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Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th century, as increasingly serious and learned admirers of the neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval
Gothic architecture Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of sty ...
, intending to complement or even supersede the
neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws upon features of medieval examples, including decorative patterns,
finial A finial or hip-knob is an element marking the top or end of some object, often formed to be a decorative feature. In architecture, it is a small decorative device, employed to emphasize the Apex (geometry), apex of a dome, spire, tower, roof, or ...

finial
s,
lancet window A lancet window is a tall, narrow window A window is an opening in a wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides , , or ; or, is decorative. There are many kinds of walls, including: * Walls i ...
s, and
hood mould In architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gall ...
s. By the middle of the 19th century, Gothic had become the preeminent architectural style in the
Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America, and Australasia.
, only to fall out of fashion in the 1880s and early 1890s.


Philosophy and theories

The Gothic Revival movement's roots are intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
and a re-awakening of
high church The term ''high church'' refers to beliefs and practices of Christian , , and that emphasize formality and resistance to modernisation. Although used in connection with various , the term originated in and has been principally associated with th ...
or
Anglo-Catholic Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, or Catholic Anglicanism comprises people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, ...
belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism. Ultimately, the "
Anglo-Catholic Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, or Catholic Anglicanism comprises people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, ...
ism" tradition of religious belief and style became known for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied considerably in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods, most notably in the use of iron (and after the 1880s, steel) in ways never seen in medieval exemplars.


International usage

In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the rest of Europe, Australia, Africa and the Americas; the 19th and early 20th centuries saw the construction of very large numbers of Gothic Revival structures worldwide. The influence of Revivalism had nevertheless peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and Society, societies through Skill, skills and imagination in order to produce Physical object, objects, Natural environment, ...
, and sometimes in outright opposition, such as
Modernism Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...

Modernism
, gained ground, and by the 1930s the architecture of the
Victorian era In the history of the United Kingdom The history of the United Kingdom began in the early eighteenth century with the Treaty of Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
was generally condemned or ignored. The later 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the
Victorian Society The Victorian Society is a UK charity, the national authority on Victorian and Edwardian architecture built between 1837 and 1914 in England and Wales. As a membership organisation, the majority of its funding comes from subscription fees and ...
in 1958.


Roots

The rise of
evangelicalism Evangelicalism (), also called evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century ...
in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the
high church The term ''high church'' refers to beliefs and practices of Christian , , and that emphasize formality and resistance to modernisation. Although used in connection with various , the term originated in and has been principally associated with th ...
movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...

Reformation
Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the high church's armoury. The Gothic Revival was also paralleled and supported by "
medievalism Medievalism is a system of belief and practice inspired by the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post- ...
", which had its roots in
antiquarian 's cabinet of curiosities, from ''Museum Wormianum,'' 1655 An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: ''antiquarius'', meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an fan (person), aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past. More speci ...
concerns with survivals and curiosities. As "
industrialisation Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is b ...

industrialisation
" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories also grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as
Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Sco ...

Thomas Carlyle
and
Augustus Pugin Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin ( ; 1 March 181214 September 1852) was an English architect, designer, artist and critic who is principally remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style of architecture. His work culminated in de ...
took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by
classicism Classicism, in the arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangibl ...
and were being destroyed by
industrialisation Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is b ...

industrialisation
. Gothic Revival also took on political connotations; with the "rational" and "radical" Neoclassical style being seen as associated with
republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use ...
and
liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals ...

liberalism
(as evidenced by its use in the United States and to a lesser extent in
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...

Republican
France), the more spiritual and traditional Gothic Revival became associated with
monarchism Monarchism is the advocacy of the system of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 70 ...
and
conservatism Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, kno ...
, which was reflected by the choice of styles for the rebuilt government centres of the British parliament's
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
in London, the Canadian
Parliament Buildings
Parliament Buildings
in
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...

Ottawa
and the
Hungarian Parliament Building The Hungarian Parliament Building ( hu, Országház, , which translates to ''House of the Country'' or ''House of the Nation''), also known as the Parliament of Budapest after its location, is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, a not ...

Hungarian Parliament Building
in Budapest. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
gave rise to the
Gothic novel Gothic fiction, sometimes called Gothic horror in the 20th century, is a genre of literature and film that covers horror Horror may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Genres *Horror fiction, a genre of fiction **Japanese horror, Japa ...
genre, beginning with ''
The Castle of Otranto ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The ca ...
'' (1764) by
Horace Walpole Horatio Walpole (), 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), better known as Horace Walpole, was an English writer, art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whigs (British political party), Whig politician. He had Strawbe ...

Horace Walpole
, and inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-
bardic poetry Bardic poetry is the writings produced by a class of poets trained in the bardic schools of Ireland and the Gaels, Gaelic parts of Scotland, as they existed down to about the middle of the 17th century or, in Scotland, the early 18th century. Most ...
of "
Ossian Ossian (; Irish Gaelic/ Scottish Gaelic: ''Oisean'') is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary ...
". Poems such as "
Idylls of the King ''Idylls of the King'', published between 1859 and 1885, is a Literature cycle, cycle of twelve narrative poems by the English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–1892; Poet Laureate from 1850) which retells the legend of King Arthur, his knigh ...
" by
Alfred, Lord Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was a British poet. He was the Poet Laureate A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themse ...
recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of
Arthurian King Arthur ( cy, Brenin Arthur, kw, Arthur Gernow, br, Roue Arzhur) was a legendary British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kin ...

Arthurian
romance. In
German literature German literature () comprises those literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Seman ...
, the Gothic Revival also had a grounding in literary fashions.


Survival and revival

Gothic architecture Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of sty ...
began at the
Basilica of Saint Denis The Basilica of Saint-Denis (french: Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, links=no, now formally known as the ) is a large former medieval abbey church and present cathedral in the city of Saint-Denis, a northern suburb of Paris Paris () is ...
near Paris, and the
Cathedral of Sens A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...
in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster. However, Gothic architecture did not die out completely in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects; at
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
Universities, and in the construction of churches in increasingly isolated rural districts of England, France, Germany, the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
and in Spain.
Londonderry Cathedral
Londonderry Cathedral
(completed 1633) was a major new structure in the
Perpendicular Gothic Perpendicular Gothic (also Perpendicular, Rectilinear, or Third Pointed) architecture was the third and final style of English Gothic architecture developed in the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the isla ...
style. In
Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese dialect, Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous ...

Bologna
, in 1646, the
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...

Baroque
architect
Carlo Rainaldi Carlo Rainaldi (4 May 1611 – 8 February 1691) was an Italian architect of the Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Baroque painting, pai ...
constructed Gothic vaults (completed 1658) for the Basilica of San Petronio in
Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese dialect, Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous ...

