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Geography (from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and
planets.
planets.
The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was
Eratosthenes Eratosthenes of Cyrene (; grc-gre, Ἐρατοσθένης ;  – ) was a Greek polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a ...

Eratosthenes
(276–194 BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and
its human and natural complexities
its human and natural complexities
—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be. Geography is often defined in terms of two branches:
human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a coun ...
and
physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...
. Human geography is concerned with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography is concerned with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the
atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in ...

atmosphere
,
hydrosphere The hydrosphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is app ...
,
biosphere The biosphere (from βίος ''bíos'' "life" and σφαῖρα ''sphaira'' "sphere"), also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος ''oîkos'' "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all s. It can also be termed the zo ...
, and
geosphere There are several conflicting definitions for geosphere. It may be taken as the collective name for the lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, wikt:λίθος#Ancient Greek, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost s ...

geosphere
. The four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena,
area studies Area studies (also regional studies) are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geography, geographical, national/Federal government, federal, or culture, cultural regions. The term exists primarily as a gen ...
of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the
Earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Ta ...
s. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the
physical sciences Physical science is a branch of natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a b ...
".


Introduction

Geography is a systematic study of the Universe and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with
cartography Cartography (; from χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using s. Combining , , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that rea ...
and place names. Although many geographers are trained in
toponymy Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''toponyms Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''wikt: ...
and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the
space Space is the boundless three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Gre ...

space
and the
temporal database A temporal database stores data relating to time instances. It offers temporal data types and stores information relating to past, present and future time. Temporal databases could be uni-temporal, bi-temporal or tri-temporal. More specifically the ...
distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the
interaction Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect. Closely related terms are interac ...

interaction
of humans and their
environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism or ...

environment
. Because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, health,
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
, plants and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields:
human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a coun ...
and
physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...
. The former largely focuses on the
built environment In urban planning, architecture and civil engineering, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human impact on the environment, human-made environment that provides the setting for human behavior, human activity, including Home, ...
and how humans create, view, manage, and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, and how
organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological ...

organism
s, climate,
soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ...

soil
, water, and
landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws ...

landform
s produce and interact. The difference between these approaches led to a third field,
environmental geography Integrated geography (also referred to as integrative geography, environmental geography or human–environment geography) is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of sc ...
, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans.


Branches


Physical

Physical geography (or physiography) focuses on geography as an
Earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Ta ...
. It aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of
lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. On Earth, it is composed of the crust (geology), crust and the portion o ...
,
hydrosphere The hydrosphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is app ...
,
atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in ...

atmosphere
,
pedosphere The pedosphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approx ...
, and global
flora Flora is all the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, ca ...

flora
and
fauna Fauna is all of the animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular r ...

fauna
patterns (
biosphere The biosphere (from βίος ''bíos'' "life" and σφαῖρα ''sphaira'' "sphere"), also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος ''oîkos'' "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all s. It can also be termed the zo ...
). Physical geography is the study of earth's seasons,
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
,
atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in ...

atmosphere
,
soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ...

soil
, streams, landforms, and oceans. File:Línea de Wallace.jpg,
Biogeography Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geography, geographic space and through evolutionary history of life, geological time. Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular fashion along geograp ...

Biogeography
File:Cyclone Catarina from the ISS on March 26 2004.JPG,
Climatology Climatology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
&
meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the f ...
File:90 mile beach.jpg,
Coastal geography Coastal geography is the study of the constantly changing region between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geogra ...
File:Gavin Plant.JPG,
Environmental management Environmental resource management is the management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and Briti ...
File:Meridian convergence and spehrical excess.png,
Geodesy Geodesy ( ) is the Earth science of accurately measuring and understanding Earth's geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field. The field also incorporates studies of how these properties change over time and equivalent measu ...
File:Delicate Arch LaSalle.jpg,
Geomorphology Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

