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Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the northern part of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
. Situated in the
Western Himalayas Western Himalaya refers to the western half of the Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (); Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belo ...

Western Himalayas
, it is one of the eleven
mountain states in Wyoming, a subset of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch in great-circle distance, straight-line distance from the northernmo ...
and is characterized by an extreme landscape featuring several peaks and extensive
river systems In geomorphology, drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin. They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by h ...
. Himachal Pradesh is the northernmost state of India and shares borders with the
union territories#REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , ...
of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
and
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu ...

Ladakh
to the north, and the states of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
to the west,
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
to the southwest,
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
to the southeast and a very narrow border with
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
to the South. The state also shares an international border to the east with the
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' pr ...
in China. Himachal Pradesh is also known as 'Dev Bhoomi' or 'Land of God' and 'Veer Bhoomi' which means 'Land of Braves'. The predominantly mountainous region comprising the present-day Himachal Pradesh has been inhabited since pre-historic times having witnessed multiple waves of human migrations from other areas. Through its history, the region was mostly ruled by local kingdoms some of which accepted the suzerainty of larger empires. Prior to India's independence from the British, Himachal comprised the hilly regions of Punjab Province of
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
. After independence, many of the hilly territories were organized as the Chief Commissioner's province of Himachal Pradesh which later became a union territory. In 1966, hilly areas of neighboring
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
state were merged into Himachal and it was ultimately granted full statehood in 1971. Himachal Pradesh is spread across valleys with many perennial rivers flowing through them. Around 90% of the state's population lives in rural areas. Agriculture, horticulture, hydropower and tourism are important constituents of the state's economy. The hilly state is almost universally electrified with 99.5% of the households having
electricity Electricity is the set of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physi ...
as of 2016. The state was declared India's second open-defecation-free state in 2016. According to a survey of CMS – India Corruption Study 2017, Himachal Pradesh is India's least corrupt state.


History

Tribes such as the Koli, Hali, Dagi, Dhaugri,
Dasa DASA (officially Deutsche Aerospace AG, later Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, then DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG) was a German aerospace manufacturer. It was created during 1989 as the aerospace subsidiary arm of Daimler-Benz AG Daimler AG (; pre ...
, Khasa, Kanaura, and
Kirata The Kirāta ( sa, किरात) is a generic term in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo ...
inhabited the region from the prehistoric era. The foothills of the modern state of Himachal Pradesh were inhabited by people from the
Indus valley civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
which flourished between 2250 and 1750 BCE. The Kols and Mundas are believed to be the original inhabitants to the hills of present-day Himachal Pradesh followed by the Bhotas and
Kiratas The Kirāta ( sa, किरात) is a generic term in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo ...
. During the Vedic period, several small republics known as ''Janapada'' existed which were later conquered by the
Gupta Empire The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 467 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period is considered as the Go ...

Gupta Empire
. After a brief period of supremacy by King
Harshavardhana Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The dominant geographical features of North India are th ...
, the region was divided into several local powers headed by chieftains, including some
Rajputs Rajput (from Sanskrit ''raja-putra'', "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent. The term R ...

Rajputs
principalities. These kingdoms enjoyed a large degree of independence and were invaded by
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see int ...
a number of times.
Mahmud Ghaznavi Mahmud of Ghazni ( fa, محمود غزنوی; 2 November 971 – 30 April 1030) was the first independent ruler of the Turkic dynasty of Ghaznavids The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa, غزنویان ''ġaznaviyān'') was a Persianate Muslim M ...

Mahmud Ghaznavi
conquered
KangraKangra may refer to: *Kangra district, a district of Himachal Pradesh, India *Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, a city and a municipal council in Kangra district now in Indian state of Himachal Pradesh *Kangra Fort, on the outskirts of Kangra *Kangra (Lok S ...
at the beginning of the 11th century.
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
and Sikander Lodi also marched through the lower hills of the state and captured a number of forts and fought many battles. Several hill states acknowledged
Mughal Mughal or Moghul may refer to: * The Mughal Empire of South Asia ** Mughal dynasty ** Mughal emperors ** Mughal people, a social group of South Asia ** Mughal Army, the Army of Mughal Empire * Cultural influences of the Mughal Empire ** Mughal arc ...
suzerainty and paid regular tribute to the Mughals. The
Kingdom of Gorkha The Kingdom of Nepal ( ne, नेपाल अधिराज्य), also known as the Kingdom of Gorkha or Gorkha Empire ( ne, गोरखा अधिराज्य) or Asal Hindusthan (''Real Land of Hindus''), was a Hindu kingdom on the ...
conquered many kingdoms and came to power in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
in 1768. They consolidated their military power and began to expand their territory. Gradually, the
Kingdom of Nepal The Kingdom of Nepal ( ne, नेपाल अधिराज्य), also known as the Gorkha Kingdom or Gorkha Empire ( ne, गोरखा अधिराज्य) or Asal Hindustan (''Real Land of the Hindus''), was a Hindu Hindu ...
annexed Sirmour and
Shimla Shimla (; ; also known as Simla, the official name until 1972) is the capital and the largest city of the Northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union terr ...