Bologna
, which had been under construction since 1390; there, the Gothic context of the structure overrode considerations of the current architectural mode.
Guarino Guarini Camillo Guarino Guarini (17 January 1624 – 6 March 1683) was an Italian architect of the Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demogra ...

Guarino Guarini
, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in
Turin Turin ( , Piedmontese Piedmontese (autonym: or , in it, piemontese) is a language spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = ...

Turin
, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Likewise, Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the later 17th century, as shown in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...
.
Sir Christopher Wren Sir Christopher Wren President of the Royal Society, PRS Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (; – ) was one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history, as well as an anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist. H ...

Sir Christopher Wren
's
Tom Tower Tom Tower is a bell tower A bell tower is a tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting ...
for
Christ Church Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jews, Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figu ...

Christ Church
,
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
, and, later,
Nicholas Hawksmoor Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 – 25 March 1736) was an English architect. He was a leading figure of the English Baroque English Baroque is a term sometimes used to refer to modes of English architecture 's 'Gherkin' (2004) rises above ...
's west towers of
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
, blur the boundaries between what is called Gothic survival and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following Gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture. During the mid-18th century rise of
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
, an increased interest and awareness of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
among influential connoisseurs created a more appreciative approach to selected
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
arts, beginning with church architecture, the tomb monuments of royal and noble personages, stained glass, and late Gothic illuminated manuscripts. Other Gothic arts, such as tapestries and metalwork, continued to be disregarded as barbaric and crude, however sentimental and nationalist associations with historical figures were as strong in this early revival as purely aesthetic concerns. German Romanticists (including philosopher and writer
Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist. His works include: four novels; epic poetry, epic and lyric poetry; prose ...

Goethe
and architect
Karl Friedrich Schinkel Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781 – 9 October 1841) was a Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to ...
), began to appreciate the
picturesque Picturesque is an aesthetic ideal introduced into English cultural debate in 1782 by William Gilpin (clergyman), William Gilpin in ''Observations on the River Wye, and Several Parts of South Wales, etc. Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty; made ...
character of ruins—"picturesque" becoming a new aesthetic quality—and those mellowing effects of time that the Japanese call ''
wabi-sabi tea bowl, Azuchi-Momoyama period, 16th century In traditional Japanese aesthetics Japanese aesthetics comprise a set of ancient ideals that include '' wabi'' (transient and stark beauty), '' sabi'' (the beauty of natural patina and aging), ...
'' and that
Horace Walpole Horatio Walpole (), 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), better known as Horace Walpole, was an English writer, art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whigs (British political party), Whig politician. He had Strawbe ...

Horace Walpole
independently admired, mildly tongue-in-cheek, as "the true rust of the Barons' wars". The "Gothick" details of Walpole's Twickenham villa,
Strawberry Hill House Strawberry Hill House—often called simply Strawberry Hill—is the Gothic Revival architecture, Gothic Revival villa that was built in Twickenham, London by Horace Walpole (1717–1797) from 1749 onward. It is the type example of the "#Strawbe ...

Strawberry Hill House
begun in 1749, appealed to the
rococo Rococo (, also ), less commonly Roccoco or Late Baroque, is an exceptionally ornamental and theatrical style of architecture, art and decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding, white and pastel colors, sculpted molding, ...
tastes of the time, and were fairly quickly followed by James Talbot at
Lacock Abbey Lacock Abbey in the village of Lacock Lacock is a village and civil parish in the county of Wiltshire, England, about 3 miles (5 km) south of the town of Chippenham. The village is owned almost in its entirety by the National T ...
, Wiltshire. By the 1770s, thoroughly neoclassical architects such as
Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 17283 March 1792) was a British neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer. He was the son of William Adam (architect), William Adam (1689–1748), Scotland's foremost architect of the time, and tra ...
and
James Wyatt James Wyatt (3 August 1746 – 4 September 1813) was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the Neoclassicism, neoclassical and Gothic revival, neo-Gothic styles. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1785 and was its president from 1 ...

James Wyatt
were prepared to provide Gothic details in drawing-rooms, libraries and chapels and, for William Beckford at
Fonthill
Fonthill
in Wiltshire, a complete romantic vision of a Gothic abbey. Some of the earliest architectural examples of the revived are found in Scotland.
Inveraray Castle Inveraray Castle (pronounced or ; Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; ...

Inveraray Castle
, constructed from 1746 for the
Duke of Argyll Duke of Argyll ( gd, Diùc Earra-Ghàidheil) is a title, created in the Peerage of Scotland The Peerage of Scotland ( gd, Moraireachd na h-Alba, sco, Peerage o Scotland) is the section of the Peerage A peerage is a legal system histori ...
, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. The architectural historian John Gifford writes that the castellations were the "symbolic assertion of the still quasi-feudal power he dukeexercised over the inhabitants within his heritable jurisdictions". Most buildings were still largely in the established
Palladian Palladian architecture is a European architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), ...
style, but some houses incorporated external features of the Scots baronial style. Robert Adam's houses in this style include Mellerstain and
Wedderburn
Wedderburn
in Berwickshire and
Seton Castle Seton Castle is an 18th-century Georgian architecture, Georgian castle in East Lothian, Scotland. The castle was Robert Adam's final project in Scotland. History Seton Castle was built in the late 1700s on the site of Seton Palace, which was demo ...
in East Lothian, but it is most clearly seen at
Culzean Castle Culzean Castle ( , see yogh The letter yogh (ȝogh) ( ; Scots: ; Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th c ...

Culzean Castle
, Ayrshire, remodelled by Adam from 1777. The eccentric landscape designer
Batty Langley Batty Langley (''baptised'' 14 September 1696 – 3 March 1751) was an England, English garden designer, and prolific writer who produced a number of engraved designs for "Gothic Revival architecture, Gothick" structures, summerhouses and garden sea ...
even attempted to "improve" Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions. A younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for John Britton's series ''Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain'', which began appearing in 1807. In 1817,
Thomas Rickman Thomas Rickman (8 June 17764 January 1841) was an English architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of ...
wrote an ''Attempt...'' to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, "a text-book for the architectural student". Its long antique title is descriptive: ''Attempt to discriminate the styles of English architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation; preceded by a sketch of the Grecian and Roman orders, with notices of nearly five hundred English buildings''. The categories he used were
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...
, Early English, Decorated, and
Perpendicular In elementary geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relativ ...
. It went through numerous editions, was still being republished by 1881, and has been reissued in the 21st century. The most common use for Gothic Revival architecture was in the building of churches. Major examples of Gothic cathedrals in the U.S. include the cathedrals of
St. John the Divine
St. John the Divine
and St. Patrick in New York City and the
Washington National Cathedral The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the City and Diocese of Washington, commonly known as Washington National Cathedral, is an American cathedral of the Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal Church. The cathedral is loc ...

