, reform-minded or even revolutionary" * "the active assertion and promotion of beliefs, prescriptions, laws or policies that are held to be Islamic in character," * a movement of "Muslims who draw upon the belief, symbols, and language of Islam to inspire, shape, and animate political activity;" which may contain moderate, tolerant, peaceful activists or those who "preach intolerance and espouse violence." * "All who seek to Islamize their environment, whether in relation to their lives in society, their family circumstances, or the workplace, may be described as Islamists."


Varieties

Islamism takes different forms and spans a wide range of strategies and tactics towards the powers in place—"destruction, opposition, collaboration, indifference" that have varied as "circumstances have changed"—and thus is not a united movement. Moderate and reformist Islamists who accept and work within the democratic process include parties like the Tunisian
Ennahda Movement The Ennahda Movement ( ar, حركة النهضة '; french: link=no, Mouvement Ennahdha), also known as Renaissance Party or simply Ennahda, is a self-defined " Muslim democratic" political party in Tunisia. Founded as "The Movement of Islamic T ...
.
Jamaat-e-Islami Jamaat-e-Islami ( ur, ) is an Islamic movement founded in 1941 in British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and still earlier, presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance i ...
of Pakistan is basically a socio-political and democratic
Vanguard party In the context of the theory of Leninist revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, political act ...
but has also gained political influence through military
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
s in the past. Other Islamist groups like
Hezbollah Hezbollah (; ar, حزب الله ', literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God", also Romanization of Arabic, transliterated Hizbullah or Hizballah, among others) is a Lebanese Shia Islam, Shia Islamist political party and militant group, ...
in Lebanon and
Hamas Hamas (, ; , ; an acronym of , "Islamic Resistance Movement") is a Palestinian territories, Palestinian Sunni-Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic fundamentalist, militant, and Religious nationalism, nationalist organization. It has a social serv ...

Hamas
in
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
participate in the democratic and political process as well as armed attacks.
Jihadist Jihadism is a neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that ...
organizations like
al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah ...
and the
Egyptian Islamic Jihad The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ, ar, الجهاد الإسلامي المصري), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad ( ar, الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jih ...
, and groups such as the
Taliban The Taliban (; ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students or 'seekers'), which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban Islamic Movement and/or Islamic Movement of Taliban is a Deobandi Deobandi ( hi, देव ...

Taliban
, entirely reject
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
, often declaring as ''
kuffar Kafir ( ar, wikt:كافر, كافر '; plural ', ' or '; feminine '; feminine plural ' or ') is an Arabic term which, in the Islamic tradition, refers to a person who disbelieves in God in Islam, God as per Islam, or denies his authority, ...

kuffar
'' those Muslims who support it (see ''
takfir ''Takfir'' or ''takfeer'' ( ar, تكفير, takfīr) denotes excommunication from Islam of one Muslim by another, i.e. accusing another Muslim to be an Apostasy in Islam, apostate. The word is found neither in the Quran nor in the ''hadiths''. '' ...
ism''), as well as calling for violent/
offensive jihad Jihad (; ar, جهاد ' ) is an Arabic word which literally means ''striving'' or ''struggling'', especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with God ...
or urging and conducting on a religious basis. Another major division within Islamism is between what
Graham E. Fuller Graham E. Fuller (born November 28, 1937) is an American author and political analyst, specializing in Islamic extremism, Islamist extremism. Formerly vice-chair of the National Intelligence Council, he also served as Station Chief in Kabul for ...
has described as the fundamentalist "guardians of the tradition" ( Salafis, such as those in the
Wahhabi Wahhabism ( ar, الوهابية, ') is a religious reform movement and doctrine associated with the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. It has been variously described as "orthodox", "puritan(ical)"; and as an Islamic "reform movement" to ...
movement) and the "vanguard of change and Islamic reform" centered around the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
.Fuller, ''The Future of Political Islam'', (2003), pp. 194–95 Olivier Roy argues that "Sunni pan-Islamism underwent a remarkable shift in the second half of the 20th century" when the Muslim Brotherhood movement and its focus on Islamisation of
pan-Arabism Pan-Arabism ( ar, الوحدة العربية or ) is an ideology that espouses the unification of the countries of North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is ...
was eclipsed by the
Salafi The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, ''Salafiyyah'' and Salafism, is a reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges ...
movement with its emphasis on "sharia rather than the building of Islamic institutions," and rejection of Shia Islam. Following the Arab Spring, Roy has described Islamism as "increasingly interdependent" with democracy in much of the Arab Muslim world, such that "neither can now survive without the other." While Islamist political culture itself may not be democratic, Islamists need democratic elections to maintain their legitimacy. At the same time, their popularity is such that no government can call itself democratic that excludes mainstream Islamist groups.


Relation to Islam

The relationship between the notions of Islam and Islamism has been subject to disagreement. Hayri Abaza argues that the failure to distinguish between Islam and Islamism leads many in the West to support illiberal Islamic regimes, to the detriment of progressive moderates who seek to separate religion from politics. A writer for the
International Crisis Group The International Crisis Group (ICG; also known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, Non-governmental organization, non-governmental organisation founded in 1995. It is a think tank, used by policymakers and academics, performing re ...
maintains that "the conception of 'political Islam'" is a creation of Americans to explain the Iranian Islamic Revolution and apolitical Islam was a historical fluke of the "short-lived era of the heyday of secular Arab nationalism between 1945 and 1970", and it is
quietist Quietism is the pejorative name given (especially in Roman Catholic theology) to a set of Christianity, Christian beliefs that rose in popularity in France, Italy, and Spain during the late 1670s and 1680s, particularly associated with the writi ...
/non-political Islam, not Islamism, that requires explanation. Another source distinguishes Islamist from Islamic "by the fact that the latter refers to a religion and culture in existence over a millennium, whereas the first is a political/religious phenomenon linked to the great events of the 20th century". Islamists have, at least at times, defined themselves as "Islamiyyoun/Islamists" to differentiate themselves from "Muslimun/Muslims".
Daniel Pipes Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian, writer, and commentator. He is the president of the Middle East Forum The Middle East Forum (MEF) is an American conservative think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a r ...

Daniel Pipes
describes Islamism as a modern ideology that owes more to European utopian political ideologies and "isms" than to the traditional Islamic religion.


Influence

Few observers contest the influence of Islamism within the
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether ...

Muslim world
.Murphy, Caryle, ''Passion for Islam'', (c. 2002), p. 160Murphy, Caryle, ''Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience,'' Scribner, (c. 2002), p. 161 Following the
collapse of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal balkanization, ...
, political movements based on the
liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...

liberal
ideology of free expression and democratic rule have led the opposition in other parts of the world such as
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
,
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

Eastern Europe
and many parts of Asia; however "the simple fact is that political Islam currently reigns as the most powerful ideological force across the Muslim world today". People see the unchanging socioeconomic condition in the Muslim world as a major factor. Olivier Roy believes "the socioeconomic realities that sustained the Islamist wave are still here and are not going to change: poverty, uprootedness, crises in values and identities, the decay of the educational systems, the North-South opposition, and the problem of immigrant integration into the host societies". The strength of Islamism also draws from the strength of religiosity in general in the Muslim world. Compared to Western societies, " at is striking about the Islamic world is that ... it seems to have been the least penetrated by
irreligion Irreligion or nonreligion is the absence or rejection of religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precise ...

irreligion
". Where other peoples may look to the physical or social sciences for answers in areas which their ancestors regarded as best left to scripture, in the Muslim world, religion has become more encompassing, not less, as "in the last few decades, it has been the fundamentalists who have increasingly represented the cutting edge" of Muslim culture.Cook, Michael, ''The Koran: A Very Short Introduction'', Oxford University Press, (2000) Writing in 2009, Sonja Zekri described Islamists in Egypt and other Muslim countries as "extremely influential. ... They determine how one dresses, what one eats. In these areas, they are incredibly successful. ... Even if the Islamists never come to power, they have transformed their countries." Political Islamists were described as "competing in the democratic public square in places like Turkey, Tunisia, Malaysia and Indonesia".


Types


Moderate Islamism

Moderate Islamism is the emerging Islamist discourses and movements which considered deviated from the traditional Islamist discourses of the mid-20th century. Moderate Islamism is characterized by pragmatic participation within the existing constitutional and political framework, in the most cases
democratic institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to social mechanism, mechanisms which govern the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community, and are ide ...

democratic institution
.The Key to Arab Reform: Moderate Islamists
''Carnegie Endowment for Peace''. p. 2. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
Moderate Islamists make up the majority of the contemporary Islamist movements. From the philosophical perspective, their discourses are represented by reformation or reinterpretation of modern socio-political institutions and values imported from the West including democracy.Moussalli, Ahmad S. ''Islamic democracy and pluralism''. from Safi, Omid. ''Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism''. Oneworld Publications, Apr 1, 2003. This had led to the conception of Islamic form of such institutions, and Islamic interpretations are often attempted within this conception. In the example of democracy,
Islamic democracy There exist a number of perspectives on the relationship of Islam and democracy among Islamic political theorists, the general Muslim public, and Western authors. In 2021, a number of Muslim majority countries The terms Muslim world and ...
as an Islamized form of the system has been intellectually developed. In Islamic democracy, the concept of ''
shura Shura ( ar, شُورَىٰ, ''shūrā'') is an Arabic word for "consultation". The Quran and the Prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad encourage Muslims to decide their affairs in consultation with those who will be affected by that decision. The pr ...

shura
'', the tradition of consultation which considered as
Sunnah In Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first ...
of the
prophet In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involu ...
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
, is invoked to Islamically reinterpret and legitimatize the institution of democracy. Performance, goal, strategy, and outcome of moderate Islamist movements vary considerably depending on the country and its socio-political and historical context. In terms of performance, most of the Islamist political parties are oppositions. However, there are few examples they govern or obtain the substantial number of the popular votes. This includes
National Congress''National Congress'' is a term used in the names of various political parties and legislatures . Political parties *Ethiopia: Oromo National Congress *Guyana: People's National Congress (Guyana) *India: Indian National Congress *Iraq: Iraqi Natio ...
of Sudan,
National Iraqi Alliance The National Iraqi Alliance (NIA or INA; ar, الائتلاف الوطني العراقي; transliterated: al-Itilaf al-Watani al-Iraqi), also known as the Watani List, is an Iraqi electoral coalition that contested the 2010 Iraqi legislative ...
of Iraq and Justice and Development Party (Morocco), Justice and Development Party (PJD) of Morocco. Their goal also ranges widely. The
Ennahda Movement The Ennahda Movement ( ar, حركة النهضة '; french: link=no, Mouvement Ennahdha), also known as Renaissance Party or simply Ennahda, is a self-defined " Muslim democratic" political party in Tunisia. Founded as "The Movement of Islamic T ...
of Tunisia and Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) of IndonesiaAl-Hamdi, Ridho. (2017). ''Moving towards a Normalised Path: Political Islam in Contemporary Indonesia''. JURNAL STUDI PEMERINTAHAN (JOURNAL OF GOVERNMENT & POLITICS). Vol. 8 No. 1, February 2017. p. 53, 56-57, 62. formally resigned their vision of implementing sharia. In Morocco, PJD supported Mohammed VI of Morocco, King Muhammad VI's ''Mudawana'', a "startlingly progressive family law" which grants women the right to a divorce, raises the minimum age for marriage to 18, and, in the event of separation, stipulates equal distribution of property.The Islamism Debate: God's Counterculture
Sonja Zekri, ''Süddeutsche Zeitung'' / Qantara.de 2008 Translated from the German by Phyllis Anderson
To the contrary, National Congress of Sudan has implemented the strict interpretation of sharia with the foreign support from the conservative states.Human Rights Watch Report
November 1994 Vol. 6, No. 9, SUDAN, "IN THE NAME OF GOD", Repression Continues in Northern Sudan
Fuller, Graham E., ''The Future of Political Islam'', Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p. 108 Movements of the former category are also termed as Post-Islamism (see below). Their political outcome is interdependent with their goal and strategy, in which what analysts call "inclusion-moderation theory" is in effect. Inclusion-moderation theory assumes that the more lenient the Islamists become, the less likely their survival will be threatened. Similarly, the more accommodating the government be, the less extreme Islamists become. Moderate Islamism within the democratic institution is a relatively recent phenomenon. Throughout the 80s and 90s, major moderate Islamist movements such as the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
and the Ennahda were excluded from democratic political participation. Islamist movements operated within the state framework were markedly scrutinized during the Algerian Civil War (1991–2002) and after the increase of terrorism in Egypt in the 90s. Reflecting on these failures, Islamists turned increasingly into revisionist and receptive to democratic procedures in the 21st century. The possibility of accommodating this new wave of modernist Islamism has been explored among the Western intellectuals, with the concept such as Turkish model was proposed. The concept was inspired by the perceived success of Turkish Justice and Development Party (Turkey), Justice and Development Party (AKP) led by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in harmonizing the Islamist principles within the secular state framework. Turkish model, however, has been considered came "unstuck" after Gezi Park protests, recent purge and violations of democratic principles by the Erdoğan regime. Critics of the concept hold that Islamist aspirations are fundamentally incompatible with the democratic principles, thus even moderate Islamists are totalitarian in nature. As such, it requires strong constitutional checks and the effort of the mainstream Islam to detach
political Islam Political Islam is any interpretation of Islam as a source of political identity and action. It can refer to a wide range of individuals and/or groups who advocate the formation of state and society according to their understanding of Islamic prin ...
from the public discourses.