Shimla
. Under the leadership of
Amar Singh Thapa Amar Singh Thapa distinguished as Badakaji Amar Singh Thapa( ne, बडाकाजी अमर सिंह थापा), or Amar Singh Thapa The Elder, (also spelled Ambar Simha) also known by the honorific name Bada Kaji ("Senior Kaji") or Bud ...

Amar Singh Thapa
, the Nepali army laid siege to Kangra. They managed to defeat
Sansar Chand Sansar Chand (c.1765 – 1823) was the Rajput ruler of the state of Kangra in what is now the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by p ...

Sansar Chand
Katoch Katoch is a Rajput clan The Rajput Rajput (from ''raja-putra'', "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from th ...
, the ruler of Kangra, in 1806 with the help of many provincial chiefs. However, the Nepali army could not capture Kangra fort which came under
Maharaja Ranjeet Singh Maharaja Ranjit Singh (13 November 1780 – 27 June 1839), popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab or "Lion of Punjab", was the first Maharaja Mahārāja ; (also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "grea ...
in 1809. After the defeat, they expanded towards the south of the state. However, Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Siba State, captured the fort of Siba from the remnants of Lahore Darbar in Samvat 1846, during the
First Anglo-Sikh War The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire ( fa, , Sarkār-ē-Khālsā, lit=Government of the Khalsa; pa, , ਸਿੱਖ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਰਾਜ , Sikkh Khālsā Rāj, lit=Sikh Khalsa rule), al ...
. They came into direct conflict with the British along the ''
tarai , image =Terai nepal.jpg , image_size = , image_alt = , caption =Aerial view of Terai plains near Biratnagar, Nepal , map = , map_size = , map_alt = , map_caption = , biogeographic_realm = Indomalayan realm , global200 = Terai-Duar savanna and ...

tarai
'' belt after which the British expelled them from the provinces of the
Satluj The Sutlej or Satluj ( Punjabi: سُتلج) River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguist ...

Satluj
. The British gradually emerged as the paramount power in the region. In the revolt of 1857, or first
Indian war of independence The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against Company rule in India, the rule of the East India Company, British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on beha ...

Indian war of independence
, arising from a number of grievances against the British, the people of the hill states were not as politically active as were those in other parts of the country. They and their rulers, with the exception of Bushahr, remained more or less inactive. Some, including the rulers of , Bilaspur, Bhagal and Dhami, rendered help to the British government during the revolt. The British territories came under the British Crown after
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
's proclamation of 1858. The states of Chamba, Mandi and Bilaspur made good progress in many fields during the British rule. During World War I, virtually all rulers of the hill states remained loyal and contributed to the British war effort, both in the form of men and materials. Among these were the states of
KangraKangra may refer to: *Kangra district, a district of Himachal Pradesh, India *Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, a city and a municipal council in Kangra district now in Indian state of Himachal Pradesh *Kangra Fort, on the outskirts of Kangra *Kangra (Lok S ...
, Jaswan, Datarpur, Guler, Rajgarh, Nurpur, Chamba, Suket, Mandi, and Bilaspur. After independence, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh was organised on 15 April 1948 as a result of the integration of 28 petty princely states (including feudal princes and ''zaildars'') in the promontories of the western
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ...

Himalayas
. These were known as the Simla Hills States and four Punjab southern hill states under the Himachal Pradesh (Administration) Order, 1948 under Sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act, 1947 (later renamed as the Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1947 vide A.O. of 1950). The State of Bilaspur was merged into Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954 by the Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur (New State) Act, 1954. Himachal became a Part 'C' state on 26 January 1950 when
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sci ...

Constitution of India
came into effect and the Lieutenant Governor was appointed. The Legislative Assembly was elected in 1952. Himachal Pradesh became a
union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , ...
on 1 November 1956. Some areas of Punjab State, namely, Simla, Kangra, Kullu and Lahul and Spiti Districts, Lohara, Amb and Una Kanungo circles, some area of Santokhgarh Kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una Tehsil of
Hoshiarpur District Hoshiarpur District is a district of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region a ...
, as well as Kandaghat and Nalagarh Tehsils of earstwhile PEPSU State, besides some parts of Dhar Kalan Kanungo circle of Pathankot District—were merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 November 1966 on enactment by Parliament of the
Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 The Punjab Reorganisation Act was passed by the Indian Parliament on 18 September 1966, dissolving the former state of East Punjab. Out of the former East Punjab, the modern state of Punjab was created, the new state of Haryana was created; ...
. On 18 December 1970, the State of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by Parliament, and the new state came into being on 25 January 1971. Himachal became the 18th state of the Indian Union with Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar as its first chief minister.