Washington National Cathedral
on Mount St. Alban in northwest
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is
Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate
Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate
in
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
. Gothic Revival architecture remained one of the most popular and long-lived of the many revival styles of architecture. Although it began to lose force and popularity after the third quarter of the 19th century in commercial, residential and industrial fields, some buildings such as churches, schools, colleges and universities were still constructed in the Gothic style, often known as "Collegiate Gothic", which remained popular in England, Canada and in the United States until well into the early to mid-20th century. Only when new materials, like steel and glass along with concern for function in everyday working life and saving space in the cities, meaning the need to build up instead of out, began to take hold did the Gothic Revival start to disappear from popular building requests.


Decorative

The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture. Classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace and lattice work were applied to a wide range of Gothic Revival objects. Some examples of Gothic Revivals influence can be found in heraldic motifs in coats of arms, painted furniture with elaborate painted scenes like the whimsical Gothic detailing in English furniture is traceable as far back as Lady Pomfret's house in Arlington Street, London (1740s), and Gothic fretwork in chairbacks and glazing patterns of bookcases is a familiar feature of Chippendale's ''Director'' (1754, 1762), where, for example, the three-part bookcase employs Gothic details with Rococo profusion, on a symmetrical form.
AbbotsfordAbbotsford may refer to a place in: ;Australia * Abbotsford, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney, Australia * Abbotsford, Picton, a heritage-listed farm in south-western Sydney * Abbotsford, Victoria, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia * Abbotsford S ...
in the
Scottish Borders The Scottish Borders ( sco, the Mairches, 'the Marches'; gd, Crìochan na h-Alba) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the City of Edinburgh, Dumfries and Galloway, East Lothian, Midlothian, South Lanarkshire, West Lothian an ...
, rebuilt from 1816 by
Sir Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832), was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of European and Scottish literature Scottish literature is literatu ...

Sir Walter Scott
and paid for by the profits from his, hugely successful, historical novels, exemplifies the "Regency Gothic" style. Gothic Revival also includes the reintroduction of medieval clothes and dances in historical re-enactments staged especially in the second part of the 19th century, although one of the first, the
Eglinton Tournament The Eglinton Tournament of 1839 was a reenactment of a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past e ...
of 1839, remains the most famous. By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in
wallpaper Wallpaper is a material used in interior decoration Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space. An inter ...

wallpaper
, and Gothic blind arcading could decorate a ceramic pitcher. Writing in 1857, J. G. Crace, an influential decorator from a family of influential interior designers, expressed his preference for the Gothic style: "In my opinion there is no quality of lightness, elegance, richness or beauty possessed by any other style...
r
r
in which the principles of sound construction can be so well carried out". The illustrated catalogue for the
Great Exhibition opens the Great Exhibition in The Crystal Palace The Crystal Palace was a cast iron and plate glass structure, originally built in Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. The exhibition took place from 1 M ...
of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery. Nikolaus Pevsner's volume on the exhibits at the Great Exhibition, ''High Victorian Design'' published in 1951, was an important contribution to the academic study of
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
taste and an early indicator of the later 20th century rehabilitation of Victorian architecture and the objects with which they decorated their buildings. In 1847, eight thousand British
crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...
coins were minted in
proof Proof may refer to: * Proof (truth), argument or sufficient evidence for the truth of a proposition * Alcohol proof, a measure of an alcoholic drink's strength Formal sciences * Formal proof, a construct in proof theory * Mathematical proof, a co ...
condition with the design using an ornate reverse in keeping with the revived style. Considered by collectors to be particularly beautiful, they are known as 'Gothic crowns'. The design was repeated in 1853, again in proof. A similar two shilling coin, the 'Gothic
florin The Florentine Florentine most commonly refers to: * a person or thing from Florence, a city in Italy * the Florentine dialect Florentine may also refer to: Places * Florentin, Tel Aviv, a neighborhood in the southern part of Tel Aviv, Is ...

florin
' was minted for circulation from 1851 to 1887.


Romanticism and nationalism

French neo-Gothic had its roots in the French medieval Gothic architecture, where it was created in the 12th century. Gothic architecture was sometimes known during the medieval period as the "Opus Francigenum", (the "French Art"). French scholar Alexandre de Laborde wrote in 1816 that "Gothic architecture has beauties of its own", which marked the beginning of the Gothic Revival in France. Starting in 1828, Alexandre Brogniart, the director of the Sèvres porcelain manufactory, produced fired enamel paintings on large panes of plate glass, for King Louis-Philippe's
Chapelle royale de Dreux The Royal Chapel of Dreux (''Chapelle royale de Dreux'') situated in Dreux Dreux () is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir Departments of France, department in northern France. History Dreux was known in ancient times as Durocassium, the capital ...
, an important early French commission in Gothic taste, preceded mainly by some Gothic features in a few '' jardins paysagers''. The French Gothic Revival was set on sounder intellectual footings by a pioneer,
Arcisse de Caumont Arcisse de Caumont (20 August 1801, Bayeux – 16 April 1873) was a French historian and archaeologist. Biography Arcisse Caumont was born at Bayeux to François de Caumont and Marie-Louise de Mathan Hue. One of his mentors was Charles-Alexis-Adri ...
, who founded the Societé des Antiquaires de Normandie at a time when ''antiquaire'' still meant a connoisseur of antiquities, and who published his great work on architecture in French Normandy in 1830. The following year
Victor Hugo Victor-Marie Hugo (; 26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, essayist, playwright, and dramatist of the Romantic movement Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellect ...

Victor Hugo
's historical romance novel ''
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame ''The Hunchback of Notre-Dame'' (french: Notre-Dame de Paris, translation=''Our Lady of Paris'', originally titled ''Notre-Dame de Paris. 1482'') is a 19th-century French literature, French Gothic fiction, Gothic novel by Victor Hugo, published ...
'' appeared, in which the great
Gothic cathedral of Paris
Gothic cathedral of Paris
was at once a setting and a protagonist in a hugely popular work of fiction. Hugo intended his book to awaken a concern for the surviving Gothic architecture left in Europe, however, rather than to initiate a craze for neo-Gothic in contemporary life. In the same year that ''Notre-Dame de Paris'' appeared, the new French restored
BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * Bourbon biscuit, a chocolate sandwich biscuit * A beer produced by Brass ...
monarchy established an office in the Royal French Government of Inspector-General of Ancient Monuments, a post which was filled in 1833 by
Prosper Mérimée Prosper Mérimée (; 28 September 1803 – 23 September 1870) was a French writer in the movement of Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in ...