Geomorphology
File:Receding glacier-en.svg,
Glaciology Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt">Gorner_Glacier.html" ;"title="moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier">moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Swiss Alps. The moraine is the high bank of ...
File:Meander.svg,
Hydrology Hydrology (from Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, ''hýdōr'' meaning "water" and wikt:λόγος, λόγος, ''lógos'' meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of water on Earth and ...
&
hydrography 300px, Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from a 1728 '' Cyclopaedia''. Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of ocean The ocean (also the sea ...
File:Khajuraho-landscape.jpg,
Landscape ecology Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizatio ...
File:World11.jpg,
Oceanography Oceanography (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period ...
File:Pangea interpretacion.png, alt=a view of the supercontinent of pangea breaking up,
Palaeogeography area during the Middle Devonian period. Image:Pangea animation 03.gif, upright=1.4, Animation of the break-up of the supercontinent Pangaea and the subsequent drift of its constituents, from the Early Triassic to recent (250 Ma to 0). Palaeoge ...
File:Soil profile.jpg,
Pedology Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, ''pedon'', "soil"; and λόγος, ''logos'', "study") is a discipline within soil science Soil science is the study of soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, N ...
File:Milankovitch Variations sv.png,
Quaternary science Quaternary science is the study which represents the systematic study of the Quaternary Period Quaternary ( ) is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic The Cenozoic Era ( ) meaning "new life" is the current and most ...


Human

Human geography (or anthropogeography) is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society. It encompasses the human, political,
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling diff ...

cultural
, social, and economic aspects. File:Qichwa conchucos 01.jpg,
Cultural geography Cultural geography is a subfield within human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of that is associated and deals with humans and their relationships with communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the env ...
File:Pepsi in India.jpg, Development geography File:Christaller model 1.jpg,
Economic geography Economic geography is the subfield of human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of that is associated and deals with humans and their relationships with communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the en ...
File:Star of life.svg,
Health geography Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health Health, according to the , is "a state of complete physical, and social and not merely the absence of and ".. (2006)''Constitut ...
File:British Empire 1897.jpg,
Historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems a ...
& Time geog. File:UN General Assembly.jpg, Political geog. &
Geopolitics Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
File:Pyramide Comores.PNG, Pop. geog. or
Demography Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period ...

Demography
File:ReligionSymbol.svg, Religion geography File:US-hoosier-family.jpg,
Social geography Social geography is the branch of human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of that is associated and deals with humans and their relationships with communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environme ...
File:Gare du Nord USFRT (Paris Metro).png, Transportation geography File:Tourists-2.jpg,
Tourism geography Tourism geography is the study of travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, bicycle, automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportatio ...
File:New-York-Jan2005.jpg,
Urban geography Urban geography is the subdiscipline of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in ...
Various approaches to the study of human geography have also arisen through time and include: *
Behavioral geography Behavioral geography is an approach to human geography Image:Snow-cholera-map-1.jpg, upright=1.2, Original map by John Snow showing the Cluster (epidemiology), clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854, which is a classical case of u ...
*
Culture theory Culture theory is the branch of comparative anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science tha ...
* Feminist geography *
GeosophyGeosophy is a concept introduced to geography by John Kirtland WJ.K. Wright in 1947. The word is a compound of ‘geo’ (Greek for earth) and ‘sophia’ (Greek for wisdom). Wright defined it thus: :Geosophy ... is the study of geographical knowle ...


Integrated

Integrated geography Integrated geography (also referred to as integrative geography, environmental geography or human–environment geography) is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of sc ...
is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the
natural world
natural world
. It requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, like the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between human and physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Since the changing of the human relationship with the environment as a result of
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...

globalization
and
technological change Technological change (TC) or technological development, is the overall process of invention An invention is a unique or novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The ...

technological change
, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in environmental geography include:
emergency management Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') a ...
,
environmental management Environmental resource management is the management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and Briti ...
,
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

sustainability
, and
political ecologyImage:Terrace field yunnan china denoised.jpg, 400px , alt=A picture of rice fields: evidence of the interaction of culture, economics and the environment , Political ecology studies the complex interaction between economics, politics, technology, s ...
.


Geomatics

Geomatics Geomatics is defined in the ISO/TC 211 ISO/TC 211 is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard ...
is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in
cartography Cartography (; from χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using s. Combining , , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that rea ...
and
topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surface Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an ...
. Geomatics emerged from the
quantitative revolution The quantitative revolution (QR) .html" ;"title="/sup>">/sup> was a paradigm shift that sought to develop a more rigorous and systematic methodology for the discipline of geography. It came as a response to the inadequacy of regional geography to ...
in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include
spatial analysis Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques Technique or techniques may refer to: Music * The Techniques, a Jamaican rocksteady vocal group of the 1960s *Technique (band), a British female synth pop band in the 1 ...
,
geographic information system A geographic information system (GIS) is a type of database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The ( ...
s (GIS),
remote sensing Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object, in contrast to in situ ''In situ'' (; often not italicized in English) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a class ...

remote sensing
, and
global positioning system The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. governme ...
s (GPS). Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments, especially in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s.