Geography and climate

Himachal is in the western
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ...

Himalayas
situated between 30°22′N and 33°12′N latitude and 75°47′E ́ and 79°04′E longitude. Covering an area of , it is a mountainous state. The
Zanskar range Zanskar, Zahar (locally) or Zangskar, is a tehsil A Tehsil (, also known as tahsil, taluka or taluk) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...

Zanskar range
runs in the northeastern part of the state and the great Himalayan range run through the eastern and northern parts, while the
Dhauladhar The Dhauladhar range (lit. The White Range)Singh (2000), p. 2. is part of a Lower Himalayan Range, lesser Himalayan chain of mountains. It rises from the Indian plains to the north of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, Kangra and Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, I ...

Dhauladhar
and the
Pir Panjal range Image:Kashmir-sat-nasa.jpg, Kashmir valley seen from satellite. Snow-capped Pir Panjal range is to the left of the image The Pir Panjal Range (Kashmiri language, Kashmiri: ) is a group of mountains in the Lesser Himalayas, Himalayan region, run ...

Pir Panjal range
s of the lesser Himalayas, and their valleys, form much of the core regions. The outer Himalayas, or the Shiwalik range, form southern and western Himachal Pradesh. At 6,816 m,
Reo Purgyil Reo Purgyil, sometimes known as Leo Pargial and Leo Pargil, is a mountain peak at the southern end of the Zanskar Range in the Western Himalaya area of the Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (); Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ' ...
is the highest mountain peak in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The
drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agr ...

drainage
system of Himachal is composed both of rivers and
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

glacier
s. Himalayan rivers criss-cross the entire mountain chain. Himachal Pradesh provides water to both the
Indus#REDIRECT Indus River
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus
and
Ganges The Ganges ( ) (in India: Ganga ( ); in Bangladesh: Padma River, Padma ( )). "The Ganges Basin, known in India as the Ganga and in Bangladesh as the Padma, is an international river to which India, Bangladesh, Nepal and China are the riparian ...

Ganges
basins
basins
. The drainage systems of the region are the Chandra Bhaga or the
Chenab The Chenab River ( pa, چَنّھاں, translit=cannhāṉ; ur, , translit=canāb; ) is a major river that flows in India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), ...

Chenab
, the
Ravi
Ravi
, the
Beas Beas is a riverfront town in the Amritsar district of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Punjab, India, Punjab. Beas lies on the banks of the Beas River. Beas town is mostly located in revenue boundary of Budha Theh wit ...

Beas
, the
Sutlej The Sutlej or Satluj ( Punjabi: سُتلج) River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifi ...

Sutlej
, and the
Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani language, Hindustani: ) is the second-largest tributary river of the Ganga by discharge and the longest tributary in List of major rivers of India, India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of on the ...

Yamuna
. These rivers are
perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, thr ...
and are fed by snow and rainfall. They are protected by an extensive cover of natural vegetation. Four of the five Punjab rivers flow through the state, three of them originating here. Due to extreme variation in elevation, great variation occurs in the climatic conditions of Himachal. The climate varies from hot and humid subtropical in the southern tracts to, with more elevation, cold, alpine, and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges. The state's winter capital,
Dharamsala Dharamshala (; also spelled Dharamsala) is the List of countries with multiple capitals#Subnational and supernational capitals, winter capital city of Himachal Pradesh, India. It has served as the location for the Public administration, adminis ...
receives very heavy rainfall, while areas like
Lahaul and Spiti The Lahaul and Spiti district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of cou ...
are cold and almost rainless. Broadly, Himachal experiences three seasons: summer, winter, and rainy season. Summer lasts from mid-April till the end of June and most parts become very hot (except in the
alpine Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mountain areas * Mountainous or alpine; the mountains. Australia * Alpine, New South Wales, a Northern Vill ...
zone which experiences a mild summer) with the average temperature ranging from . Winter lasts from late November till mid-March.
Snowfall Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and then fall, accumulating on the ground where they undergo further changes. It consists of frozen crystalline water throughout ...

Snowfall
is common in alpine tracts.


Flora and fauna

Himachal Pradesh is one of the states that lies in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), one of the richest reservoirs of biological diversity in the world. As of 2002, the IHR is undergoing large scale irrational extraction of wild, medicinal herbs, thus endangering many of its high-value gene stock. To address this, a workshop on ‘Endangered Medicinal Plant Species in Himachal Pradesh’ was held in 2002 and the conference was attended by forty experts from diverse disciplines. According to 2003
Forest Survey of India Forest Survey of India (FSI), founded in June 1981 and headquartered at Dehradun Dehradun (), also known as Dera Doon, is the winter capital and the List of cities in Uttarakhand by population, most populated city of the Indian state of Utt ...
report, legally defined forest areas constitute 66.52% of the area of Himachal Pradesh. Vegetation in the state is dictated by elevation and
precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mod ...
. The state is endowed with a high diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants. Lahaul-Spiti region of the state, being a cold desert, supports unique plants of medicinal value including '' Ferula jaeschkeana'', ''
Hyoscyamus niger ''Hyoscyamus niger'', commonly known as henbane, black henbane or stinking nightshade, is a plant that is poison In biology, poisons are substances that can cause death, injury or harm to organs, tissues, cells, and DNA usually by chemi ...