Post-Islamism

Iranian political sociologist Asef Bayat proposed the term Post-Islamism to refer to Islamist movements which departured from traditional Islamist discourses of the mid-20th century, having found that "following a phase of experimentation", the "appeal, energy, symbols and sources of legitimacy of Islamism" were "exhausted, even among its once-ardent supporters. As such, post-Islamism is not anti-Islamic, but rather reflects a tendency to resecularize religion." This state originally pertained only to Iran, where "post-Islamism is expressed in the idea of fusion between Islam (as a personalized faith) and individual freedom and choice; and post-Islamism is associated with the values of democracy and aspects of modernity". A 2008 Lowy Institute for International Policy paper suggests that Prosperous Justice Party, PKS of Indonesia and Justice and Development Party (Turkey), AKP of Turkey are post-Islamist. The characterization can be applied to Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), and used to describe the "ideological evolution" within the Ennahda of Tunisia.


Salafi movement

The contemporary Salafi movement encompasses a broad range of ultraconservative Islamist doctrines which share the reformist mission of Ibn Taymiyyah. From the perspective of political Islam, the Salafi movement can be broadly categorized into three groups; the Political quietism in Islam#Salafists, quietist (or the purist), the activist (or ''haraki'') and the jihadist (Salafi jihadism, see below). The quietist school advocates for societal reform through religious education and proselytizing rather than political activism. The activist school, to the contrary, encourages political participation within the constitutional and political framework. The jihadist school is inspired by the ideology of
Sayyid Qutb Sayyid 'Ibrāhīm Ḥusayn Quṭb ( or ; , ; ar, سيد قطب إبراهيم حسين ''Sayyid Quṭb''; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966), known popularly as Sayyid Qutb ( ar, سيد قطب), was an Egyptian Egyptian describes someth ...

Sayyid Qutb
(Qutbism, see below), and rejects the legitimacy of secular institutions and promotes the revolution in order to pave the way for the establishment of a new Caliphate.Mohie-Eldin, Fatima. ''The Evolution of Salafism A History of Salafi Doctrine''. Al-Noor, Fall 2015. pp. 44-47. The quietist Salafi movement is stemming from the teaching of Nasiruddin Albani, who challenged the notion of ''taqlid'' (imitation, conformity to the legal precedent) as a blind adherence. As such, they alarm the political participation as potentially leading to the division of the Muslim community. This school is exemplified by Madkhalism which based on the writings of Rabee al-Madkhali. Madkhalism was originated in the 90s Saudi Arabia, as a reaction against the rise of the Salafi activism and the threat of Salafi Jihadism. It rejects any kind of opposition against the secular governance,Richard Gauvain, ''Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God'', p. 41. New York: Routledge, 2013. thus endorsed by the authoritarian governments of Egypt and Saudi Arabia during the 90s. The influence of the quietist school has waned significantly in the Middle East recently,''The Transmission and Dynamics of the Textual Sources of Islam: Essays in Honour of Harald Motzki'', eds. Nicolet Boekhoff-van der Voort, Kees Versteegh and Joas Wagemakers, p. 382. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2011. as the governments began incorporating Islamist factions emanating from the popular demand. The politically active Salafi movement, Salafi activism or ''harakis'', is based on the religious belief that endorses non-violent political activism in order to protect God's Divine governance. This means that politics is a field which requires Salafi principles to be applied as well, in the same manner with other aspects of society and life. Salafi activism was originated in the 50s to 60s Saudi Arabia, where many Muslim Brothers had taken refuge from the prosecution by the Nasser regime. There, Muslim Brothers' Islamism had synthesized with Salafism, and led to the creation of the Salafi activist trend exemplified by the Sahwa movement in the 80s, promulgated by Safar Al-Hawali and Salman al-Ouda. Today, the school makes up the majority of Salafism.George Joffé, ''Islamist Radicalisation in Europe and the Middle East: Reassessing the Causes of Terrorism'', p. 317. London: I.B. Tauris, 2013. There are many active Salafist political parties throughout the Muslim world, including Al Nour Party of Egypt, Al-Islah (Yemen), Al Islah of Yemen and Al Asalah of Bahrain.


Wahhabism

The antecedent of the contemporary Salafi movement is Wahhabism, which traces back to the 18th-century reform movement in Najd by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. Although having different roots, Wahhabism and Salafism are considered more or less merged in the 60s Saudi Arabia.(Salafism has been termed a hybridation between the teachings of Ibn Abdul-Wahhab and others which have taken place since the 1960s) Stephane Lacroix
Al-Albani's Revolutionary Approach to Hadith
. Leiden University's ISIM Review, Spring 2008, #21.
In the process, Salafism had been greatly influenced by Wahhabism, and today they share the similar religious outlook. Wahhabism is also described as a Saudi brand of Salafism. From the political perspective, Wahhabism is marked in its teaching of ''bay'ah'' (oath to allegiance), which requires Muslims to present an allegiance to the ruler of the society. Wahhabis have traditionally given their allegiance to the House of Saud, and this has made them apolitical in Saudi Arabia. However, there are small numbers of other strains including Salafi Jihadist offshoot which decline to present an allegiance to the House of Saud. Wahhabism is also characterized by its disinterest in social justice, anticolonialism, or economic equality, expounded upon by the mainstream Islamists. Historically, Wahhabism was state-sponsored and International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism, internationally propagated by Saudi Arabia with the help of funding from mainly Oil reserves in Saudi Arabia, Saudi petroleum exports, leading to the "explosive growth" of its influence (and subsequently, the influence of Salafism) from the 70s (a phenomenon often dubbed as Petro-Islam). Today, both Wahhabism and Salafism exert their influence worldwide, and they have been indirectly contributing to the upsurge of Salafi Jihadism as well.


Militant Islamism/Jihadism


Qutbism

Qutbism is an ideology formulated by
Sayyid Qutb Sayyid 'Ibrāhīm Ḥusayn Quṭb ( or ; , ; ar, سيد قطب إبراهيم حسين ''Sayyid Quṭb''; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966), known popularly as Sayyid Qutb ( ar, سيد قطب), was an Egyptian Egyptian describes someth ...

Sayyid Qutb
, an influential figure of the Muslim Brotherhood during the 50s and 60s, which justifies the use of violence in order to push the Islamist goals.William McCants of the US Military Academy's Combating Terrorism Center, quoted i
Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism
by Dale C. Eikmeier. From ''Parameters (journal), Parameters'', Spring 2007, pp. 85–98.
Qutbism is marked by the two distinct methodological concepts; one is ''
takfir ''Takfir'' or ''takfeer'' ( ar, تكفير, takfīr) denotes excommunication from Islam of one Muslim by another, i.e. accusing another Muslim to be an Apostasy in Islam, apostate. The word is found neither in the Quran nor in the ''hadiths''. '' ...
ism'', which in the context of Qutbism, indicates the excommunication of fellow Muslims who are deemed equivalent to apostate, and another is "Jihad, offensive Jihad", a concept which promotes violence in the name of Islam against the perceived ''kuffar'' (infidels). Based on the two concepts, Qutbism promotes engagement against the state apparatus in order to topple down its regime. Fusion of Qutbism and Salafi Movement had resulted in the development of Salafi jihadism (see below).Hassan, Hassan. (June 13, 2016)
The Sectarianism of the Islamic State: Ideological Roots and Political Context
''Carnegie Endowment for Peace''. Retrieved December 3, 2017.
Qutbism is considered a product of the extreme repression experienced by Qutb and his fellow Muslim Brothers under the Gamal Abdel Nasser, Nasser regime, which was resulted from the 1954 Muslim Brothers plot to assassinate Nasser. During the repression, thousands of Muslim Brothers were imprisoned, many of them, including Qutb, tortured and held in concentration camps.Commins, David, ''The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia'', I. B. Tauris, 2006, p. 152 Under this condition, Qutb had cultivated his Islamist ideology in his seminal work ''Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq (Milestones)'', in which he equated the Muslims within the Nasser regime with secularism and the West, and described them as regression back to ''jahiliyyah'' (period of time before the advent of Islam). In this context, he allowed the ''tafkir'' (which was an unusual practice before the rejuvenation by Qutb) of said Muslims. Although Qutb was executed before the completion of his ideology,Kepel, ''Jihad'', 2002, p. 31 his idea was disseminated and continuously expanded by the later generations, among them Abdullah Yusuf Azzam and Ayman Al-Zawahiri, who was a student of Qutb's brother Muhammad Qutb and later became a mentor of Osama bin Laden. Al-Zawahiri was considered "the purity of Qutb's character and the torment he had endured in prison," and had played an extensive role in the normalization of offensive Jihad within the Qutbist discourse. Both al-Zawahiri and bin Laden had become the core of Jihadist movements which exponentially developed in the backdrop of the late 20th-century geopolitical crisis throughout the Muslim world.