Prosper Mérimée
, who became the secretary of a new Commission des Monuments Historiques in 1837. This was the Commission that instructed
Eugène Viollet-le-Duc Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (; 27 January 181417 September 1879) was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collect ...

Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
to report on the condition of the Abbey of Vézelay in 1840. Following this, Viollet le Duc set out to restore most of the symbolic buildings in France including Notre Dame de Paris, Vézelay,
Carcassonne Carcassonne (, also , , ; ; la, Carcaso) is a French fortified city A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized ...

Carcassonne
, Roquetaillade castle, the famous Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey on its peaked coastal island,
Pierrefonds
Pierrefonds
, and
Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become ...

Palais des Papes
in
Avignon Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label= Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...

Avignon
. When France's first prominent neo-Gothic church was built, the Basilica of Saint-Clotilde, Paris, begun in 1846 and consecrated in 1857, the architect chosen was of German extraction, Franz Christian Gau, (1790–1853); the design was significantly modified by Gau's assistant, Théodore Ballu, in the later stages, to produce the pair of ''flèches'' that crown the west end. In Germany, there was a renewal of interest in the completion of
Cologne Cathedral Cologne Cathedral (german: Kölner Dom, officially ', English: Cathedral Church of Saint Peter Saint Peter; he, שמעון בר יונה, Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; ar, سِمعَان بُطرُس, translit=Simʿa̅n Buṭrus; grc-gre, Πέτ ...

Cologne Cathedral
. Begun in 1248, it was still unfinished at the time of the revival. The 1820s "Romantic" movement brought a new appreciation of the building, and construction work began once more in 1842, marking a German return for Gothic architecture.
St. Vitus Cathedral , native_name_lang = Czech , image = St Vitus Prague September 2016-21.jpg , imagesize = 300px , imagelink = , imagealt = , landscape = , caption ...

St. Vitus Cathedral
in
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
, begun in 1344, was also completed in the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. The importance of the Cologne completion project in German-speaking lands has been explored by Michael J. Lewis, ''"The Politics of the German Gothic Revival: August Reichensperger"''. Reichensperger was himself in no doubt as to the cathedral's central position in Germanic culture; "Cologne Cathedral is German to the core, it is a national monument in the fullest sense of the word, and probably the most splendid monument to be handed down to us from the past". Because of
Romantic nationalism Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...
in the early 19th century, the Germans, French and English all claimed the original Gothic architecture of the 12th century era as originating in their own country. The English boldly coined the term "Early English" for "Gothic", a term that implied Gothic architecture was an English creation. In his 1832 edition of ''Notre Dame de Paris'', author Victor Hugo said "Let us inspire in the nation, if it is possible, love for the national architecture", implying that "Gothic" is France's national heritage. In Germany, with the completion of Cologne Cathedral in the 1880s, at the time its summit was the world's tallest building, the cathedral was seen as the height of Gothic architecture. Other major completions of Gothic cathedrals were of Regensburger Dom (with twin spires completed from 1869 to 1872), Ulm Münster (with a 161-meter tower from 1890) and
St. Vitus Cathedral , native_name_lang = Czech , image = St Vitus Prague September 2016-21.jpg , imagesize = 300px , imagelink = , imagealt = , landscape = , caption ...

St. Vitus Cathedral
in Prague (1844–1929). In Belgium, a 15th-century church in Ostend burned down in 1896. King Leopold II of Belgium, Leopold II funded its replacement, the Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk, Saint Peter's and Saint Paul's Church, a cathedral-scale design which drew inspiration from the neo-Gothic Votive Church, Vienna, Votive Church in Vienna and Cologne Cathedral. In Mechelen, the largely unfinished building drawn in 1526 as the seat of the Great Council of Mechelen, Great Council of The Netherlands, was not actually built until the early 20th century, although it closely followed Rombout II Keldermans's Brabantine Gothic design, and became the 'new' north wing of the City Hall. In Florence, the Florence Cathedral, Duomo's temporary façade erected for the Medici-House of Lorraine nuptials in 1588–1589, was dismantled, and the west end of the cathedral stood bare again until 1864, when a competition was held to design a new façade suitable to Arnolfo di Cambio's original structure and the fine campanile next to it. This competition was won by Emilio De Fabris, and so work on his polychrome design and panels of mosaic was begun in 1876 and completed by 1887, creating the Neo-Gothic western façade. Eastern Europe also saw much Revival construction; in addition to the
Hungarian Parliament Building The Hungarian Parliament Building ( hu, Országház, , which translates to ''House of the Country'' or ''House of the Nation''), also known as the Parliament of Budapest after its location, is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, a not ...

Hungarian Parliament Building
in Budapest, the Bulgarian National Revival saw the introduction of Gothic Revival elements into its vernacular ecclesiastical and residential architecture. The largest project of the Slavine School is the Lopushna Monastery cathedral (1850–1853), though later churches such as Saint George's Church, Gavril Genovo display more prominent vernacular Gothic Revival features. In Scotland, while a similar Gothic style to that used further south in England was adopted by figures including Frederick Thomas Pilkington (1832–98) in secular architecture it was marked by the re-adoption of the Scots baronial style. Important for the adoption of the style in the early 19th century was Abbotsford, which became a model for the modern revival of the baronial style. Common features borrowed from 16th- and 17th-century houses included battlements, battlemented gateways, crow-stepped gables, pointed turrets and machicolations. The style was popular across Scotland and was applied to many relatively modest dwellings by architects such as William Burn (1789–1870), David Bryce (1803–76), Edward Blore (1787–1879), Edward Calvert (architect), Edward Calvert () and Robert Stodart Lorimer (1864–1929) and in urban contexts, including the building of Cockburn Street, Edinburgh, Cockburn Street in Edinburgh (from the 1850s) as well as the National Wallace Monument at Stirling (1859–1869). The reconstruction of Balmoral Castle as a baronial palace and its adoption as a royal retreat from 1855 to 1858 confirmed the popularity of the style. In the United States, the first "Gothic stile" church (as opposed to churches with Gothic elements) was Trinity Church on the Green, New Haven, Connecticut. It was designed by Ithiel Town between 1812 and 1814, while he was building his Federal architecture, Federalist-style Center Church, New Haven next to this radical new "Gothic-style" church. Its cornerstone was laid in 1814, and it was consecrated in 1816. It predates St Luke's Church, Chelsea, often said to be the first Gothic-revival church in London. Though built of trap rock stone with arched windows and doors, parts of its tower and its battlements were wood. Gothic buildings were subsequently erected by Episcopal congregations in Connecticut at St John's in Salisbury (1823), St John's in Kent (1823–26) and St Andrew's in Marble Dale (1821–1823). These were followed by Town's design for Christ Church Cathedral (Hartford, Connecticut) (1827), which incorporated Gothic elements such as buttresses into fabric of the church. St. Paul's Episcopal Church (Troy, New York), St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Troy, New York, was constructed in 1827–1828 as an exact copy of Town's design for Trinity Church, New Haven, but using local stone; due to changes in the original, St. Paul's is closer to Town's original design than Trinity itself. In the 1830s, architects began to copy specific English Gothic and Gothic Revival Churches, and these "'mature Gothic Revival' buildings made the domestic Gothic style architecture which preceded it seem primitive and old-fashioned". There are many examples of Gothic Revival architecture in Canada. The first major structure was Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal), Notre-Dame Basilica in Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, which was designed in 1824. The capital, Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, was predominantly a 19th-century creation in the Gothic Revival style. The Parliament Hill buildings are the preeminent. Their example was followed elsewhere in the city and outlying areas, showing how popular the Gothic Revival movement had become. Other examples of Canadian Gothic Revival architecture in Ottawa are the Victoria Memorial Museum, (1905–08), the Royal Canadian Mint, (1905–08), and the Connaught Building, (1913–16), all by David Ewart.