Hyoscyamus niger
'', ''
Lancea tibetica
Lancea tibetica
'', and ''
Saussurea ''Saussurea'' is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family ( ...
bracteata''. Himachal is also said to be the fruit bowl of the country, with orchards being widespread. Meadows and pastures are also seen clinging to steep slopes. After the winter season, the hillsides and orchards bloom with wild flowers, while gladiolas,
carnations ''Dianthus caryophyllus'', commonly known as the carnation or clove pink, is a species of ''Dianthus''. It is probably native to the Mediterranean region but its exact range is unknown due to extensive cultivation for the last 2,000 years.Med-Ch ...
,
marigolds
marigolds
,
rose A rose is a woody perennial plant, perennial flowering plant of the genus ''Rosa'', in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred Rose species, species and Garden roses, tens of thousands of cultivars. They form ...

rose
s,
chrysanthemums Chrysanthemums (), sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 ...

chrysanthemums
,
tulips Tulips (''Tulipa'') are a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, inclu ...

tulips
and
lilies ''Lilium'' is a genus of Herbaceous plant, herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. They are the true lilies. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much o ...

lilies
are carefully cultivated. Himachal Pradesh Horticultural Produce Marketing and Processing Corporation Ltd. (HPMC) is a state body that markets fresh and processed fruits. Himachal Pradesh has around 463 bird, and Tragopan melanocephalus is the state bird of Himanchal Pradesh 77 mammalian, 44 reptile and 80 fish species.Himachal Pradesh has currently five
National Parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...
. Great Himalayan National Park, oldest and largest National park in the state, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Pin Valley National Park, Inderkilla National Park, Inderkilla, Khirganga National Park, Khirganga and Simbalbara National Park, Simbalbara are the other national Parks located in the state. The state also has 30 Wildlife Sanctuary, wildlife sanctuaries and 3 conservation reserves. The state bird of Himachal Pradesh is the Western tragopan, locally known as the ''jujurana''. It is one of the rarest living pheasants in the world. The state animal is the Snow leopard, which is even rarer to find than the ''jujurana''.


Government

The Legislative Assembly of Himachal Pradesh has no pre-constitution history. The State itself is a post-independence creation. It came into being as a centrally administered territory on 15 April 1948 from the integration of thirty erstwhile princely states. Himachal Pradesh is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. The legislature consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The judiciary is composed of the Himachal Pradesh High Court and a system of lower courts. executive (government), Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the :Chief Ministers of Himachal Pradesh, Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governors of Himachal Pradesh, Governor. The governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly is unicameral with 68 Member of the Legislative Assembly (India), Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). Terms of office run for five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. Auxiliary authorities known as ''panchayats'', for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. In the assembly elections held in November 2017, the Bharatiya Janata Party secured an absolute majority, winning 44 of the 68 seats while the Congress won only 21 of the 68 seats. Jai Ram Thakur was sworn in as Himachal Pradesh's Chief Minister for the first time in Shimla on 27 December 2017.


Administrative divisions

The state of Himachal Pradesh is divided into 12 districts which are grouped into three divisions, Shimla, Kangra and Mandi. The districts are further divided into 73 subdivisions, 78 blocks and 172 Tehsils.


Economy

The era of planning in Himachal Pradesh started in 1951 along with the rest of India with the implementation of the first Five-year plans of India, five-year plan. The First Plan allocated 52.7 million to Himachal Pradesh. More than 50% of this expenditure was incurred on transport and communication; while the power sector got a share of just 4.6%, though it had steadily increased to 7% by the Third Plan. Expenditure on agriculture and allied activities increased from 14.4% in the First Plan to 32% in the Third Plan, showing a progressive decline afterwards from 24% in the Fourth Plan to less than 10% in the Tenth Plan. Expenditure on energy sector was 24.2% of the total in the Tenth Plan. The total GDP for 2005–06 was estimated at 254 billion as against 230 billion in the year 2004–05, showing an increase of 10.5%. The GDP for fiscal 2015–16 was estimated at 1.110 trillion, which increased to 1.247 trillion in 2016–17, recording growth of 6.8%. The per capita income increased from 130,067 in 2015–16 to 147,277 in 2016–17. The state government's advance estimates for fiscal 2017–18 stated the total GDP and per capita income as 1.359 trillion and 158,462, respectively. As of 2018, Himachal is the List of Indian states and union territories by GDP, 22nd-largest state economy in India with in gross domestic product and has the 13th-highest per capita income () among List of Indian states and union territories by GDP per capita, the states and union territories of India. Himachal Pradesh also ranks as the second-best performing state in the country on human development indicators after Kerala. One of the Indian government's key initiatives to tackle unemployment is the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA). The participation of women in the NREGA has been observed to vary across different regions of the nation. As of the year 2009–2010, Himachal Pradesh joined the category of high female participation, recording a 46% share of NREGS (National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme) work days to women. This was a drastic increase from the 13% that was recorded in 2006–2007.