Salafi Jihadism

Salafi jihadism is a term coined by Gilles Kepel in 2002, referring to the ideology which actively promotes and conducts violence and terrorism in order to pursue the establishment of an Islamic state or a new Caliphate."Jihadist-Salafism" is introduced by Gilles Kepel, ''Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam'' (Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2002)Deneoux, Guilain (June 2002). "The Forgotten Swamp: Navigating Political Islam". ''Middle East Policy''. pp. 69–71." Today, the term is often simplified to ''Jihadism'' or ''Jihadist movement'' in popular usage according to Martin Kramer. It is a hybrid ideology between Qutbism, Salafism, Wahhabism and other minor Islamist strains. Qutbism taught by scholars like Abdullah Azzam provided the political intellectual underpinnings with the concepts like takfirism, and Salafism and Wahhabism provided the religious intellectual input. Salafi Jihadism makes up a tiny minority of the contemporary Islamist movements. Distinct characteristics of Salafi Jihadism noted by Robin Wright include the formal process of taking ''bay'ah'' (oath of allegiance) to the leader, which is inspired by the Wahhabi teaching. Another characteristic is its flexibility to cut ties with the less-popular movements when its strategically or financially convenient, exemplified by the relations between
al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah ...
and al-Nusra Front. Other marked developments of Salafi Jihadism include the concepts of "near enemy" and "far enemy". "Near enemy" connotes the despotic regime occupying the Muslim society, and the term was coined by Mohammed Abdul-Salam Farag in order to justify the assassination of Anwar al-Sadat by the Salafi Jihadi organization
Egyptian Islamic Jihad The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ, ar, الجهاد الإسلامي المصري), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad ( ar, الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jih ...
(EIJ) in 1981.Noah, Timothy (February 26, 2009)
The Near-Enemy Theory
''Slate''. Retrieved December 3, 2017.
Later, the concept of "far enemy" which connotes the West was introduced and formally declared by al-Qaeda in 1996. Salafi Jihadism emerged out during the 80s when the Soviet–Afghan War, Soviet invaded Afghanistan. Local mujahideen had extracted Operation Cyclone, financial, logistical and military support from Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and the United States. Later, Osama bin Laden established al-Qaeda as a transnational Salafi Jihadi organization in 1988 to capitalize this financial, logistical and military network and to expand their operation.Byman, Daniel L and Williams, Jennifer R. (February 24, 2015)
ISIS vs. Al Qaeda: Jihadism's global civil war
Brookings. Retrieved December 3, 2017.
The ideology had seen its rise during the 90s when the Muslim world experienced numerous geopolitical crisis, notably the Algerian Civil War (1991–2002), Bosnian War (1992–1995), and the First Chechen War (1994–1996). Within these conflicts, political Islam often acted as a mobilizing factor for the local belligerents, who demanded financial, logistical and military support from al-Qaeda, in the exchange for active proliferation of the ideology. After the 1998 United States embassy bombing, 1998 bombings of US embassies, September 11 attacks (2001), the United States invasion of Afghanistan, US-led invasion of Afghanistan (2001) and 2003 invasion of Iraq, Iraq (2003), Salafi Jihadism had seen its momentum. However, it got devastated by the US counterterrorism operations, culminated in Death of Osama bin Laden, bin Laden's death in 2011. After the Arab Spring (2011) and subsequent Syrian Civil War (2011–present), the remnants of al-Qaeda franchise in Iraq had restored their capacity, which rapidly developed into the
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are ...
, spreading its influence throughout the conflict zones of MENA region and the globe.


History


Predecessor movements

Some Islamic revivalist movements and leaders pre-dating Islamism include: * Ahmad Sirhindi (~1564–1624) was part of a reassertion of orthodoxy within Islamic Mysticism (Taṣawwuf) and was known to his followers as the 'renovator of the second millennium'. It has been said of Sirhindi that he 'gave to Indian Islam the rigid and conservative stamp it bears today.' * Ibn Taymiyyah, a Syrian Islamic jurist during the 13th and 14th centuries who is often quoted by contemporary Islamists. Ibn Taymiyya argued against the shirking of Sharia law, was against practices such as the celebration of Muhammad's birthday, and "he believed that those who ask assistance from the grave of the Prophet or saints, are mushrikin (polytheists), someone who is engaged in shirk (Islam), shirk." * Shah Waliullah of India and Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab of Arabia were contemporaries who met each other while studying in Mecca. Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab advocated doing away with the later accretions like grave worship and getting back to the letter and the spirit of Islam as preached and practiced by
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
. He went on to found Wahhabism. Shah Waliullah was a forerunner of reformist Islamists like Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Asad in his belief that there was "a constant need for new ijtihad as the Muslim community progressed and expanded and new generations had to cope with new problems" and his interest in the social and economic problems of the poor. * Sayyid Ahmad Barelvi was a disciple and successor of Shah Waliullah's son who emphasized the 'purification' of Islam from un-Islamic beliefs and practices. He anticipated modern militant Islamists by leading an Islamic extremism, extremist, Jihadism, jihadist movement and attempted to create an Islamic state based on the enforcement of Sharia, Islamic law. While he engaged in several wars against the Sikh Empire in the Muslim-majority North-Western India, his followers participated in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian Rebellion of 1857 after his death. * After the defeat of the Indian Rebellion, some of Shah Waliullah's followers ceased their involvement in military affairs and founded the Dar al-Ulum seminary in 1867 in the town of Deoband. From the school developed the Deobandi, Deobandi movement which became the largest philosophical movement of traditional Islamic thought on the subcontinent and led to the establishment of thousands of madrasahs throughout modern-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.


Early history

The end of the 19th century saw the dismemberment of most of the Muslim Ottoman Empire by non-Muslim European colonial powers. The empire spent massive sums on Western civilian and military technology to try to modernize and compete with the encroaching European powers, and in the process went deep into debt to these powers. In this context, the publications of Jamal ad-din al-Afghani (1837–97), Muhammad Abduh (1849–1905) and Rashid Rida (1865–1935) preached Islamic alternatives to the political, economic, and cultural decline of the empire. Muhammad Abduh and Al-Afghani formed the beginning of the early Islamist movement. Abduh's student, Rashid Rida, is widely regarded as one of "the ideological forefathers" of contemporary Islamist movements. The development of Islamism across the Islamic World was spearheaded by three prominent figures in the 1930s: Rashid Rida, early leader of ''Salafiyya'' movement and publisher of the widely read magazine ''Al-Manār (magazine), Al-Manar'';
Hassan al-Banna Sheikh Sheikh ( , ; ar, شيخ ' , mostly pronounced , plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a grou ...

Hassan al-Banna
, founder of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood; and Mustafa al-Siba'i, Mustafa al-Siba’i, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood in Syria, Syrian Muslim Brotherhood. Their ideas included the creation of a truly Islamic society under sharia law, and the rejection of taqlid, the blind imitation of earlier authorities, which they believed deviated from the true messages of Islam. Unlike some later Islamists, Islamic modernism, Early Salafiyya strongly emphasized the restoration of the Caliphate.


Sayyid Rashid Rida

The crises experienced across the Muslim world, Muslim World after the collapse of Ottoman Caliphate would re-introduce the debates over the theory of an alternative Islamic state into the centre of Muslim religious-political thinking of the Early 20th century, early 20th-century. A combination of events such as the Secularism in Turkey, secularisation of Turkey, the aggressiveness of Western colonialism, Western colonial empires, the set backs to Islamic modernism, modernist and Liberalism and progressivism within Islam, liberal movements in Egypt, and the Palestinian crisis would propel this shift. The modern concept of an Islamic state was first articulated by the Syrian-Egyptian Islamic scholar Muhammad Rashid Rida. As the circumstances shifted through further Western cultural and imperial inroads, militant Islamists and Islamic fundamentalism, fundamentalists stepped up to assert Islamic values using Rida's ideas as the chief vehicle, starting from 1950s. Rashid Rida played a major role in shaping the revolutionary ideology of the early years of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Fundamentalism initially became the meeting-ground between the ''Salafi movement, Salafiyyah'' movement and the Wahhabism, Wahhäbi movement of
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
. These movements later on drifted apart, with the ''Salafiyyah'' being increasingly represented by Salafism#Salafi activists, activist and Salafi jihadism, revolutionary trends, and Wahhäbism by Salafism#Purists, purist conservatism that was characterised by Political quietism in Islam, political quietism. Rida's Islamic state emphasized the principle of ''
shura Shura ( ar, شُورَىٰ, ''shūrā'') is an Arabic word for "consultation". The Quran and the Prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad encourage Muslims to decide their affairs in consultation with those who will be affected by that decision. The pr ...

shura
'', which would be dominated by the Ulama''' who act as the natural representatives of Muslims. The Salafi proponents of the modern Islamic state conceive it as a testing ground for protecting the moral and cultural integrity of the Muslim Ummah. Rashid Rida played a significant role in forming the ideology of
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
and other Sunni Islamist movements across the World. In his influential book ''The Caliphate or the Grand Imamate, al-Khilafa aw al-Imama al-'Uzma'' ("The Caliphate or the Grand Imamate"); Rashid Rida elaborated on the establishment of his proposed “Islamic state” which emphasised the implementation of ''Sharia'' as well as the adoption of an Islamic consultation system (''
shura Shura ( ar, شُورَىٰ, ''shūrā'') is an Arabic word for "consultation". The Quran and the Prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad encourage Muslims to decide their affairs in consultation with those who will be affected by that decision. The pr ...

shura
'') that enshrined leading role of the ''Ulama, Ulema'' (Islamic scholars) in political life. This doctrine would become the blue-print of future Islamist movements. Rida believed that societies that properly obeyed ''Sharia'' would be able to successfully emerge as alternatives to both capitalism as well as the disorder of class-based socialism; since such a society would be unsusceptible to its temptations. In Rida's Caliphate, the ''Khalifa'' was to be the supreme head whose role was to govern by supervising the application of Sharia, Islamic laws. This was to happen through a partnership between the ''Mujtahid'' ulema and the ‘‘true caliph’'; who engage in ''Ijtihad'' by evaluating the Scriptures and govern through ''
shura Shura ( ar, شُورَىٰ, ''shūrā'') is an Arabic word for "consultation". The Quran and the Prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad encourage Muslims to decide their affairs in consultation with those who will be affected by that decision. The pr ...

shura
''(consultation). This ''Caliphate, Khilafa'' shall also be able revitalise the Islamic civilization, restore political and legal independence to the Muslim ''umma'' (community of Muslim believers), and cleanse Islam from the heretical influences of Sufism. Rashid Rida's Islamic political theory would greatly influence many subsequent Islamic revivalist movements across the Arab world. Rida was certain that an Islamic society which implemented ''Sharia'' in the proper manner would be able to successfully resist both capitalism as well as the disorder of class-based socialism; since such a society would be unsusceptible to its temptations. Rida belonged to the last generation of Ulama, Islamic scholars who were educated entirely within a traditional Islamic system, and expressed views in a self-conscious vernacular that owed nothing to the Western world, modern West. Islamist intellectuals that succeeded Rida, such as Hassan al-Banna, Hasan al-Banna, would not measure up to the former's scholarly credentials. The subsequent generations ushered the advent of the radical thinker
Sayyid Qutb Sayyid 'Ibrāhīm Ḥusayn Quṭb ( or ; , ; ar, سيد قطب إبراهيم حسين ''Sayyid Quṭb''; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966), known popularly as Sayyid Qutb ( ar, سيد قطب), was an Egyptian Egyptian describes someth ...

Sayyid Qutb
, who in contrast to Rida, did not have detailed knowledge of religious sciences to address Muslims authoritatively on ''Sharia''. An intellectual rather than a populist, Qutb would reject Western world, the West entirely in the most forceful manner; while simultaneously employing Western terminology to substantiate his beliefs and used the classical sources to bolster his subjective methodology to Scriptures.


Muhammad Iqbal

Muhammad Iqbal was a philosopher, poet and politician in British Raj, British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Two-Nation Theory, Islamic Nationalism and Pakistan Movement in British India. Iqbal is admired as a prominent classical poet by Pakistani, Iranian peoples, Iranian, Indian and other international scholars of literature. Though Iqbal is best known as an eminent poet, he is also a highly acclaimed "Islamic philosophical thinker of modern times". While studying law and philosophy in England and Germany, Iqbal became a member of the London branch of the All India Muslim League. He came back to Lahore in 1908. While dividing his time between law practice and philosophical poetry, Iqbal had remained active in the Muslim League. He did not support Indian involvement in World War I and remained in close touch with Muslim political leaders such as Maulana Mohammad Ali, Muhammad Ali Johar and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian Nationalism, Indian nationalist and Secularism, secularist Indian National Congress. Iqbal's seven English lectures were published by Oxford University press in 1934 in a book titled The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. These lectures dwell on the role of Islam as a religion as well as a political and legal philosophy in the modern age. Iqbal expressed fears that not only would secularism and secular nationalism weaken the spiritual foundations of Islam and Muslim society, but that India's Hindu-majority population would crowd out Muslim heritage, culture and political influence. In his travels to Egypt, Afghanistan, Mandatory Palestine, Palestine and Syria, he promoted ideas of Pan-Islamism, greater Islamic political co-operation and unity, calling for the shedding of nationalist differences. Sir Muhmmad Iqbal was elected as president of the Muslim League in 1930 at its session in Allahabad as well as for the session in Lahore in 1932. In his Allahabad Address on 29 December 1930, Iqbal outlined a vision of an independent state for Muslim-majority provinces in northwestern India. This address later inspired the Pakistan movement. The thoughts and vision of Iqbal later influenced many
reformist Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to ...
Islamists, e.g., Muhammad Asad, Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi and Ali Shariati.


Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi was an important early twentieth-century figure in the Islamic revival in India, and then after independence from Britain, in Pakistan. Trained as a lawyer he chose the profession of journalism, and wrote about contemporary issues and most importantly about Islam and Islamic law. Maududi founded the
Jamaat-e-Islami Jamaat-e-Islami ( ur, ) is an Islamic movement founded in 1941 in British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and still earlier, presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance i ...
party in 1941 and remained its leader until 1972. However, Maududi had much more impact through his writing than through his political organising. His extremely influential books (translated into many languages) placed Islam in a modern context, and influenced not only conservative ulema but liberal modernizer Islamists such as al-Faruqi, whose "Islamization of Knowledge" carried forward some of Maududi's key principles. Influenced by the Islamic state theory of Rashid Rida, al-Mawdudi believed that his contemporary situation wherein Muslims increasingly imitated the The Western Civilization, West in their daily life as comparable to a modern ''Jahiliyyah'' . This ''Jahiliyya'' was responsible for the decline of the “''Ummah''” and the erosion of Islamic values. Only by establishing the “Islamic State” which rules by ''
sharia Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action ...
'' in its true sense could the modern ''Jahiliyyah'' be avoided, by upholding God in Islam, Allah's absolute sovereignty over the world. Maududi believed that Islam was all-encompassing: "Everything in the universe is 'Muslim' for it obeys God by submission to His laws... The man who denies God is called Kafir (concealer) because he conceals by his disbelief what is inherent in his nature and embalmed in his own soul." Maududi also believed that Muslim society could not be Islamic without Sharia, and Islam required the establishment of an Islamic state. This state should be a "theo-democracy," based on the principles of: ''tawhid'' (unity of God), ''risalah (fiqh), risala'' (prophethood) and ''khilafa'' (caliphate). Although Maududi talked about Islamic revolution, by "revolution" he meant not the violence or populist policies of the Iranian Revolution, but the gradual changing the hearts and minds of individuals from the top of society downward through an educational process or ''da'wah''.


Muslim Brotherhood

Roughly contemporaneous with Maududi was the founding of the Muslim Brotherhood in Ismailiyah, Egypt in 1928 by Hassan al Banna. His was arguably the first, largest and most influential modern Islamic political/religious organization. Under the motto "the Qur'an is our constitution," it sought Islamic revival through preaching and also by providing basic community services including schools, mosques, and workshops. Like Maududi, Al Banna believed in the necessity of government rule based on Shariah law implemented gradually and by persuasion, and of eliminating all imperialist influence in the Muslim world. Some elements of the Brotherhood, though perhaps against orders, did engage in violence against the government, and its founder Hassan al Banna, Al-Banna was assassinated in 1949 in retaliation for the assassination of Egypt's premier Mahmud Fami Naqrashi three months earlier. The Brotherhood has suffered periodic repression in Egypt and has been banned several times, in 1948 and several years later following confrontations with Egyptian president Gamal Abdul Nasser, who jailed thousands of members for several years. Despite periodic repression, the Brotherhood has become one of the most influential movements in the Islamic world, particularly in the Arab world. For many years it was described as "semi-legal" and was the only opposition group in Egypt able to field candidates during elections.The Islamism Debate: God's Counterculture
Sonja Zekri, ''Süddeutsche Zeitung'' / Qantara.de 2008. Translated from the German by Phyllis Anderson.
In the 2011–12 Egyptian parliamentary election, the political parties identified as "Islamist" (the Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt), Freedom and Justice Party, Salafi Al-Nour Party and liberal Islamist Al-Wasat Party) won 75% of the total seats. Mohamed Morsi, an Islamist of
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
, was the first democratically elected president of Egypt. He was deposed during the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.


Sayyid Qutb

Maududi's political ideas influenced Sayyid Qutb a leading member of the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
movement, and one of the key philosophers of Islamism and highly influential thinkers of Islamic universalism. Qutb believed things had reached such a state that the Muslim community had literally ceased to exist. It "has been extinct for a few centuries," having reverted to Godless ignorance (Jahiliyya). To eliminate jahiliyya, Qutb argued Sharia, or Islamic law, must be established. Sharia law was not only accessible to humans and essential to the existence of Islam, but also all-encompassing, precluding "evil and corrupt" non-Islamic ideologies like communism, nationalism, or secular democracy. Qutb preached that Muslims must engage in a two-pronged attack of converting individuals through Dawah, preaching Islam peacefully and also waging what he called Offensive jihad, militant jihad so as to forcibly eliminate the "power structures" of Jahiliyya—not only from the Islamic homeland but from the face of the earth. Qutb was both a member of the brotherhood and enormously influential in the Muslim world at large. Qutb is considered by some (Fawaz A. Gerges) to be "the founding father and leading theoretician" of modern jihadists, such as Osama bin Laden. However, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and in Europe has not embraced his vision of undemocratic Islamic state and armed jihad, something for which they have been denounced by radical Islamists.


Ascendance on international politics

Islamic fervor was understood as a weapon that the United States could use as a weapon in its Cold War against the Soviet Union and its communist allies because communism professes atheism. In a September 1957 White House meeting between President of the United States, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eisenhower and senior U.S. foreign policy officials, it was agreed to use the communists' lack of religion against them by setting up a secret task force to deliver weapons to Middle East despots, including the Saudi Arabian rulers. "We should do everything possible to stress the 'holy war' aspect" that has currency in the Middle East, President Eisenhower stated in agreement.


Six-Day War (1967)

The quick and decisive defeat of the Arab troops during the Six-Day War by Israeli troops constituted a pivotal event in the Arab Muslim world. The defeat along with economic stagnation in the defeated countries, was blamed on the secular Arab nationalism of the ruling regimes. A steep and steady decline in the popularity and credibility of secular, socialist and nationalist politics ensued. Ba'athism, Arab socialism, and Arab nationalism suffered, and different democratic and anti-democratic Islamist movements inspired by Maududi and
Sayyid Qutb Sayyid 'Ibrāhīm Ḥusayn Quṭb ( or ; , ; ar, سيد قطب إبراهيم حسين ''Sayyid Quṭb''; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966), known popularly as Sayyid Qutb ( ar, سيد قطب), was an Egyptian Egyptian describes someth ...

Sayyid Qutb
gained ground.Mayer, p. 110


Iranian Revolution (1978–1979)

The first modern "Islamist state" (with the possible exception of Zia's Pakistan) was established among the Shia of Iran. In a major shock to the rest of the world,
Ayatollah Ayatollah ( or ; fa, آیت‌الله, āyatollāh) is an Honorific, honorific title for high-ranking Twelver Shia clergy in Iran that came into widespread usage in the 20th century. Etymology The title is originally derived from Arabic word ' ...

Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( , ; fa, سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی ; 17 May 19003 June 1989), also known as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian political and religious leader. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic ...

Ruhollah Khomeini
led the Iranian Revolution of 1979 in order to overthrow the oil-rich, well-armed, Westernized and pro-American secular monarchy ruled by Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi. The views of Ali Shariati, the ideologue of the Iranian Revolution, resembled those of Mohammad Iqbal, the ideological father of the State of Pakistan, but Khomeini's beliefs are perceived to be placed somewhere between the beliefs of Shia Islam and the beliefs of Sunni Islamic thinkers like Mawdudi and Qutb. He believed that complete imitation of the Prophet Mohammad and his successors such as Ali for the restoration of Sharia law was essential to Islam, that many secular, Westernizing Muslims were actually agents of the West and therefore serving Western interests, and that acts such as the "plundering" of Muslim lands was part of a long-term conspiracy against Islam by Western governments.Khomeini (1981), p. 54 His views differed from those of Sunni scholars in: * As a Shia, Khomeini looked to Ali ibn Abī Tālib and Husayn ibn Ali Imam, but not caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Omar or Uthman. * Khomeini talked not about restoring the Caliphate or Sunni
Islamic democracy There exist a number of perspectives on the relationship of Islam and democracy among Islamic political theorists, the general Muslim public, and Western authors. In 2021, a number of Muslim majority countries The terms Muslim world and ...
, but about establishing a state where the guardianship of the democratic or the dictatorial political system was performed by Shia jurists (''ulama'') as the successors of Imamah (Shi'a twelver doctrine), Shia Imams until the Muhammad al-Mahdi, Mahdi returns from occultation. His concept of ''velayat-e-faqih'' ("guardianship of the slamicjurist"), held that the leading Shia Muslim cleric in society—which Khomeini's mass of followers believed and chose to be himself—should serve as the supervisor of the state in order to protect or "guard" Islam and ''Sharia'' law from "innovation" and "anti-Islamic laws" passed by dictators or democratic parliaments. The revolution was influenced by Marxism through Islamist thought and also by writings that sought either to counter Marxism (Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr's work) or to integrate socialism and Islamism (Ali Shariati's work). A strong wing of the revolutionary leadership was made up of leftists or "radical populists", such as Ali Akbar Mohtashami-Pur. While initial enthusiasm for the Iranian revolution in the Muslim world was intense, it has waned as critics hold and campaign that "purges, executions, and atrocities tarnished its image". The Islamic Republic has also maintained its hold on power in Iran in spite of United States-Iran relations, US economic sanctions, and has created or assisted like-minded Shia terrorist groups in Iraq,(SCIRI) and Lebanon (
Hezbollah Hezbollah (; ar, حزب الله ', literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God", also Romanization of Arabic, transliterated Hizbullah or Hizballah, among others) is a Lebanese Shia Islam, Shia Islamist political party and militant group, ...
) (two Muslim countries that also have large Shiite populations). During the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, the Iranian government enjoyed something of a resurgence in popularity among the predominantly Sunni "Arab street," due to its support for
Hezbollah Hezbollah (; ar, حزب الله ', literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God", also Romanization of Arabic, transliterated Hizbullah or Hizballah, among others) is a Lebanese Shia Islam, Shia Islamist political party and militant group, ...
and to President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's vehement opposition to the United States and his call that Israel shall vanish.


Grand Mosque seizure (1979)

The strength of the Islamist movement was manifest in an event which might have seemed sure to turn Muslim public opinion against fundamentalism, but did just the opposite. In 1979 the Masjid al-Haram, Grand Mosque in Mecca Saudi Arabia was seized by an armed fundamentalist group and held for over a week. Scores were killed, including many pilgrim bystanders in a gross violation of one of the most holy sites in Islam (and one where arms and violence are strictly forbidden). Instead of prompting a backlash against the movement from which the attackers originated, however, Saudi Arabia, already very conservative, responded by shoring up its fundamentalist credentials with even more Islamic restrictions. Crackdowns followed on everything from shopkeepers who did not close for prayer and newspapers that published pictures of women, to the selling of dolls, teddy bears (images of animate objects are considered haraam), and dog food (dogs are considered unclean). In other Muslim countries, blame for and wrath against the seizure was directed not against fundamentalists, but against Islamic fundamentalism's foremost geopolitical enemy—the United States. Ayatollah Khomeini sparked attacks on American embassies when he announced:
It is not beyond guessing that this is the work of criminal American imperialism and international Zionism
despite the fact that the object of the fundamentalists' revolt was the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, America's major ally in the region. Anti-American demonstrations followed in the Philippines, Turkey, Bangladesh, India, the UAE, Pakistan, and Kuwait. The US Embassy in Libya was burned by protesters chanting pro-Khomeini slogans and the embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan was burned to the ground.


Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979–1989)

In 1979, the Soviet–Afghan War, Soviet Union deployed its 40th Army into Afghanistan, attempting to suppress an Islamic rebellion against an allied Marxist regime in the War in Afghanistan (1978–present), Afghan Civil War. The conflict, pitting indigenous impoverished Muslims (mujahideen) against an anti-religious superpower, galvanized thousands of Muslims around the world to send aid and sometimes to go themselves to fight for their faith. Leading this pan-Islamic effort was Palestinian sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam#Life in Pakistan and Afghanistan, Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. While the military effectiveness of these "Afghan Arabs" was marginal, an estimated 16,000 to 35,000 Muslim volunteers came from around the world to fight in Afghanistan.Rashid, Ahmed, ''Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia'' (New Haven, 2000), p. 129. When the Soviet Union abandoned the Marxist Najibullah regime and withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 (the regime finally fell in 1992), the victory was seen by many Muslims as the triumph of Islamic faith over superior military power and technology that could be duplicated elsewhere.
The jihadists gained legitimacy and prestige from their triumph both within the militant community and among ordinary Muslims, as well as the confidence to carry their jihad to other countries where they believed Muslims required assistance., "blowback revisited"
''Foreign Affairs'' 2005 Peter Bergen
The "veterans of the guerrilla campaign" returning home to Algeria, Egypt, and other countries "with their experience, ideology, and weapons," were often eager to continue armed jihad. The collapse of the Soviet Union itself, in 1991, was seen by many Islamists, including Bin Laden, as the defeat of a superpower at the hands of Islam. Concerning the $6 billion in aid given by the US and Pakistan's military training and intelligence support to the mujahideen, bin Laden wrote: "[T]he US has no mentionable role" in "the collapse of the Soviet Union ... rather the credit goes to God and the mujahidin" of Afghanistan.


Persian Gulf War (1990–1991)

Another factor in the early 1990s that worked to radicalize the Islamist movement was the Gulf War, which brought several hundred thousand US and allied non-Muslim military personnel to Saudi Arabian soil to put an end to Saddam Hussein's occupation of Kuwait. Prior to 1990 Saudi Arabia played an important role in restraining the many Islamist groups that received its aid. But when Saddam, secularist and Ba'athism, Ba'athist dictator of neighboring Iraq, attacked Kuwait (his enemy in the war), western troops came to protect the Saudi monarchy. Islamists accused the Saudi regime of being a puppet of the west. These attacks resonated with conservative Muslims and the problem did not go away with Saddam's defeat either, since American troops remained stationed in the kingdom, and a de facto cooperation with the Palestinian-Israeli peace process developed. Saudi Arabia attempted to compensate for its loss of prestige among these groups by repressing those domestic Islamists who attacked it (bin Laden being a prime example), and increasing aid to Islamic groups (Islamist madrassas around the world and even aiding some violent Islamist groups) that did not, but its pre-war influence on behalf of moderation was greatly reduced. One result of this was a campaign of attacks on government officials and tourists in al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, Egypt, a bloody civil war in List of Algerian massacres of the 1990s, Algeria and Osama bin Laden's terror attacks climaxing in the September 11, 2001 attacks, 9/11 attack.


2000s

By the beginning of the twenty first century, "the word secular, a label proudly worn" in the 1960s and 70s was "shunned" and "used to besmirch" political foes in Egypt and the rest of the Muslim world.Murphy, Caryle, ''Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience,'' Scribner, (c. 2002), p. 161 Islamists surpassed the small secular opposition parties in terms of "doggedness, courage," "risk-taking" or "organizational skills".Murphy, Caryle, ''Passion for Islam'', (c. 2002), p. 160
In the Middle East and Pakistan, religious discourse dominates societies, the airwaves, and thinking about the world. Radical mosques have proliferated throughout Egypt. Book stores are dominated by works with religious themes ... The demand for sharia, the belief that their governments are unfaithful to Islam and that Islam is the answer to all problems, and the certainty that the West has declared war on Islam; these are the themes that dominate public discussion. Islamists may not control parliaments or government palaces, but they have occupied the popular imagination.
Opinion polls in a variety of Islamic countries showed that significant majorities opposed groups like Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIS, but also wanted religion to play a greater role in public life.


"Post-Islamism"

By 2020, approximately 40 years after the Islamic overthrow of the Shah of Iran and the seizure of the Grand Mosque by extremists, a number of observers ( Olivier Roy, Mustafa Akyol, Nader Hashemi) detected a decline in the vigor and popularity of Islamism. Islamism had been an idealized/utopian concept to compare with the grim reality of the status quo, but in more than four decades it had failed to establish a "concrete and viable blueprint for society" despite repeated efforts (Olivier Roy); and instead had left a less than inspiring track record of its impact on the world (Nader Hashemi). Consequently, in addition to the trend towards moderation by Islamist or formerly Islamist parties (such as Prosperous Justice Party, PKS of Indonesia, Justice and Development Party (Turkey), AKP of Turkey, and Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), PAS of Malaysia) mentioned above, there has been a social/religious and sometimes political backlash against Islamist rule in countries like Turkey, Iran, and Sudan (Mustafa Akyol). Writing in 2020, Mustafa Akyol argues there has been a strong reaction by many Muslims against political Islam, including a weakening of religious faith -- the very thing Islamism was intended to strengthen. He suggests this backlash against Islamism among Muslim youth has come from all the "terrible things" that have happened in the Arab world in the twenty first century "in the name of Islam" -- such as the "sectarian civil wars in Syrian civil war, Syria, War in Iraq (2013–2017), Iraq and Yemeni Civil War (2014–present), Yemen". Polls taken by Arab Barometer in six Arab countries — Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Jordan, Iraq and Libya — found "Arabs are losing faith in religious parties and leaders." In 2018-19, in all six countries, fewer than 20% of those asked whether they trusted Islamist parties answered in the affirmative. That percentage had fallen (in all six countries) from when the same question was asked in 2012-14. Mosque attendance also declined more than 10 points on average, and the share of those Arabs describing themselves as "not religious" went from 8% in 2013 to 13% in 2018-19. In Syria, Sham al-Ali reports "Rising apostasy among Syrian youths". Writing in 2021, Nader Hashemi notes that in Iraq, Sudan, Tunisia, Egypt, Gaza, Jordan and other places were Islamist parties have come to power or campaigned to, "one general theme stands. The popular prestige of political Islam has been tarnished by its experience with state power." Even Islamist terrorism was in decline and tended "to be local" rather than pan-Islamic. As of 2021, Al-Qaeda consisted of "a bunch of militias" with no effective central command (Fareed Zakaria).


Rise of Islamism by country


Afghanistan (Taliban)

In Afghanistan, the mujahideen's victory against the Soviet Union in the 1980s did not lead to justice and prosperity, due to a vicious and destructive War in Afghanistan (1978–present), civil war between political and tribal warlords, making Afghanistan one of the poorest countries on earth. In 1992, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan ruled by communist forces collapsed, and Islamic democracy, democratic Islamist elements of mujahideen founded the Islamic State of Afghanistan. In 1996, a more conservative and anti-democratic Islamist movement known as the
Taliban The Taliban (; ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students or 'seekers'), which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban Islamic Movement and/or Islamic Movement of Taliban is a Deobandi Deobandi ( hi, देव ...

Taliban
rose to power, defeated most of the warlords and took over roughly 80% of Afghanistan. The Taliban were spawned by the thousands of madrasahs the Deobandi movement established for impoverished Afghan refugees and supported by governmental and religious groups in neighboring Pakistan. The Taliban differed from other Islamist movements to the point where they might be more properly described as Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic fundamentalist or neofundamentalist, interested in spreading "an idealized and systematized version of conservative tribal village customs" under the label of Sharia to an entire country. Their ideology was also described as being influenced by Wahhabism, and the Islamic extremism, extremist jihadism of their guest Osama bin Laden. The Taliban considered "politics" to be against Sharia and thus did not hold elections. They were led by Abdul Ghani Baradar and Mohammed Omar who was given the title "Amir al-Mu'minin" or Commander of the Faithful, and a pledge of loyalty by several hundred Taliban-selected Pashtun people, Pashtun clergy in April 1996. Taliban were overwhelmingly Pashtun and were accused of not sharing power with the approximately 60% of Afghans who belonged to other ethnic groups. (see: Taliban#Ideology and aims) The Taliban's hosting of Osama bin Laden led to an American-organized attack which drove them from power following the 9/11 attacks. Taliban are still very much alive and fighting a vigorous Taliban#Resurgence after 2001, insurgency with suicide bombings and armed attacks being launched against NATO and Afghan government targets.


Algeria

An Islamist movement influenced by Salafism and the jihad in Afghanistan, as well as the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
, was the FIS or Front Islamique de Salut (the
Islamic Salvation Front The Islamic Salvation Front ( ar, الجبهة الإسلامية للإنقاذ, ''al-Jabhah al-Islāmiyah lil-Inqādh''; french: Front Islamique du Salut, FIS) was an Islamist political party A political party is an organization that coor ...
) in Algeria. Founded as a broad Islamist coalition in 1989 it was led by
Abbassi Madani Abbassi Madani () (28 February 1931 – 24 April 2019) was an Algerian politician who was the President of the Islamic Salvation Front. As its leader, he became the voice of a large part of the dispossessed Algerian youth. Career Madani was born a ...
, and a charismatic Islamist young preacher, Ali Belhadj. Taking advantage of economic failure and unpopular social liberalization and secularization by the ruling leftist-nationalist FLN government, it used its preaching to advocate the establishment of a legal system following Sharia law, economic liberalization and development program, education in Arabic rather than French, and gender segregation, with women staying home to alleviate the high rate of unemployment among young Algerian men. The FIS won sweeping victories in local elections and it was going to win national elections in 1991 when voting was canceled by a military coup d'état. As Islamists took up arms to overthrow the government, the FIS's leaders were arrested and it became overshadowed by Islamist guerrilla groups, particularly the Islamic Salvation Army, MIA and
Armed Islamic Group The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from french: Groupe islamique armé; ar, الجماعة الإسلامية المسلّحة), was one of the two main Islamist insurgents groups that fought the Algerian government and army An army (from Latin '' ...
(or GIA). A bloody and devastating Algerian Civil War, civil war ensued in which between 150,000 and 200,000 people were killed over the next decade. The civil war was not a victory for Islamists. By 2002 the main guerrilla groups had either been destroyed or had surrendered. The popularity of Islamist parties has declined to the point that "the Islamist candidate, Abdallah Jaballah, came a distant third with 5% of the vote" in the 2004 presidential election.


Bangladesh

Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh is the largest Islamist party in the country and supports the implementation of Sharia law and promotes the country's main right-wing politics. Since 2000, the main political opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) has been allied with it and another Islamic party, Islami Oikya Jote. Some of their leaders and supporters, including former ministers and MPs, have been hanged for alleged war crimes during Bangladesh's Bangladesh Liberation War, struggle for independence and speaking against the ruling Bangladesh Awami League.


Belgium

In the 2012, the party named ''Islam'' had four candidates and they were elected in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Molenbeek and Anderlecht. In 2018, they ran candidates in 28 municipalities. Its policies include schools must offer halal food and women must be able to wear a headscarf anywhere. Another of the Islam Party's goals is to separate men and women on public transportation. The party's president argues this policy will help protect women from sexual harassment.