Regional

A branch which is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of the earth's surface, resulting in each area from the combination of its complete natural or elements, as of physical and human environment. The main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid also to
regionalization Regionalisation is the tendency to form decentralised region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humani ...
, which covers the proper techniques of space
delimitation Boundary delimitation (or simply delimitation) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts, states, counties or other municipalities.
into regions.


Related fields

* Interplanetary sciences: While the discipline of geography is normally concerned with the Earth, the term can also be informally used to describe the study of other worlds, such as the
planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and ...

planet
s of the
Solar System The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies. The International Astronomical Union, the authoritative body regarding astronomical nomenclature, specifies capitalizing the names of all individual astronomical objects but uses mixed "Sola ...

Solar System
and even beyond. The study of systems larger than the Earth itself usually forms part of
Astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
or
Cosmology Cosmology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
. The study of other planets is usually called
planetary science Planetary science (or more rarely, planetology) is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), Astronomical object, celestial bodies (such as Natural satellite, moons, Asteroid, asteroids, Comets on Fire, comets) and planetary systems (in p ...
. Alternative terms such as areology (the study of Mars) have been proposed but are not widely used. *
Regional science Regional science is a field of the social sciences concerned with analytical approaches to problems that are specifically urban, rural A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">South_Karelia.html" ;"title="Lap ...
: In the 1950s, the regional science movement led by
Walter Isard Walter Isard (April 19, 1919 – November 6, 2010) was a prominent American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and ...
arose to provide a more quantitative and analytical base to geographical questions, in contrast to the descriptive tendencies of traditional geography programs. Regional science comprises the body of knowledge in which the spatial dimension plays a fundamental role, such as
regional economics Regional economics is a sub-discipline of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumpti ...
,
resource management In organizational studies Organizational studies is "the examination of how individuals construct organizational structures, processes, and practices and how these, in turn, shape social relations and create institutions that ultimately influence p ...
,
location theoryLocation theory has become an integral part of economic geography, regional science, and spatial economics. Location theory addresses questions of what economic activities are located where and why. Location theory or microeconomics, microeconomic th ...
,
urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
and
regional planning Regional planning deals with the efficient placement of land-use caused by numerous roads near the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness Wilderness or ...
, transport and communication,
human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a coun ...
, population distribution,
landscape ecology Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizatio ...
, and environmental quality. *
Urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
,
regional planning Regional planning deals with the efficient placement of land-use caused by numerous roads near the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness Wilderness or ...
, and spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop (or not develop) the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, beauty, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, and so on. The planning of towns, cities, and rural areas may be seen as applied geography.


Techniques

As spatial interrelationships are key to this synoptic science, maps are a key tool. Classical
cartography Cartography (; from χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using s. Combining , , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that rea ...
has been joined by a more modern approach to geographical analysis, computer-based
geographic information system A geographic information system (GIS) is a type of database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The ( ...
s (GIS). In their study, geographers use four interrelated approaches: * Analytical – Asks ''why'' we find features and populations in a specific geographic area. * Descriptive – Simply specifies the locations of features and populations. * Regional – Examines systematic relationships between categories for a specific region or location on the planet. * Systematic – Groups geographical knowledge into categories that can be explored globally.


Cartography

Cartography studies the representation of the Earth's surface with abstract symbols (map making). Although other subdisciplines of geography rely on maps for presenting their analyses, the actual making of maps is abstract enough to be regarded separately. Cartography has grown from a collection of drafting techniques into an actual science. Cartographers must learn
cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intelle ...
and
ergonomics Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as human factors) is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human ...
to understand which symbols convey information about the Earth most effectively, and
behavioural psychology Behaviorism is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. It assumes that behavior is either a reflex In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their ...
to induce the readers of their maps to act on the information. They must learn
geodesy Geodesy ( ) is the Earth science of accurately measuring and understanding Earth's geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field. The field also incorporates studies of how these properties change over time and equivalent measu ...
and fairly advanced mathematics to understand how the
shape of the Earth Figure of the Earth is a Jargon, term of art in geodesy that refers to the size and shape used to model Earth. The size and shape it refers to depend on context, including the precision needed for the model. The Spherical Earth, sphere is an appr ...
affects the distortion of map symbols projected onto a flat surface for viewing. It can be said, without much controversy, that cartography is the seed from which the larger field of geography grew. Most geographers will cite a childhood fascination with maps as an early sign they would end up in the field.