Agriculture

Agriculture in Himachal Pradesh, Agriculture accounts for 9.4% of the net state domestic product. It is the main source of income and employment in Himachal. About 90% of the population in Himachal depends directly upon agriculture, which provides direct employment to 62% of total workers of state. The main cereals grown include wheat, maize, rice and barley with major cropping systems being maize-wheat, rice-wheat and maize-potato-wheat. Pulses, fruits, vegetables and oilseeds are among the other crops grown in the state. Centuries-old traditional Kuhl irrigation (Himachal Pradesh), Kuhl irrigation system is prevalent in the Kangra Valley, Kangra valley, though in recent years these Kuhls have come under threat from hydroprojects on small streams in the valley. Land husbandry initiatives such as the Mid-Himalayan Watershed Development Project, which includes the Himachal Pradesh Reforestation Project (HPRP), the world's largest clean development mechanism (CDM) undertaking, have improved agricultural yields and productivity, and raised rural household incomes. Apple is the principal cash crop of the state grown principally in the districts of Shimla, Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, Chamba and some parts of Sirmaur and Lahaul-Spiti with an average annual production of five lakh tonnes and per hectare production of 8 to 10 tonnes. The apple cultivation constitute 49 per cent of the total area under fruit crops and 85% of total fruit production in the state with an estimated economy of 3500 crore. Apples from Himachal are exported to other Indian states and territories, Indian states and even other countries. In 2011–12, the total area under apple cultivation was 104,000 hectares, increased from 90,347 hectares in 2000–01. According to the provisional estimates of Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, the annual apple production in Himachal for fiscal 2015–16 stood at 753,000 tonnes, making it India's second-largest apple-producing state after
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
. The state is also among the leading producers of other fruits such as apricots, cherries, peaches, pears, plums and strawberries in India. Kangra tea is grown in the Kangra valley. Tea plantation began in 1849, and production peaked in the late 19th century with the tea becoming popular across the globe. Production dipped sharply after the 1905 Kangra earthquake and continues to decline. The tea received Geographical Indication, geographical indication status in 2005.


Industry


Energy

Hydropower is one of the major sources of income generation for the state. The state has an abundance of hydropower resources because of the presence of various perennial rivers. Many high-capacity hydropower plants have been constructed which produce surplus electricity that is sold to other states, such as Delhi,
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
and West Bengal. The income generated from exporting the electricity to other states is being provided as subsidy to the consumers in the state. The rich hydropower resources of Himachal have resulted in the state becoming almost universally electrified with around 94.8% houses receiving electricity as of 2001, as compared to the national average of 55.9%. Himachal's hydro-electric power production is however yet to be fully utilised. The identified hydroelectric potential for the state is 27,436 MW in five river basins while the hydroelectric capacity in 2016 was 10,351 MW.


Tourism

Tourism in Himachal Pradesh is a major contributor to the state's economy and growth. The
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ...

Himalayas
attracts tourists from all over the world. Hill stations like
Shimla Shimla (; ; also known as Simla, the official name until 1972) is the capital and the largest city of the Northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union terr ...

Shimla
, Manali, Himachal Pradesh, Manali, Dharamshala, Dalhousie, India, Dalhousie, , Khajjiar, Kullu and Kasauli are popular destinations for both domestic and foreign tourists. The state also has many important Hindu pilgrimage sites with prominent temples like Shri Chamunda Devi Mandir, Naina Devi Temple, Bajreshwari Mata Temple, Kangra, Bajreshwari Mata Temple, Jwala Ji Temple, Chintpurni, Baijnath Temple, Bhimakali Temple, Bijli Mahadev and Jakhoo Temple. Manimahesh Lake situated in the Bharmour region of Chamba district is the venue of an annual Hindu pilgrimage trek held in the month of August which attracts lakhs of devotees. The state is also referred to as "Dev Bhoomi" (literally meaning ''Abode of Gods'') due to its mention as such in ancient Hindu texts and occurrence of a large number of historical temples in the state. Himachal is also known for its adventure tourism activities like ice skating in Shimla, paragliding in Bir Billing and Solang valley, rafting in Kullu, skiing in Manali, boating in Bilaspur and trekking, Equestrianism, horse riding and fishing in different parts in the state.
Shimla Shimla (; ; also known as Simla, the official name until 1972) is the capital and the largest city of the Northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union terr ...