Gothic as a moral force


Pugin and "truth" in architecture

In the late 1820s, Augustus Pugin, A. W. N. Pugin, still a teenager, was working for two highly visible employers, providing Gothic detailing for luxury goods. For the Royal furniture makers Morel and Seddon he provided designs for redecorations for the elderly George IV of the United Kingdom, George IV at Windsor Castle in a Gothic taste suited to the setting. For the royal silversmiths Rundell and Bridge, Rundell Bridge and Co., Pugin provided designs for silver from 1828, using the 14th-century Anglo-French Gothic vocabulary that he would continue to favour later in designs for the new Palace of Westminster. Between 1821 and 1838 Pugin and his father published a series of volumes of architectural drawings, the first two entitled, ''Specimens of Gothic Architecture'', and the following three, ''Examples of Gothic Architecture'', that were to remain both in print and the standard references for Gothic Revivalists for at least the next century. In ''Contrasts: or, a Parallel between the Noble Edifices of the Middle Ages, and similar Buildings of the Present Day'' (1836), Pugin expressed his admiration not only for medieval art but for the whole medieval ethos, suggesting that Gothic architecture was the product of a purer society. In ''The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture'' (1841), he set out his "two great rules of design: 1st, that there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for convenience, construction or propriety; 2nd, that all ornament should consist of enrichment of the essential construction of the building". Urging modern craftsmen to seek to emulate the style of medieval workmanship as well as reproduce its methods, Pugin sought to reinstate Gothic as the true Christian architectural style. Pugin's most notable project was the Palace of Westminster, Houses of Parliament in London, after its predecessor was largely destroyed in a fire in 1834. His part in the design consisted of two campaigns, 1836–1837 and again in 1844 and 1852, with the classicist Charles Barry as his nominal superior. Pugin provided the external decoration and the interiors, while Barry designed the symmetrical layout of the building, causing Pugin to remark, "All Grecian, Sir; Tudor details on a classic body".


Ruskin and Venetian Gothic

John Ruskin supplemented Pugin's ideas in his two influential theoretical works, ''The Seven Lamps of Architecture'' (1849) and The Stones of Venice (book), ''The Stones of Venice'' (1853). Finding his architectural ideal in Venice, Ruskin proposed that Gothic buildings excelled above all other architecture because of the "sacrifice" of the stone-carvers in intricately decorating every stone. In this, he drew a contrast between the physical and spiritual satisfaction which a medieval craftsman derived from his work, and the lack of these satisfactions afforded to modern, Industrial Revolution, industrialised labour. By declaring the Doge's Palace, Venice, Doge's Palace to be "the central building of the world", Ruskin argued the case for Gothic government buildings as Pugin had done for churches, though mostly only in theory. When his ideas were put into practice, Ruskin often disliked the result, although he supported many architects, such as Thomas Newenham Deane and Benjamin Woodward, and was reputed to have designed some of the corbel decorations for that pair's Oxford University Museum of Natural History. A major clash between the Gothic and Classical styles in relation to governmental offices occurred less than a decade after the publication of ''The Stones of Venice''. A public competition for the construction of a new Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Foreign Office in Whitehall saw the decision to award first place to a Gothic design by George Gilbert Scott overturned by the Prime Minister, Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Lord Palmerston, who successfully demanded a building in the Italianate architecture, Italianate style.


Ecclesiology and funerary style

In England, the Anglicanism, Church of England was undergoing a revival of
Anglo-Catholic Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, or Catholic Anglicanism comprises people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, ...
and Ritualism, ritualist ideology in the form of the Oxford Movement, and it became desirable to build large numbers of new churches to cater for the growing population, and cemeteries for their hygienic burials. This found ready exponents in the universities, where the ecclesiological movement was forming. Its proponents believed that Gothic was the ''only'' style appropriate for a parish church, and favoured a particular era of Gothic architecture – the "Decorated Period, decorated". The Cambridge Camden Society, through its journal ''The Ecclesiologist'', was so savagely critical of new church buildings that were below its exacting standards and its pronouncements were followed so avidly that it became the epicentre of the flood of Victorian restoration that affected most of the Anglican cathedrals and parish churches in England and Wales. St Luke's Church, Chelsea, was a new-built Commissioner's Church of 1820–24, partly built using a grant of £8,333 towards its construction with money voted by Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliament as a result of the Church Building Act of 1818. It is often said to be the first Gothic Revival church in London, and, as Charles Locke Eastlake put it: "probably the only church of its time in which the main roof was groined throughout in stone". Nonetheless, the parish was firmly low church, and the original arrangement, modified in the 1860s, was as a "preaching church" dominated by the pulpit, with a small altar and wooden galleries over the nave aisle. The development of the private Magnificent Seven, London, major metropolitan cemeteries was occurring at the same time as the movement; William Tite, Sir William Tite pioneered the first cemetery in the Gothic style at West Norwood Cemetery, West Norwood in 1837, with chapels, gates, and decorative features in the Gothic manner, attracting the interest of contemporary architects such as George Edmund Street, Barry, and William Burges. The style was immediately hailed a success and universally replaced the previous preference for classical design. Not every architect or client was swept away by this tide. Although Gothic Revival succeeded in becoming an increasingly familiar style of architecture, the attempt to associate it with the notion of high church superiority, as advocated by Pugin and the ecclesiological movement, was anathema to those with ecumenical or nonconformist principles. Alexander Thomson, Alexander "Greek" Thomson launched a famous attack; "We are told we should adopt [Gothic] because it is the Christian style, and this most impudent assertion has been accepted as sound doctrine even by earnest and intelligent Protestants; whereas it ought only to have force with those who believe that Christian truth attained its purest and most spiritual development at the period when this style of architecture constituted its corporeal form". Those rejecting the link between Gothic and Catholicism looked to adopt it solely for its aesthetic romantic qualities, to combine it with other styles, or look to northern European Brick Gothic for a more plain appearance; or in some instances all three of these, as at the non-denominational Abney Park Cemetery in east London, designed by William Hosking, William Hosking FSA in 1840.