Denmark

The Islamist movements gradually grew since the 1990s. The first Islamist groups and networks were predominantly influenced by Immigration to Denmark, the countries they immigrated from. Those involved had close contact with militant Islamists in the Middle East, South Asia and North Africa. Their operations had supporting militant groups financially as their first priority. Since the 1990s, people from the Islamist movements joined several conflicts to train with or participate in fighting with Islamist militants. In the 2000s the Islamist movements grew and by 2014 there were militants among the Islamist movements in Copenhagen, Aarhus and Odense. Several people from crime gangs join Islamist movements that sympathise with militant Islamism. The militant Islamist movement were estimated to encompass some hundreds in 2014. The Danish National Centre for Social Research released a report commissioned by the Ministry of Children, Integration and Social Affairs documenting 15 extremist groups operating in Denmark. The majority of these organizations were non-Muslim far-right or far-left groups, but five were Sunni Islamist groups. These Sunni Islamist groups include Hizb ut-Tahrir#Denmark, Hizb ut-Tahrir Denmark, ''Dawah-bærere'' (Dawah Carriers), ''Kaldet til Islam'' (The Call to Islam), ''Dawah-centret'' (The Dawah Centre), and the ''Muslimsk Ungdomscenter'' (The Muslim Youth Centre). All of these Sunni Islamist groups operate in Greater Copenhagen with the exception of ''Muslimsk Ungdomscenter'', which operates in Aarhus. Altogether, roughly 195 to 415 Muslims belong to one of these organizations and most are young men.


Egypt (Jihadism)

While Qutb's ideas became increasingly radical during his imprisonment prior to his execution in 1966, the leadership of the Brotherhood, led by Hasan al-Hudaybi, remained moderate and interested in political negotiation and activism. Fringe or splinter movements inspired by the final writings of Qutb in the mid-1960s (particularly the manifesto ''Milestones'', a.k.a. ''Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq'') did, however, develop and they pursued a more radical direction. By the 1970s, the Brotherhood had renounced violence as a means of achieving its goals. The path of violence and military struggle was then taken up by the
Egyptian Islamic Jihad The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ, ar, الجهاد الإسلامي المصري), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad ( ar, الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jih ...
organization responsible for the assassination of Anwar Sadat in 1981. Unlike earlier anti-colonial movements the Islamic extremism, extremist group directed its attacks against what it believed were "apostate" leaders of Muslim states, leaders who held secular leanings or who had introduced or promoted Western/foreign ideas and practices into Islamic societies. Its views were outlined in a pamphlet written by Muhammad Abd al-Salaam Farag, in which he states:
...there is no doubt that the first battlefield for jihad is the extermination of these infidel leaders and to replace them by a complete Islamic Order...
Another of the Egyptian groups which employed violence in their struggle for Islamic order was al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group). Victims of their campaign against the Egyptian state in the 1990s included the head of the counter-terrorism police (Major General Raouf Khayrat), a parliamentary speaker (Rifaat al-Mahgoub), dozens of European tourists and Egyptian bystanders, and over 100 Egyptian police. Ultimately the campaign to overthrow the government was unsuccessful, and the major jihadi group, Jamaa Islamiya (or al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya), renounced violence in 2003. Other lesser known groups include the Islamic Liberation Party, Salvation from Hell and Takfir wal-Hijra, and these groups have variously been involved in activities such as attempted assassinations of political figures, arson of video shops and attempted takeovers of government buildings.


France

The Democratic Union of Muslims (French: '), a party founded in 2012, planned to take part in 2019 municipal elections. They presented candidate lists for 50 different cities. The Democratic Union of Muslims also fielded candidates for European Parliament elections. The rise of the party can be attributed to French Muslim dissatisfaction with mainstream political parties. Gérald Darmanin, Minister of the Interior of France, said in his book, "Le séparatisme Islamiste," ‘Islamism, the most powerful ideology in the world, has deprived Islam of its voice.’


= Law against Islamist extremism

=


= Muslim Brotherhood in France

=


Gaza (Hamas)

Hamas Hamas (, ; , ; an acronym of , "Islamic Resistance Movement") is a Palestinian territories, Palestinian Sunni-Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic fundamentalist, militant, and Religious nationalism, nationalist organization. It has a social serv ...

Hamas
is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization that governs the Gaza Strip where it has moved to establish sharia law in matters such as separation of the genders, using the lash for punishment, and Islamic dress code.* "This is particularly the case in view of the scholarly debate on the compatibility of Islam and democracy but even more so in view of Hamas's self-definition as an Islamic national liberation movement." ''The Palestinian Hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence'', by Shaul Mishal & Avraham Sela, 2006, p. xxvii

* In this way the PA has been able to control the economic activities of its political adversaries, including the Hamas and other Islamic opposition groups. ''Investment in peace: politics of economic cooperation between Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority'', by Shaul Mishal, Ranan D. Kuperman, David Boas, 2001, p. 8

* "Hamas is a radical Islamic fundamentalist organization that has stated that its highest priority is a Jihad (holy war) for the liberation of Palestine ..." ''Peace and war: the Arab-Israeli military balance enters the 21st century'', by Anthony H. Cordesman, 2002, p. 243

* "One of the secrets behind the success of Hamas is that it is an Islamic and national movement at one and the same time ..." 'Hamas: Palestinian Identity, Islam, and National Sovereignty', by Meir Litvak, in ''Challenges to the cohesion of the Arabic State'', by Asher Susser, 2008, p. 153

* "Hamas is an Islamic fundamentalist movement founded in 1987..." Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues, by C. Augustus Martin, Gus Martin, 2009, p. 153

* "Hamas is an Islamic jihadist organization..." ''Why Israel Can't Wait: The Coming War Between Israel and Iran'', by Jerome R. Corsi, 2009, p. 39

* "The Islamic Resistance Movement (Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islam- iyya), known by its acronym Hamas, is an Islamic fundamentalist organization which defines itself as the military wing of the Muslim Brethren." ''Anti-semitic motifs in the ideology of Hizballah and Hamas'', by Esther Webman, 1994, p. 17


"Understanding Islamism"
Crisis Group Middle East/North Africa Report N°37, 2 March 2005 * * * The New Hamas: Between Resistance and Participation. Middle East Report. Graham Usher, August 21, 2005
Hamas also has a military resistance wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades. For some decades prior to the First Intifada, First Palestine Intifada in 1987,#GKJTPI2002, Kepel, ''Jihad'', 2002: p. 153 the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine took a "quiescent" stance towards Israel,#GKJTPI2002, Kepel, ''Jihad'', 2002: p. 152 focusing on preaching, education and social services, and benefiting from Israel's "indulgence" to build up a network of mosques and charitable organizations.#GKJTPI2002, Kepel, ''Jihad'', 2002: p. 156 As the First Intifada gathered momentum and Palestinian shopkeepers closed their shops in support of the uprising, the Brotherhood announced the formation of HAMAS ("zeal"), devoted to Jihad against Israel. Rather than being more moderate than the PLO, the 1988 Hamas Covenant, Hamas charter took a more uncompromising stand, calling for the destruction of Israel and the establishment of an Islamic state in Palestine. It was soon competing with and then overtaking the PLO for control of the intifada. The Brotherhood's base of devout middle class found common cause with the impoverished youth of the intifada in their cultural conservatism and antipathy for activities of the secular middle class such as drinking alcohol and going about without hijab.#GKJTPI2002, Kepel, ''Jihad'', 2002: p. 154 Hamas has continued to be a major player in Palestine. From 2000 to 2007 it killed 542 people in 140 suicide bombing or "martyrdom operations". In the January 2006 legislative election—its first foray into the political process—it won the majority of the seats, and in 2007 it Battle of Gaza (2007), drove the PLO out of Gaza. Hamas has been praised by Muslims for driving Israel out of the Gaza Strip, but criticized for failure to achieve its demands in the Gaza War (2008–09), 2008–09 and 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, 2014 Gaza Wars despite heavy destruction and significant loss of life.


Pakistan

Early in the history of the state of Pakistan (12 March 1949), a parliamentary resolution (the Objectives Resolution) was adopted in accordance with the Two nation theory, vision of founding fathers of Pakistan Movement, Pakistan (Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Liaquat Ali Khan). proclaiming: This resolution later became a key source of inspiration for writers of the Constitution of Pakistan, and is included in the constitution as preamble. In July 1977, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Zia-ul-Haq overthrew Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's regime in Pakistan. Ali Bhutto, a leftist in democratic competition with Islamists, had announced banning alcohol and nightclubs within six months, shortly before he was overthrown. Zia-ul-Haq was much more committed to Islamism, and "Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization, Islamization" or implementation of Islamic law, became a cornerstone of his eleven-year military dictatorship and Islamism became his "official state ideology". Zia ul Haq was an admirer of Mawdudi and Mawdudi's party
Jamaat-e-Islami Jamaat-e-Islami ( ur, ) is an Islamic movement founded in 1941 in British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and still earlier, presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance i ...
became the "regime's ideological and political arm". In Pakistan this Islamization from above was "probably" more complete "than under any other regime except those in Iran and Sudan," but Zia-ul-Haq was also criticized by many Islamists for imposing "symbols" rather than substance, and using Islamization to legitimize his means of seizing power. Unlike neighboring Iran, Zia-ul-Haq's policies were intended to "avoid revolutionary excess", and not to strain relations with his American and Persian Gulf state allies. Zia-ul-Haq was killed in 1988 but Islamization remains an important element in Pakistani society.


Sudan

For many years, Sudan had an Islamist regime under the leadership of Hassan al-Turabi. His National Islamic Front first gained influence when strongman General Gaafar al-Nimeiry invited members to serve in his government in 1979. Turabi built a powerful economic base with money from foreign Islamist banking systems, especially those linked with Saudi Arabia. He also recruited and built a cadre of influential loyalists by placing sympathetic students in the university and military academy while serving as minister of education. After al-Nimeiry was overthrown in 1985 the party did poorly in national elections, but in 1989 it was able to overthrow the elected post-al-Nimeiry government with the help of the military. Turabi was noted for proclaiming his support for the democratic process and a liberal government before coming to power, but strict application of sharia law, torture and mass imprisonment of the opposition, and an intensification of the long-running war in southern Sudan, once in power. The NIF regime also harbored Osama bin Laden for a time (before 9/11), and worked to unify Islamist opposition to the American attack on Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War. After Sudanese intelligence services were implicated in an Hosni Mubarak#Assassination attempt in Ethiopia, assassination attempt on the President of Egypt, UN economic sanctions were imposed on Sudan, a poor country, and Turabi fell from favor. He was imprisoned for a time in 2004–05. Some of the NIF policies, such as the war with the non-Muslim south, have been reversed, though the National Islamic Front still holds considerable power in the government of Omar al-Bashir and National Congress (Sudan), National Congress Party, another Islamist party in country.


Switzerland

Switzerland is not normally seen as a center of Islamism, especially when compared to countries such as Belgium or France. However, from 2012 to 2018, the majority of the country's jihadist and would-be jihadist population were radicalized in Switzerland.


Turkey

Turkey had a number of Islamist parties, often changing names as they were banned by the constitutional court for anti-secular activities. Necmettin Erbakan (1926–2011) was the leader of several of the parties, the National Order Party (''Milli Nizam Partisi'', 1970–1971), the National Salvation Party (''Milli Selamet Partisi'', 1972–1981), and the Welfare Party (''Refah Partisi'', 1983–1998); he also became a member of the Felicity Party (''Saadet Partisi'', 2003–2011). Current Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has long been considered a champion of political Islam. The Justice and Development Party (Turkey), Justice and Development Party (AKP), which has dominated Turkish politics since 2002, is sometimes described as Islamist, but rejects such classification.