Shimla
, the state's capital, is home to Asia's only natural ice skating, ice-skating rink. Spiti Valley in Lahaul and Spiti District situated at an altitude of over 3000 metres with its picturesque landscapes is an important destination for adventure seekers. The region also has some of the oldest Buddhist Monasteries in the world Himachal hosted the first Paragliding World Cup in India from 24 to 31 October in 2015. The venue for the paragliding world cup was Bir Billing, which is 70 km from the tourist town McLeod Ganj, Macleod Ganj, located in the heart of Himachal in Kangra District. Bir Billing is the centre for aero sports in Himachal and considered as best for paragliding. Buddhist monasteries, trekking to tribal villages and mountain biking are other local possibilities.


Transport


Air

Himachal has three Domestic Airports in Kangra, Kullu and Shimla districts. The air routes connect the state with Delhi and Chandigarh. *Bhuntar Airport is in Kullu district, around from district headquarters. *Gaggal Airport is in Kangra district, around from district headquarters at Dharamshala, which is around 10 kilometres from
KangraKangra may refer to: *Kangra district, a district of Himachal Pradesh, India *Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, a city and a municipal council in Kangra district now in Indian state of Himachal Pradesh *Kangra Fort, on the outskirts of Kangra *Kangra (Lok S ...
*Shimla Airport is around west of the city.


Railways


Broad-gauge lines

The only broad-gauge railway line in the whole state connects –Una Himachal railway station to in Punjab and runs all the way to Daulatpur, Himachal Pradesh. It is an electrified track since 1999. Future constructions: * –Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, Hamirpur rail project via Dhundla * Bhanupali (Punjab)–Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh * Chandigarh Junction railway station, Chandigarh–Baddi


Narrow-gauge lines

Himachal is known for its narrow-gauge railways. One is the Kalka-Shimla Railway, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and another is the Kangra Valley Railway. The total length of these two tracks is . The Kalka-Shimla Railway passes through many tunnels and Bridgies, while the Pathankot–Jogindernagar meanders through a maze of hills and valleys. The total route length of the operational railway network in the state is .


Roads

Roads are the major mode of transport in the hilly terrains. The state has road network of , including eight National highways of India, National Highways (NH) that constitute and 19 List of State Highways in Himachal Pradesh, State Highways with a total length of . Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, Hamirpur district has the highest road density in the country. Some roads are closed during winter and monsoon seasons due to snow and landslides. The state-owned Himachal Road Transport Corporation with a fleet of over 3,100, operates bus services connecting important cities and towns with villages within the state and also on various interstate routes. In addition, around 5,000 private buses ply in the state.


Demographics


Population

Himachal Pradesh has a total population of 6,864,602 including 3,481,873 males and 3,382,729 females according to the Census of India 2011. The Koli forms the largest caste-cluster, comprising 30% of the total population of Himachal Pradesh. It has only 0.57 per cent of India's total population, recording a growth of 12.81 per cent. The scheduled castes and scheduled tribes account for 25.19 per cent and 5.71 per cent of the population, respectively. The sex ratio stood at 972 females per 1,000 males, recording a marginal increase from 968 in 2001. The child sex ratio increased from 896 in 2001 to 909 in 2011. The total fertility rate (TFR) per woman in 2015 stood at 1.7, one of the lowest in India. In the census, the state is placed 21st on the population chart, followed by Tripura at 22nd place. Kangra District was top-ranked with a population strength of 1,507,223 (21.98%), Mandi District 999,518 (14.58%), Shimla District 813,384 (11.86%), Solan District 576,670 (8.41%), Sirmaur District 530,164 (7.73%), Una District 521,057 (7.60%), Chamba District 518,844 (7.57%), Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, Hamirpur district 454,293 (6.63%), Kullu District 437,474 (6.38%), Bilaspur district, Himachal Pradesh, Bilaspur district 382,056 (5.57%), Kinnaur District 84,298 (1.23%) and Lahaul and Spiti district, Lahaul Spiti 31,528 (0.46%). The life expectancy at birth in Himachal Pradesh increased significantly from 52.6 years in the period from 1970 to 1975 (above the national average of 49.7 years) to 72.0 years for the period 2011–15 (above the national average of 68.3 years). The infant mortality rate stood at 40 in 2010, and the crude birth rate has declined from 37.3 in 1971 to 16.9 in 2010, below the national average of 26.5 in 1998. The crude death rate was 6.9 in 2010. Himachal Pradesh's literacy rate has almost doubled between 1981 and 2011 (see table to right). The state is one of the List of Indian states and union territories by literacy rate, most literate states of India with a literacy rate of 83.78% as of 2011.