Viollet-le-Duc and Iron Gothic

France had lagged slightly in entering the neo-Gothic scene, but produced a major figure in the revival in
Eugène Viollet-le-Duc Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (; 27 January 181417 September 1879) was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collect ...

Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
. As well as a powerful and influential theorist, Viollet-le-Duc was a leading architect whose genius lay in restoration. He believed in restoring buildings to a state of completion that they would not have known even when they were first built, theories he applied to his restorations of the walled city of Carcassonne, and to Notre-Dame de Paris, Notre-Dame and Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In this respect he differed from his English counterpart Ruskin, as he often replaced the work of mediaeval stonemasons. His rational approach to Gothic stood in stark contrast to the revival's romanticist origins. Throughout his career he remained in a quandary as to whether iron and masonry should be combined in a building. Iron had in fact been used in Gothic buildings since the earliest days of the revival. It was only with Ruskin and the archaeological Gothic's demand for historical truth that iron, whether it was visible or not, was deemed improper for a Gothic building. Ultimately, the utility of iron won out: "substituting a cast iron shaft for a granite, marble or stone column is not bad, but one must agree that it cannot be considered as an innovation, as the introduction of a new principle. Replacing a stone or wooden lintel by an iron Bressummer, breastsummer is very good". He strongly opposed illusion, however: reacting against the casing of a cast iron pillar in stone, he wrote; "il faut que la pierre paraisse bien être de la pierre; le fer, du fer; le bois, du bois" (stone must appear to be stone; iron, iron; wood, wood). The arguments against modern construction materials began to collapse in the mid-19th century as great prefabricated structures such as the glass and iron The Crystal Palace, Crystal Palace and the glazed courtyard of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History were erected, which appeared to embody Gothic principles. Between 1863 and 1872 Viollet-le-Duc published his ''Entretiens sur l'architecture'', a set of daring designs for buildings that combined iron and masonry. Though these projects were never realised, they influenced several generations of designers and architects, notably Antoni Gaudí in Spain and, in England, Benjamin Bucknall, Viollet's foremost English follower and translator, whose masterpiece was Woodchester Mansion. The flexibility and strength of cast-iron freed neo-Gothic designers to create new structural Gothic forms impossible in stone, as in Calvert Vaux's cast-iron Gothic bridge in Central Park, New York dating from the 1860. Vaux enlisted openwork forms derived from Gothic blind-arcading and window tracery to express the spring and support of the arching bridge, in flexing forms that presage Art Nouveau.


Collegiate Gothic

In the United States, Collegiate Gothic was a late and literal resurgence of the English Gothic Revival, adapted for American university campuses. The term "Collegiate Gothic" originated from American architect Alexander Jackson Davis's handwritten description of his own "English Collegiate Gothic Mansion" of 1853 for the Harrals of Bridgeport. By the 1890s, the movement was known as "Collegiate Gothic". The firm of Cope & Stewardson was an early and important exponent, transforming the campuses of Bryn Mawr College, Princeton University and the University of Pennsylvania in the 1890s. In 1872, Abner Jackson, the President of Trinity College (Connecticut), Trinity College, Connecticut, visited Britain, seeking models and an architect for a planned new campus for the college. William Burges was chosen and he drew up a four-quadrangled masterplan, in his French Gothic#Early Gothic, Early French style. Lavish illustrations were produced by Axel Haig. However, the estimated cost, at just under one million dollars, together with the sheer scale of the plans, thoroughly alarmed the College Trustees and only one-sixth of the plan was executed, the present Trinity College Long Walk, Long Walk, with Francis H. Kimball acting as local, supervising, architect, and Frederick Law Olmsted laying out the grounds. Hitchcock considers the result, "perhaps the most satisfactory of all of [Burges's] works and the best example anywhere of Victorian Gothic collegiate architecture". The movement continued into the 20th century, with Cope & Stewardson's campus for Washington University in St. Louis (1900–09), Charles Donagh Maginnis's buildings at Boston College (1910s) (including Gasson Hall), Ralph Adams Cram's design for the Princeton University Graduate College (1913), and James Gamble Rogers' reconstruction of the campus of Yale University (1920s). Charles Klauder's Gothic Revival skyscraper on the University of Pittsburgh's campus, the Cathedral of Learning (1926) exhibited very Gothic stylings both inside and out, while utilizing modern technologies to make the building taller.


Vernacular adaptations and the revival in the Antipodes

Carpenter Gothic houses and small churches became common in North America and other places in the late 19th century. These structures adapted Gothic elements such as pointed arches, steep gables, and towers to traditional American light-frame construction. The invention of the scroll saw and mass-produced wood moldings allowed a few of these structures to mimic the florid Window, fenestration of the High Gothic. But, in most cases, Carpenter Gothic buildings were relatively unadorned, retaining only the basic elements of pointed-arch windows and steep gables. A well-known example of Carpenter Gothic is a house in Eldon, Iowa, that Grant Wood used for the background of his painting American Gothic.


New Zealand and Australia

Benjamin Mountfort, born in Britain, trained in Birmingham, and subsequently resident in Canterbury, New Zealand imported the Gothic Revival style to his adopted country and designed Gothic Revival churches in both wood and stone, notably in Christchurch. Frederick Thatcher designed wooden churches in the Gothic Revival style, for example Old St. Paul's, Wellington, contributing to what has been described as New Zealand's "one memorable contribution to world architecture". St Mary of the Angels, Wellington by Frederick de Jersey Clere is in the French Gothic style, and was the first Gothic design church built in ferro-concrete. The style also found favour in the southern New Zealand city of Dunedin, where the wealth brought in by the Otago Gold Rush of the 1860s allowed for substantial stone edifices to be constructed, using hard, dark breccia stone and a local white limestone, Oamaru stone, among them Maxwell Bury's University of Otago Registry Building and the Dunedin Law Courts by John Campbell (architect), John Campbell. Australia, in particular in Melbourne and Sydney, saw the construction of large numbers of Gothic Revival buildings. William Wardell (1823–1899) was among the country's most prolific architects; born and trained in England, after emigrating his most notable Australian designs include St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne and St John's College, University of Sydney, St John's College and St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney, St Mary's Cathedral in Sydney. In common with many other 19th century architects, Wardell could deploy different styles at the command of his clients; Government House, Melbourne is Italianate architecture, Italianate. His banking house for the English, Scottish and Australian Bank in Melbourne has been described as "the Australian masterpiece of neo-Gothic". This claim has also been made for Edmund Blacket's MacLaurin Hall at the University of Sydney, which sits in the quadrangle complex described as "arguably the most important group of Gothic and Tudor Revival style architecture in Australia".