Contemporary era


By country

* Various Islamist political groups are dominant forces in the political systems of Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq. * The Green Algeria Alliance is an Islamist coalition of political parties, created for the Algerian legislative election, 2012, legislative election of 2012 in Algeria. It includes the Movement of Society for Peace (Hamas), Islamic Renaissance Movement (Ennahda) and the Movement for National Reform (Islah). The alliance is led by Bouguerra Soltani of Hamas. However, the incumbent coalition, comprising the National Liberation Front (Algeria), FLN of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and the National Rally for Democracy (Algeria), RND of Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia, held on to power after winning a majority of seats, and the Islamist parties of the Green Algeria Alliance lost seats in the legislative election of 2012. * Shia Islamist Al Wefaq, Salafi Islamist Al Asalah and Ikhwani(brotherhood) Islamist Al-Menbar Islamic Society are dominant democratic forces in Bahrain.Guide to Bahrain's politics
– 4 Sep 2008. J. Adam Ereli, Ambassador Ereli, US Embassy, Bahrain/Wikileaks/''The Guardian''
* In Indonesia, Prosperous Justice Party is the major Islamist political party in the country's democratic process.Evans, Kevin R (2003). ''The history of political parties & general elections in Indonesia''. Jakarta:Arise Consultancies. * Islamic Action Front is Jordan's Islamist political party and largest democratic political force in the country. The IAF's survival in Jordan is primarily due to its flexibility and less radical approach to politics. * Hadas or "Islamic Constitutional Movement" is Kuwait's Sunni Islamist party. * Islamic Group (Lebanon) is a Sunni Islamist political party in Lebanon.
Hezbollah Hezbollah (; ar, حزب الله ', literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God", also Romanization of Arabic, transliterated Hizbullah or Hizballah, among others) is a Lebanese Shia Islam, Shia Islamist political party and militant group, ...
is a Shia Islamist political party in Lebanon.A. Nizar Hamze
"Islamism in Lebanon: A Guide to the Groups"
''
Middle East Quarterly ''Middle East Quarterly'' (''MEQ'') is a quarterly journal, a publication of the think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing ...
'', 1997, 4, 47–53.
* The Justice and Construction Party is the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
's political arm in Libya and the second largest political force in the country. The National Forces Alliance, the largest political group in country, does not believe the country should be run entirely by Sharia law or secular law, but does hold that Sharia should be "the main inspiration for legislation." Party leader Jibril has said the NFA is a moderate Islamic moveme that recognises the importance of Islam in political life and favours Sharia as the basis of the law. * The Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party is a major Opposition (politics), opposition party in Malaysia which espouses Islamism.
* The Justice and Development Party (Morocco) is the ruling party in Morocco since 29 November 2011, advocating Islamism and Islamic democracy. * The Muslim Brotherhood of Syria is a Sunni Islamist force in Syria and very loosely affiliated to the Egyptian
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
. It has also been called the "dominant group" or "dominant force" in the Arab Spring uprising in Syria.Syria's Muslim Brotherhood is gaining influence over anti-Assad revolt
By Liz Sly, ''Washington Post'' 12 May 2012
The group's stated political positions are moderate and in its most recent April 2012 manifesto it "pledges to respect individual rights", to promote pluralism and democracy. * The Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan is Tajikistan's Islamist party and main opposition and democratic force in the country. * The
Ennahda Movement The Ennahda Movement ( ar, حركة النهضة '; french: link=no, Mouvement Ennahdha), also known as Renaissance Party or simply Ennahda, is a self-defined " Muslim democratic" political party in Tunisia. Founded as "The Movement of Islamic T ...
, also known as Renaissance Party or simply Ennahda, is a moderate Islamist political party in Tunisia. On 1 March 2011, after the government of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali collapsed in the wake of the 2011 Tunisian revolution, Tunisia's interim government granted the group permission to form a political party. Since then it has become the biggest and most well-organized party in Tunisia, so far outdistancing its more secular competitors. In the Tunisian Constituent Assembly election, 2011, Tunisian Constituent Assembly election of 2011, the first honest election in the country's history with a turnout of 51% of all eligible voters, the party won 37% of the popular vote and 89 (41%) of the 217 assembly seats, far more than any other party.Tunisia's New al-Nahda
Marc Lynch 29 June 2011
* Eastern Africa has become a hotbed of violent Islamic extremism since the late 1990s, one of the relevant movements being Al-Shabaab (militant group), al-Shabaab, active in Somalia and Kenya, which emerged in response to the War in Somalia (2006–09), 2006–09 Ethiopian intervention in Somalia. * Islamic extremism in Northern Nigeria, West Africa has seen the rise of influential Islamic extremist organizations, notably Boko Haram in Northern Nigeria and al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb in Mali.


Hizb ut-Tahrir

Hizb ut-Tahrir is an influential international Islamist movement, founded in 1953 by an Islamic Qadi ''(judge)'' Taqiuddin al-Nabhani. HT is unique from most other Islamist movements in that the party focuses not on implementation of Sharia on local level or on providing social services, but on unifying the Muslim world under its vision of a new Islamic caliphate spanning from North Africa and the Middle East to much of central and South Asia. To this end it has drawn up and published a 186-article constitution for its proposed caliphate-state specifying specific policies such as sharia law, a "unitary ruling system" headed by a caliph elected by Muslims, an economy based on the gold standard, public ownership of utilities, public transport, and energy resources, death for murtadd, apostates and Arabic as the "sole language of the State." In its focus on the Caliphate, the party takes a different view of Muslim history than some other Islamists such as Muhammad Qutb. HT sees Islam's pivotal turning point as occurring not with the death of Ali, or one of the other four Rashidun, "rightly guided" caliphs in the 7th century, but with the Abolition of the Caliphate, abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924. This is believed to have ended the true Islamic system, something for which it blames "the disbelieving (Kafir) colonial powers" working through Turkish modernist Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. HT does not engage in armed jihad or work for a democratic system, but works to take power through "ideological struggle" to change Muslim public opinion, and in particular through elites who will "facilitate" a "change of the government," i.e., launch a "bloodless" Coup d'état, coup. It allegedly attempted and failed such coups in 1968 and 1969 in Jordan, and in 1974 in Egypt, and is now banned in both countries. The party is sometimes described as "Leninist" and "rigidly controlled by its central leadership," with its estimated one million members required to spend "at least two years studying party literature under the guidance of mentors ''(Murshid)''" before taking "the party oath." HT is particularly active in the ex-soviet republics of Central Asia and in Europe. In the United Kingdom, UK its rallies have drawn thousands of Muslims, and the party has been described by two observers (Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke) to have outpaced the Muslim Brotherhood in both membership and radicalism.


Post-Arab Spring (2011-present)

One observer (Quinn Mecham) notes four trends in Islamism rising from the Arab Spring of 2010-11: * The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt#Post-2013 Egyptian coup d'état, repression of the Muslim Brotherhood. Primarily by the Egyptian military and courts following the forcible removal of 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, Morsi from office in 2013; but also by Saudi Arabia and a number of Gulf countries (not Qatar). * Rise of Islamist "state-building" where "state failure" has taken place—most prominently in Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen. Islamists have found it easier than competing non-Islamists trying to fill the void of state failure, by securing external funding, weaponry and fighters—"many of which have come from abroad and have rallied around a pan-Islamic identity". The norms of governance in these Islamist areas are militia-based, and the population submit to their authority out of fear, loyalty, other reasons, or some combination. The "most expansive" of these new "models" is the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic State. * Increasing sectarianism at least in part from Proxy Wars. Fighters are proxies primarily for Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states and for Iran. Islamists are fighting Islamists across sectarian lines in Lebanon (Sunni militants targeting
Hezbollah Hezbollah (; ar, حزب الله ', literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God", also Romanization of Arabic, transliterated Hizbullah or Hizballah, among others) is a Lebanese Shia Islam, Shia Islamist political party and militant group, ...
positions), Yemen (between mainstream Sunni Islamists of Islah and the Shiite Zaydi Houthi movement), in Iraq (Islamic State and Iraqi Shiite militias) * Increased caution and political learning in countries such as Algeria and Jordan where Islamist have chosen not to lead a major challenge against their governments. In Yemen Islah "has sought to frame its ideology in a way that will avoid charges of militancy". Another observer (Tarek Osman) notes with concern that * the failure to take power during the Arab Spring has led not to "soul-searching" in major Islamist groups about what went wrong, but instead to "antagonism and fiery anger" and a thirst for revenge. Partisans of political Islam (although this does not include some prominent leaders such as
Rached Ghannouchi Rached Ghannouchi ( ar, راشد الغنوشي, Rāshid al-Ghannūshī; born 22 June 1941), also spelled Rachid al-Ghannouchi or Rached el-Ghannouchi, is a Tunisian politician and is a thinker, co-founder of the Ennahdha Party The Ennahda ...

Rached Ghannouchi
but is particularly true in Egypt) see themselves as victims of an injustice whose perpetrators are not just "individual conspirators but entire social groups".


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

"The Islamic State", formerly known as the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" and before that as the "Islamic State of Iraq", (also called by the Arabic acronym ''Daesh''), is a Wahhabism, Wahhabi/Salafi jihadism, Salafi jihadist Islamic extremism, extremist militant group which is led by and mainly composed of Sunni Islam, Sunni Arabs from Syria and Iraq. In 2014, the group proclaimed itself a caliphate, with religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide. , it had control over territory occupied by ten million people in Syria and Iraq, and has nominal control over small areas of Libya, Nigeria, and Afghanistan. (While a self-described state, it lacks international recognition.) ISIL also operates or has affiliates in other parts of the world, including North Africa and South Asia Originating as the ''Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad'' in 1999, ISIL pledged allegiance to
al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah ...
in 2004, participated in the Iraqi insurgency (2003–11), Iraqi insurgency that followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, invasion of Iraq by Western coalition forces in 2003, joined the fight in the Syrian Civil War beginning in 2011, and was expelled from al-Qaeda in early 2014, (which complained of its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence"). ISIL gained prominence after it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in western Iraq in an Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014), offensive in June that same year. The group is adept at social media, posting Internet videos of ISIL beheading incidents, beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, and is known for its Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL, destruction of cultural heritage sites. The United Nations (UN) has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been List of designated terrorist organizations, designated a terrorist organisation by the UN, the European Union (EU) and member states, the United States, India, Indonesia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Syria and other countries.


Background


Sociopolitics


Charitable work

Islamist movements such as the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
, "are well known for providing shelters, educational assistance, free or low cost medical clinics, housing assistance to students from out of town, student advisory groups, facilitation of inexpensive mass marriage ceremonies to avoid prohibitively costly dowry demands, legal assistance, sports facilities, and women's groups." All this compares very favourably against incompetent, inefficient, or neglectful governments whose commitment to social justice is limited to rhetoric.


Dissatisfaction with the status quo

The Arab world—the original heart of the Muslim world—has been afflicted with economic stagnation. For example, it has been estimated that in the mid 1990s the exports of Finland, a country of five million, exceeded those of the entire Arab world of 260 million, excluding oil revenue. This economic stagnation is argued to have commenced with the demise of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924, with trade networks being disrupted and societies torn apart with the creation of new nation states; prior to this, the Middle East had a diverse and growing economy and more general prosperity. Strong population growth combined with economic stagnation has created urban agglomerations in Cairo, Istanbul, Tehran, Karachi, Dhaka, and Jakarta each with well over 12 million citizens, millions of them young and unemployed or underemployed. Such a demographic, alienated from the Westernization, westernized ways of the urban elite, but uprooted from the comforts and more passive traditions of the villages they came from, is understandably favourably disposed to an Islamic system promising a better world—an ideology providing an "emotionally familiar basis for group identity, solidarity, and exclusion; an acceptable basis for legitimacy and authority; an immediately intelligible formulation of principles for both a critique of the present and a program for the future."


Silencing of leftist opposition

In the Postcolonialism, post-colonial era, many Muslim-majority states such as Indonesia, Egypt, Syria, and Iraq, were ruled by authoritarian regimes which were often continuously dominated by the same individuals or their cadres for decades. Simultaneously, the military played a significant part in the government decisions in many of these states (Deep state in Turkey, the outsized role played by the military could be seen also in democratic Turkey).''The History of the Modern Middle East'' by William L. Cleveland and Martin Bunton, 2008, p. 371. The authoritarian regimes, backed by military support, took extra measures to silence leftist opposition forces, often with the help of foreign powers. Silencing of leftist opposition deprived the masses a channel to express their economic grievances and frustration toward the lack of democratic processes. As a result, in the Post–Cold War era, post-Cold War era, civil society-based Islamist movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood were the only organizations capable to provide avenues of protest. The dynamic is repeated after the states had gone through a democratization, democratic transition. In Indonesia, some secular political parties have contributed to the enactment of religious bylaws in order to counter the popularity of Islamist oppositions. In Egypt, during the short period of the 2012 Egyptian presidential election, democratic experiment, Muslim Brotherhood seized the momentum by being the most cohesive political movement among the opposition.