Languages

Hindi is the official language of Himachal Pradesh and is spoken by the majority of the population as a lingua franca. Sanskrit is the additional official language of the state, though it is largely restricted to educational and symbolic use.. Most of the population, however, speak natively one or another of the Western Pahari languages (locally also known as ''Himachali'' or just ''Pahari''), a subgroup of the Indo-Aryan languages that includes Bhattiyali dialect, Bhattiyali, Bilaspuri language, Bilaspuri, Chambeali, Churahi, Gaddi language, Gaddi, Hinduri language, Hinduri, Kangri language, Kangri, Kullu language, Kullu, Mahasu Pahari, Mandeali language, Mandeali, Pahari Kinnauri language, Pahari Kinnauri, Pangwali, and Sirmauri language, Sirmauri. Additional Indo-Aryan languages spoken include Punjabi language, Punjabi (native to 4.4% of the population), Nepali language, Nepali (1.3%), Chinali language, Chinali, Lahul Lohar language, Lahul Lohar, and others. In parts of the state there are speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages like Kinnauri language, Kinnauri (1.2%), Tibetan languages, Tibetan (0.3%), Lahauli language, Lahauli (0.16%), Pattani language, Pattani (0.12%), Bhoti Kinnauri, Chitkuli Kinnauri language, Chitkuli Kinnauri, Bunan language, Bunan (or Gahri), Jangshung, Kanashi language, Kanashi, Shumcho, Spiti Bhoti, Sunam language, Sunam, Tinani language, Tinani, and Tukpa language, Tukpa.


Religion

Hinduism is the major religion in Himachal Pradesh. More than 95% of the total population adheres to the Hindu faith and majorly follows Shaivism and Shaktism traditions, the distribution of which is evenly spread throughout the state. Himachal Pradesh has the highest proportion of Hindu population among all the states and union territories in India. Other religions that form a small percentage are Islam, Sikhism and Buddhism. Muslims are mainly concentrated in Sirmaur district, Sirmaur, Chamba district, Chamba, Una district, Una and Solan district, Solan districts where they form 2.53-6.27% of the population. Sikhs mostly live in towns and cities and constitute 1.16% of the state population. The Buddhists, who constitute 1.15%, are mainly natives and tribals from
Lahaul and Spiti The Lahaul and Spiti district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of cou ...
, where they form a majority of 62%, and Kinnaur district, Kinnaur, where they form 21.5%.


Culture

Himachal Pradesh was one of the few states that had remained largely untouched by external customs, largely due to its difficult terrain. With remarkable economic and social advancements, the state has changed rapidly. Himachal Pradesh is a multilingual state like other Indian states. Western Pahari languages also known as Himachali languages are widely spoken in the state. Some of the most commonly spoken individual languages are Kangri language, Kangri, Mandeali, Kullu language, Kulvi, Chambeali language, Chambeali, Bharmauri language, Bharmauri and Kinnauri language, Kinnauri. The Hindu communities residing in Himachal include the ''Brahmins'', ''Kayasthas'', ''Rajputs'', ''Sunar (caste), Sunars'', ''Kannets'', ''Rathis'' and ''Kori caste, Kolis''. The tribal population of the state consists mainly of ''Gaddis'', ''Gujjars'', '' Kanauras'', ''Pangwalas'', ''Bodh people, Bhots'', ''Swanglas'' and ''Lahaulas''. Himachal is well known for its handicrafts. The carpets, leather works, Kullu shawls, Kangra paintings, Chamba Rumals, Shawl#stole, stoles, embroidered grass footwear (''Pullan chappal''), silver jewellery, metal ware, knitted woolen socks, ''Pattoo'', basketry of cane and bamboo (''Wicker'' and ''Rattan'') and woodwork are among the notable ones. Of late, the demand for these handicrafts has increased within and outside the country. Himachali caps of various colour bands are also well-known local art work, and are often treated as a symbol of the Himachali identity. The colour of the Himachali caps has been an indicator of political loyalties in the hill state for a long period of time with Indian National Congress, Congress party leaders like Virbhadra Singh donning caps with green band and the rival BJP leader Prem Kumar Dhumal wearing a cap with maroon band. The former has served six terms as the Chief Minister (India), Chief Minister of the state while the latter is a two-time Chief Minister. Local music and dance also reflects the cultural identity of the state. Through their dance and music, the Himachali people entreat their gods during local festivals and other special occasions. Apart from national fairs and festivals, there are regional fairs and festivals, including the temple fairs in nearly every region that are of great significance to Himachal Pradesh. The Kullu Dussehra festival is nationally known. The day-to-day cuisine of ''Himachalis'' is similar to the rest of northern India with Punjabi cuisine, Punjabi and Tibetan cuisine, Tibetan influences. Lentils (''Dāl''), rice (''Chāwal'' or ''Bhāț''), vegetables (''Sabzī'') and chapati (wheat flatbread) form the staple food of the local population. Non-vegetarian food is more preferred and accepted in Himachal Pradesh than elsewhere in India, partly due to the scarcity of fresh vegetables on the hilly terrain of the state. Himachali specialities include ''Siddu'', ''Babru'', ''Khatta'', ''Mhanee'', ''Channa Madra'', ''Patrode'', ''Mah Ki Dal'', ''Chamba-Style Fried Fish'', ''Kullu Trout'', ''Chha Gosht'', ''Pahadi Chicken'', ''Sepu Badi'', ''Auriya Kaddu'', ''Aloo Palda'', ''Pateer'', ''Makki di roti, Makki Ki Roti'' and ''Sarson da saag, Sarson Ka Saag'', Chamba Chukh, ''Chouck'', ''Bhagjery'' and ''Chutney'' of Til.