Global Gothic

Henry-Russell Hitchcock, the architectural historian, noted the spread of the Gothic Revival in the 19th and early 20th centuries, "wherever English culture extended – as far as the West Coast of the United States and to the remotest Antipodes". The British Empire, almost at its geographic peak at the height of the Gothic Revival, assisted or compelled this spread. The English-speaking dominions, Canada, Australia particularly the state of Victoria and New Zealand generally adopted British styles in toto (see above); other parts of the empire saw regional adaptations. India saw the construction of many such buildings, in styles termed Indo-Saracenic architecture, Indo-Saracenic or Hindu-Gothic. Notable examples include Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) and the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel, both in Mumbai. At the hill station of Shimla, the summer capital of British Raj, British India, an attempt was made to recreate the Home counties in the foothills of the Himalayas. Although Gothic Revival was the predominant architectural style, alternatives were also deployed; Rashtrapati Niwas, the former Viceregal Lodge, has been variously described as Scottish baronial architecture#Scottish Baronial Revival, Scottish Baronial Revival, Tudor Revival architecture, Tudor Revival and Jacobethan. Other examples in the east include the late 19th century Church of the Saviour, Beijing, constructed on the orders of the Guangxu Emperor and designed by the Catholic missionary and architect Alphonse Favier; and the Wat Niwet Thammaprawat in the Bang Pa-In Royal Palace in Bangkok, by the Italian Joachim Grassi. In Indonesia, (the former colony of the Dutch East Indies), the Jakarta Cathedral was begun in 1891 and completed in 1901 by Dutch architect Antonius Dijkmans; while further north in the islands of the Philippines, the San Sebastian Church (Manila), San Sebastian Church, designed by architects Genaro Palacios and Gustave Eiffel, was consecrated in 1891 in the still Spanish colony. Church building in South Africa was extensive, with little or no effort to adopt vernacular forms. Robert Gray (bishop of Cape Town), Robert Gray, the first Anglican Diocese of Cape Town, bishop of Cape Town, wrote; "I am sure we do not overestimate the importance of real Churches built after the fashion of our English churches". He oversaw the construction of some fifty such buildings between 1848 and his death in 1872. South America saw a later flourishing of the Revival, particularly in church architecture, for example the São Paulo Cathedral, Metropolitan Cathedral of São Paulo in Brazil by the German Maximilian Emil Hehl, and the Cathedral of La Plata in Argentina.


20th and 21st centuries

The Gothic style dictated the use of structural members in Compression member, compression, leading to tall, buttressed buildings with interior columns of Load-bearing wall, load-bearing masonry and tall, narrow windows. But, by the start of the 20th century, technological developments such as the steel frame, the incandescent light bulb and the elevator made this approach obsolete. Steel framing supplanted the non-ornamental functions of rib vaults and flying buttresses, providing wider open interiors with fewer columns interrupting the view. Some architects persisted in using Neo-Gothic tracery as applied ornamentation to an iron skeleton underneath, for example in Cass Gilbert's 1913 Woolworth Building skyscraper in New York and Raymond Hood's 1922 Tribune Tower in Chicago. The Tower Life Building in San Antonio, completed in 1929, is noted for the arrays of decorative Gargoyle, gargoyles on its upper floors. But, over the first half of the century, Neo-Gothic was supplanted by Modernism, although some modernist architects saw the Gothic tradition of architectural form entirely in terms of the "honest expression" of the technology of the day, and saw themselves as heirs to that tradition, with their use of rectangular frames and exposed iron girders. In spite of this, the Gothic Revival continued to exert its influence, simply because many of its more massive projects were still being built well into the second half of the 20th century, such as Giles Gilbert Scott's Liverpool Cathedral and the
Washington National Cathedral The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the City and Diocese of Washington, commonly known as Washington National Cathedral, is an American cathedral of the Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal Church. The cathedral is loc ...

Washington National Cathedral
(1907–1990). Ralph Adams Cram became a leading force in American Gothic, with his most ambitious project the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York (claimed to be the largest cathedral in the world), as well as Collegiate Gothic buildings at Princeton University. Cram said "the style hewn out and perfected by our ancestors [has] become ours by uncontested inheritance". Though the number of new Gothic Revival buildings declined sharply after the 1930s, they continue to be built. St Edmundsbury Cathedral, the cathedral of Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk, was expanded and reconstructed in a neo-Gothic style between the late 1950s and 2005, and a commanding stone central tower was added. A new church in the Gothic style is planned for St. John Vianney Parish in Fishers, Indiana. The Whittle Building at Peterhouse, Cambridge, Peterhouse, University of Cambridge, opened in 2016, matches the neo-Gothic style of the rest of the courtyard in which it is situated.


Appreciation

By 1872, the Gothic Revival was mature enough in the United Kingdom that Charles Locke Eastlake, an influential professor of design, could produce ''A History of the Gothic Revival''. Kenneth Clark, Kenneth Clark's, ''The Gothic Revival. An Essay'', followed in 1928, in which he described the Revival as "the most widespread and influential artistic movement which England has ever produced." The architect and writer Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel covered the subject of the Revival in an appreciative way in his Slade Professor of Fine Art, Slade Lectures in 1934. But the conventional early 20th century view of the architecture of the Gothic Revival was strongly dismissive, critics writing of "the nineteenth century architectural tragedy", ridiculing "the uncompromising ugliness" of the era's buildings and attacking the "sadistic hatred of beauty" of its architects. The 1950s saw further signs of a recovery in the reputation of Revival architecture. John Steegman's study, ''Consort of Taste'' (re-issued in 1970 as ''Victorian Taste'', with a foreword by Nikolaus Pevsner), was published in 1950 and began a slow turn in the tide of opinion "towards a more serious and sympathetic assessment." In 1958, Henry-Russell Hitchcock published his ''Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries'', as part of the Penguin Books, Pelican History of Art series edited by Nikolaus Pevsner. Hitchcock devoted substantial chapters to the Gothic Revival, noting that, while “there is no more typical nineteenth-century product than a Victorian Gothic church”, the success of the Victorian Gothic saw its practitioners design mansions, castles, colleges, and parliaments. The same year saw the foundation of the
Victorian Society The Victorian Society is a UK charity, the national authority on Victorian and Edwardian architecture built between 1837 and 1914 in England and Wales. As a membership organisation, the majority of its funding comes from subscription fees and ...
in England and, in 1963, the publication of ''Victorian Architecture'', an influential collection of essays edited by Peter Ferriday. By 2008, the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Victorian Society, the architecture of the Gothic Revival was more fully appreciated with some of its leading architects receiving scholarly attention and some of its best buildings, such as George Gilbert Scott's St. Pancras Renaissance London Hotel, St Pancras Station Hotel, being magnificently restored. The Society's 50th anniversary publication, ''Saving A Century'', surveyed a half-century of losses and successes, reflected on the changing perceptions toward Victorian architecture and concluded with a chapter entitled “The Victorians Victorious”.