Ideology


Identity politics

Islamism can also be described as part of
identity politics Identity politics is a political approach wherein people of a particular gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of at ...
, specifically the religiously-oriented nationalism that emerged in the Third World in the 1970s: "Hindu nationalism, resurgent Hinduism in India, Religious Zionism in Israel, Origins of the Sri Lankan civil war, militant Buddhism in Sri Lanka, resurgent Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, Sikh nationalism in the Punjab region, Punjab, 'Liberation Theology' of Catholicism in
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
, and Islamism in the Muslim world."


Islamic revival

The modern revival of Islamic devotion and the attraction to things Islamic can be traced to several events. By the end of World War I, most Muslim states were seen to be dominated by the Christian-leaning Western states. It is argued that either the claims of Islam were false and the Christian or post-Christian West had finally come up with another system that was superior, or Islam had failed through not being true to itself. Thus, a redoubling of faith and devotion by Muslims was called for to reverse this tide. The connection between the lack of an Islamic spirit and the lack of victory was underscored by the disastrous defeat of Arab nationalist-led armies fighting under the slogan "Land, Sea and Air" in the 1967 Six-Day War, compared to the (perceived) near-victory of the Yom Kippur War six years later. In that war the military's slogan was "God is Great". Along with the Yom Kippur War came the 1973 oil crisis, Arab oil embargo where the (Muslim) Persian Gulf oil-producing states' dramatic decision to cut back on production and quadruple the price of oil, made the terms oil, Arabs and Islam synonymous—with power—in the world, and especially in the Muslim world's public imagination. Many Muslims believe as Saudi Prince Saud al Faisal did that the hundreds of billions of dollars in wealth obtained from the Persian Gulf's huge oil deposits were nothing less than a gift from God to the Islamic faithful. As the Islamic revival gained momentum, governments such as Egypt's, which had previously repressed (and was still continuing to repress) Islamists, joined the bandwagon. They banned alcohol and flooded the airwaves with religious programming,Murphy, ''Passion for Islam'', (2002), p. 36 giving the movement even more exposure.


Western alienation

Muslim alienation from
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...

Western
ways, including its political ways. * The memory in Muslim societies of the many centuries of "cultural and institutional success" of Islamic civilization that have created an "intense resistance to an alternative 'civilizational order'", such as Western civilization, * The proximity of the core of the Muslim world to Europe and Christendom where it first conquered and then was conquered. Al-Andalus, Iberia in the eighth century, the Crusades which began in the eleventh century, then for centuries the Ottoman Empire, were all fields of war between Europe and Islam. :In the words of Bernard Lewis: :
For almost a thousand years, from the first Moorish landing in Spain to the second Turkish siege of Vienna, Europe was under constant threat from Islam. In the early centuries it was a double threat—not only of invasion and conquest, but also of conversion and assimilation. All but the easternmost provinces of the Islamic realm had been taken from Christian rulers, and the vast majority of the first Muslims west of Iran and Arabia were converts from Christianity ... Their loss was sorely felt and it heightened the fear that a similar fate was in store for Europe.
:The Islamic world felt its own anger and resentment at the much more recent technological superiority of westerners who, :
are the perpetual teachers; we, the perpetual students. Generation after generation, this asymmetry has generated an inferiority complex, forever exacerbated by the fact that their innovations progress at a faster pace than we can absorb them. ... The best tool to reverse the inferiority complex to a superiority complex ... Islam would give the whole culture a sense of dignity.
:For Islamists, the primary threat of the West is cultural rather than political or economic. Cultural dependency robs one of faith and identity and thus destroys Islam and the Islamic community (''ummah'') far more effectively than political rule.Haddad/Esposito p. xvi * The end of the Cold War and Soviet occupation of Afghanistan has eliminated the common atheist Communism, Communist enemy uniting some religious Muslims and the capitalist west.


Geopolitics


State-sponsorship


=Saudi Arabia

= Starting in the mid-1970s the Islamic resurgence was funded by an abundance of money from Saudi Arabian oil exports. The tens of billions of dollars in "petro-Islam" largesse obtained from the recently heightened price of oil funded an estimated "90% of the expenses of the entire faith." Throughout the Muslim world, religious institutions for people both young and old, from children's madrasah, maddrassas to high-level scholarships received Saudi funding, "books, scholarships, fellowships, and mosques" (for example, "more than 1500 mosques were built and paid for with money obtained from public Saudi funds over the last 50 years"), along with training in the Kingdom for the preachers and teachers who went on to teach and work at these universities, schools, mosques, etc. The funding was also used to reward journalists and academics who followed the Saudis' strict interpretation of Islam; and satellite campuses were built around Egypt for Al-Azhar University, the world's oldest and most influential Islamic university. The interpretation of Islam promoted by this funding was the strict, conservative Saudi-based Wahhabism or Salafism. In its harshest form it preached that Muslims should not only "always oppose" infidels "in every way," but "hate them for their religion ... for Allah's sake," that democracy "is responsible for all the horrible wars of the 20th century," that Shia and other non-Wahhabi Muslims were Apostasy in Islam, infidels, etc. While this effort has by no means converted all, or even most Muslims to the Wahhabist interpretation of Islam, it has done much to overwhelm more moderate local interpretations, and has set the Saudi-interpretation of Islam as the "gold standard" of religion in minds of some or many Muslims.


= Qatar

= Qatar stands out among state sponsors of Islamism along with Saudi Arabia. Qatar continues to back the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani denounced the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état that had taken place in Egypt. In June 2016, Mohamed Morsi was sentenced to a life sentence for passing state secrets to Qatar. The continuous support for the Muslim Brotherhood by Qatar is considered one of the stepping stones that started the Qatar diplomatic crisis. Qatar's political and financial support for Islamist movements and factions was not limited to the Egyptian case. Qatar is known to have backed Islamist factions in Libya, Syria and Yemen. In Libya in particular, Qatar has supported the Islamist government established in Tripoli. During the 2011 revolution that ousted President Muammar Gaddafi, Qatar provided "tens of millions of dollars in aid, military training and more than 20,000 tons of weapons" to anti-Gaddafi rebels and Islamist militias in particular. The flow of weapons was not suspended after Gaddafi's government was removed. Qatar maintained its influence through key facilitators on the field, including cleric Ali al-Sallabi, the leader of the Islamist militia "February 17 Katiba" Ismail al-Sallabi, and the Tripoli Military Council leader Abdel Hakim Belhaj. Hamas, as well, has been among the primary beneficiaries of Qatar's financial support. Not only does the Gulf emirate host Hamas' politburo continuously since 2012; Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal has often met with international delegations on Qatari territory. More recently, Qatar has channeled material support to Hamas' terrorist operations by exploiting its official commitment to finance Gaza Strip, Gaza reconstruction. Mostly through "truckloads of construction material being shipped into Gaza", Qatar has funneled dual-use substances that could be employed to produce explosives into Gaza. In a 2003 interview with Al-Hayat Hamas politburo declared that most of Qatar's support was collected through charities and popular committees. Qatar's largest NGO, Qatar Charity, in particular has played a great role in Qatar's mission to support Islamist worldwide. Officially through its "Ghaith" initiative but also through conspicuous donations that preceded the "Ghaith" program, Qatar Charity has financed the building or reconstruction of mosques and cultural institutes across the globe. Just like Saudi Arabia, Qatar has devolved considerable energies to spreading Salafism and to "win areas of influence" in the countries that beneficiated from its support. In France in particular Qatar has heavily invested in the Union des Organisations Islamiques des France (UOIF), an umbrella organization informally acting as the representative of the Muslim Brotherhood in the country through which Qatar Charity has channeled funds for the Assalam mosque in Nantes (€4.4 million) and the mosque in Mulhouse (€2 million).


=Western patronage

= During the 1970s and sometimes later, Western and pro-Western governments often supported sometimes fledgling Islamists and Islamist groups that later came to be seen as dangerous enemies. Islamists were considered by Western governments bulwarks against—what were thought to be at the time—more dangerous leftist/communist/nationalist insurgents/opposition, which Islamists were correctly seen as opposing. The US spent billions of dollars to aid the Soviet–Afghan War#Foreign involvement, mujahideen Muslim Afghanistan enemies of the Soviet Union, and non-Afghan Afghan Arabs#Attitude to the West, veterans of the war returned home with their prestige, "experience, ideology, and weapons", and had considerable impact. Although it is a strong opponent of Israel's existence,
Hamas Hamas (, ; , ; an acronym of , "Islamic Resistance Movement") is a Palestinian territories, Palestinian Sunni-Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic fundamentalist, militant, and Religious nationalism, nationalist organization. It has a social serv ...

Hamas
, officially created in 1987, traces back its origins to institutions and clerics supported by Israel in the 1970s and 1980s. Israel tolerated and supported Islamist movements in Gaza, with figures like Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, Ahmed Yassin, as Israel perceived them preferable to the secular and then more powerful al-Fatah with the PLO. Egyptian President Anwar Sadatwhose policies included opening Egypt to Western investment (''infitah''); transferring Egypt's allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States; and Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, making peace with Israel—released Islamists from prison and welcomed home exiles in tacit exchange for political support in his struggle against leftists. His "encouraging of the emergence of the Islamist movement" was said to have been "imitated by many other Muslim leaders in the years that followed." This "gentlemen's agreement" between Sadat and Islamists broke down in 1975 but not before Islamists came to completely dominate university student unions. Sadat was later assassinated and a Terrorism in Egypt, formidable insurgency was formed in Egypt in the 1990s. The French government has also been reported to have promoted Islamist preachers "in the hope of channeling Muslim energies into zones of piety and charity."''Terror and Liberalism'' by Paul Berman, W.W. Norton and Company, 2003, p. 101.


Shia role in Islamism

Shia partisanship has been crucial in Political Islamism, especially since the Iranian regime decided to undermine Saudi Arabia by empowering Houthi militants. Iranian relations with Muslim Brotherhood has also deteriorated due to its sectarian involvement in the Syrian civil war.


Response


Criticism

Islamism, or elements of Islamism, have been criticized for: repression of free expression and individual rights, rigidity, hypocrisy, lack of true understanding of Islam, misinterpreting the Quran and
Sunnah In Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first ...
, Criticism of Islamism#Antisemitism, antisemitism, and for innovations to Islam (bid'ah), notwithstanding proclaimed opposition to any such innovation by Islamists.


Counter-response

The U.S. government has engaged in efforts to counter militant Islamism (Jihadism), since 2001. These efforts were centred in the U.S. around public diplomacy programmes conducted by the State Department. There have been calls to create an independent agency in the U.S. with a specific mission of undermining Jihadism. Christian Whiton, an official in the George W. Bush administration, called for a new agency focused on the nonviolent practice of "political warfare" aimed at undermining the ideology. U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates called for establishing something similar to the defunct U.S. Information Agency, which was charged with undermining the communist ideology during the Cold War.


Parties and organizations


See also

* Clash of Civilizations * Clerical fascism * Dominionism * Islamicism (disambiguation) * Islamofascism * Social Gospel


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *Valentine, Simon Ross, Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond, (2015), London/New York, Hurst & Co. * see: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290349218_The_political_algebra_of_global_value_change_General_models_and_implications_for_the_Muslim_world * * * *


External links

* * {{Authority control Islamism, Religious fundamentalism Islam-related controversies Right-wing ideologies Political ideologies