Notable people

* JP Nadda * Prem Kumar Dhumal * Jai Ram Thakur * Anurag Thakur * Kangana Ranaut * Yami Gautam * Randeep Guleria * Vikram Batra * Rubina Dilaik * Preity Zinta * Jay Chaudhry * Anupam Kher * Gaurav Sharma (politician)


Education

At the time of Independence, Himachal Pradesh had a literacy rate of 8% – one of the lowest in the country. By 2011, the literacy rate surged to 82.8%, making Himachal one of the most-literate states in the country. There are over 10,000 primary schools, 1,000 secondary schools and more than 1,300 high schools in the state. In meeting the constitutional obligation to make primary education compulsory, Himachal became the first state in India to make elementary education accessible to every child. Himachal Pradesh is an exception to the nationwide gender bias in education levels. The state has a female literacy rate of around 76%. In addition, school enrolment and participation rates for girls are almost universal at the primary level. While higher levels of education do reflect a gender-based disparity, Himachal is still significantly ahead of other states at bridging the gap. The Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, Hamirpur District in particular stands out for high literacy rates across all metrics of measurement. The state government has played an instrumental role in the rise of literacy in the state by spending a significant proportion of the state's GDP on education. During the first six five-year plans, most of the development expenditure in education sector was utilised in quantitative expansion, but after the seventh five-year-plan the state government switched emphasis on qualitative improvement and modernisation of education. In an effort to raise the number of teaching staff at primary schools they appointed over 1000 teacher aids through the Vidya Upasak Yojna in 2001. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is another HP government initiative that not only aims for universal elementary education but also encourages communities to engage in the management of schools. The Rashtriya Madhayamic Shiksha Abhiyan launched in 2009, is a similar scheme but focuses on improving access to quality secondary education. The standard of education in the state has reached a considerably high level as compared to other states in India with several reputed educational institutes for higher studies. The Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technologies, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Indian Institute of Management Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh University in Shimla, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharamsala, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, Indian Institute of Information Technology Una, Alakh Prakash Goyal University, Maharaja Agrasen University, Himachal Pradesh National Law University are some of the notable universities in the state. Indira Gandhi Medical College and Hospital in Shimla, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College Kangra, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College in
KangraKangra may refer to: *Kangra district, a district of Himachal Pradesh, India *Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, a city and a municipal council in Kangra district now in Indian state of Himachal Pradesh *Kangra Fort, on the outskirts of Kangra *Kangra (Lok S ...
, Rajiv Gandhi Government Post Graduate Ayurvedic College in Paprola and Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital in Kumarhatti are the prominent medical institutes in the state. Besides these, there is a Government Dental College in Shimla which is the state's first recognised dental institute. The state government has also decided to start three major nursing colleges to develop the healthcare system of the state. Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalya Palampur is one of the most renowned hill agriculture institutes in the world. Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry has earned a unique distinction in India for imparting teaching, research and extension education in horticulture, forestry and allied disciplines. Further, state-run Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College was inaugurated in 2006 at Sundernagar. Himachal Pradesh also hosts a campus of the fashion college, National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in
KangraKangra may refer to: *Kangra district, a district of Himachal Pradesh, India *Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, a city and a municipal council in Kangra district now in Indian state of Himachal Pradesh *Kangra Fort, on the outskirts of Kangra *Kangra (Lok S ...
.


State profile

Kinnaur Kailash.jpg, Sunrise in Himachal Pradesh, at Kinnaur Kailash. Sunshine on a snowy mountain at Himachal Pradesh.jpg, Sunshine on a snowy mountain at Himachal Pradesh. Kalpa Himachal.jpg, Kalpa, a typical town in Himachal Pradesh. Snowy mountain range in sky.jpg, Snowy mountain range appears to be in sky. Dhauladhars Eagles.JPG, The Dhauladhar range as seen from McLeodganj Source: ''Department of Information and Public Relations.''


See also

* Outline of Himachal Pradesh


References


Further reading

* * * * * * *
Statistics and Data, Planning Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh


External links

; Government
The Official Site of Himachal Pradesh

The Official Tourism Site of Himachal Pradesh, India

NGO in Himachal Pradesh
; General information * * {{Authority control Himachal Pradesh, North India, * States and territories established in 1971 1971 establishments in India Punjabi-speaking countries and territories States and union territories of India