Gallery


Europe

File:Schwerin Castle Aerial View Island Luftbild Schweriner Schloss Insel See (cropped).jpg, Schwerin Castle, Schwerin, Germany (1845–1857) File:Schloss Schadau am Thunersee.jpg, Schadau Castle, Thun, Switzerland (1846–1854) File:Wroclaw Glowny train station 05.jpg, Wrocław Główny railway station, Wrocław, Poland (1855–1857) File:Neues Rathaus München 2018.jpg, New Town Hall (Munich), New Town Hall, Munich, Germany (1867–1905) File:St Pancras Railway Station 2012-06-23.jpg, St Pancras railway station, London, England (1868) File:Manchester Town Hall from Lloyd St.jpg, Manchester Town Hall, Town Hall, Manchester, England (1868–1877) File:Wien Rathaus hochauflösend.jpg, Vienna City Hall, City Hall, Vienna, Austria (1872–1883) File:Parliament Building (Budapest, Hungary).jpg,
Hungarian Parliament Building The Hungarian Parliament Building ( hu, Országház, , which translates to ''House of the Country'' or ''House of the Nation''), also known as the Parliament of Budapest after its location, is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, a not ...

Hungarian Parliament Building
, Budapest, Hungary (1885–1904) File:Tower Bridge seen from the south bank.jpg, Tower Bridge, London, England (1886–1894) File:EstacaoRossioLisboa.JPG, The Neo-Manueline (Portuguese Late Gothic) Rossio railway station, Rossio Station, Lisbon, Portugal (1891) File:Konkatedrala sv. Petra i Pavla Osijek.jpg, Osijek Co-cathedral, Co-cathedral, Osijek, Croatia (1898) File:Moscow Immaculate Conception Church asv2019-06 img1.jpg, Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Moscow), Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Moscow, Russia (1901–1911), an example of Brick Gothic revival


North America

File:Church Of Our Lady Immaculate in Guelph, Ontario.jpg, , Guelph,
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
, Canada File:Santa Ana Catedral Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana 2.jpg, Cathedral of Santa Ana (El Salvador) File:Fachada del Templo Expiatorio del Santísimo Sacramento, Guadalajara 13.JPG, Templo Expiatorio del Santísimo Sacramento Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico File:Santuario Guadalupano de Zamora.jpg, Cathedral of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Zamora, Mexico File:Princeton (6035183309).jpg, Rockefeller College, Princeton University, Princeton, USA File:St Patrick's Cathedral - New York City.jpg, St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan), St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, USA


South America

File:Basilica de Nuestra Senora de Lujan.jpg, Basilica of Our Lady of Luján, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina File:Catedral Metropolitana de Sao Paulo 4 Brasil.jpg, The São Paulo Cathedral, São Paulo Metropolitan Cathedral, São Paulo, Brazil File:Fachada Basílica del Salvador.JPG, Basilica del Salvador, in Santiago Chile File:Santuario de Las Lajas, Ipiales, Colombia, 2015-07-21, DD 21-23 HDR.jpg, The Las Lajas Sanctuary in southern Colombia File:Basilica del Voto Nacional.jpg, Basílica del Voto Nacional, Quito, Ecuador


Australia and New Zealand

File:St. Paul's Cathedral Tower.jpg, St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne, Australia File:St Patrick's Cathedral (Gothic Revival Style).jpg, St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne, Australia File:Sacred Heart Cathedral, Bendigo November 2011.JPG, Sacred Heart Cathedral, Bendigo, Australia File:StMarysSydneyCathedral1.jpg, St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney File:ChristChurchCathedral1 gobeirne.jpg, Christchurch Cathedral, Christchurch, New Zealand File:Otago Boys High School.jpg, Otago Boys High School, Otago, New Zealand


Asia

File:Baku kirkha.jpg, Church of the Saviour, Baku, Church of the Saviour, Baku, Azerbaijan File:Puducherry Sacred Heart Cathedral 2.JPG, Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Pondicherry, Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Pondicherry, India File:Katedral Jakarta 2016 Bennylin 01.jpg, Jakarta Cathedral, Indonesia File:Basilica of San Sebastian, Manila, Philippines - panoramio.jpg, San Sebastian Church (Manila), Basílica Menor de San Sebastián, Manila, Philippines File:Sacred heart cathedral of guangzhou.jpg, Sacred Heart Cathedral (Guangzhou), Sacred Heart Cathedral, Guangzhou, China File:Government College University, Lahore - Clock tower and main building.jpg, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan


Footnotes


References


Sources

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Further reading

* Christian Amalvi, ''Le Goût du moyen âge'', (Paris: Plon), 1996. The first French monograph on French Gothic Revival. * ''"Le Gothique retrouvé" avant Viollet-le-Duc.'' Exhibition, 1979. The first French exhibition concerned with French Neo-Gothic. * Hunter-Stiebel, Penelope, ''Of knights and spires: Gothic revival in France and Germany'', 1989. * Phoebe B Stanton, ''Pugin'' (New York, Viking Press 1972, ©1971). *John Summerson, Summerson, Sir John, 1948. "Viollet-le-Duc and the rational point of view" collected in ''Heavenly Mansions and other essays on Architecture'' * Thomas Graham Jackson, Sir Thomas G. Jackson, ''Modern Gothic Architecture'' (1873), ''Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture'' (1913), and three-volume ''Gothic Architecture in France, England and Italy'' (1915)


External links


Basilique Sainte-Clotilde, Paris

Canada by Design: Parliament Hill, Ottawa
at Library and Archives Canada


Proyecto Documenta's entries for neo-Gothic elements at the Valparaíso's churches
{{DEFAULTSORT:Gothic Revival Architecture Gothic Revival architecture, American architectural styles Architectural styles British architecture by period or style Revival architectural styles Victorian architectural styles