Geographic information systems

Geographic information systems (GIS) deal with the storage of information about the Earth for automatic retrieval by a computer, in an accurate manner appropriate to the information's purpose. In addition to all of the other subdisciplines of geography, GIS specialists must understand
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of computation, automation, a ...
and
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

database
systems. GIS has revolutionized the field of cartography: nearly all mapmaking is now done with the assistance of some form of
GIS software A GIS software program is a computer program to support the use of a geographic information system, providing the ability to create, store, manage, query, Spatial analysis, analyze, and Cartographic design, visualize Geographic data and informatio ...
. GIS also refers to the science of using GIS software and GIS techniques to represent, analyse, and predict the spatial relationships. In this context, GIS stands for ''geographic information science''.


Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the science of obtaining information about Earth features from measurements made at a distance. Remotely sensed data comes in many forms, such as
satellite imagery Satellite images (also Earth observation imagery, spaceborne photography, or simply satellite photo) are images of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's su ...
,
aerial photography Aerial photography (or airborne imagery) is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "drones"), Balloon (aircr ...
, and data obtained from hand-held sensors. Geographers increasingly use remotely sensed data to obtain information about the Earth's
land surface Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a desc ...
, ocean, and atmosphere, because it: (a) supplies objective information at a variety of spatial scales (local to global), (b) provides a synoptic view of the area of interest, (c) allows access to distant and inaccessible sites, (d) provides spectral information outside the visible portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequency, frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energy, photon energies. The electromagnetic spectrum covers electromagnetic waves with f ...

electromagnetic spectrum
, and (e) facilitates studies of how features/areas change over time. Remotely sensed data may be analysed either independently of, or in conjunction with other digital data layers (e.g., in a geographic information system).


Quantitative methods

Geostatistics Geostatistics is a branch of statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is ...
deal with
quantitative data Quantitative may refer to: * Quantitative research Quantitative may refer to: * Quantitative research, scientific investigation of quantitative properties * Quantitative analysis (disambiguation) * Meter (poetry), Quantitative verse, a metrical ...
analysis, specifically the application of statistical methodology to the exploration of geographic phenomena. Geostatistics is used extensively in a variety of fields, including
hydrology Hydrology (from Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, ''hýdōr'' meaning "water" and wikt:λόγος, λόγος, ''lógos'' meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of water on Earth and ...
, geology, petroleum exploration, weather analysis,
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
, logistics, and
epidemiology Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and risk factor, determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions ...
. The mathematical basis for geostatistics derives from
cluster analysis Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is a main task of ...
, linear discriminant analysis and non-parametric statistical tests, and a variety of other subjects. Applications of geostatistics rely heavily on
geographic information system A geographic information system (GIS) is a type of database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The ( ...
s, particularly for the
interpolation In the mathematical Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantitie ...

interpolation
(estimate) of unmeasured points. Geographers are making notable contributions to the method of quantitative techniques.


Qualitative methods

Geographic qualitative methods, or ethnographical research techniques, are used by human geographers. In
cultural geography Cultural geography is a subfield within human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of that is associated and deals with humans and their relationships with communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the env ...
there is a tradition of employing
qualitative research Qualitative research relies on data obtained by the researcher from first-hand observation, interviews, questionnaires (on which participants write descriptively), focus groups, participant-observation, recordings made in natural settings, docum ...
techniques, also used in
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
and sociology.
Participant observation Participant observation is one type of data collection Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring Measurement is the quantification of attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other objects or eve ...
and in-depth interviews provide human geographers with qualitative data.


History

The oldest known
world map A world map is a map A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherw ...

world map
s date back to
ancient Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...
from the 9th century BC. The best known
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
n world map, however, is the ''
Imago Mundi ''Imago Mundi'', or in full ''Imago Mundi: International Journal for the History of Cartography'', is a semiannual peer-reviewed academic journal about mapping, established in 1935 by Leo Bagrow. It covers the history of early maps, cartography, a ...
'' of 600 BC. The map as reconstructed by
Eckhard Unger Eckhard Unger (Landsberg an der Warthe Landsberg may refer to: * Landsberg (surname) * Margraviate of Landsberg, a march of the Holy Roman Empire * Palatinate-Landsberg, a state of the Holy Roman Empire Places * Landsberg (district), Bavaria, Ge ...
shows
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...

Babylon
on the
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Tigris–Euphrates river system, Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). O ...
, surrounded by a circular landmass showing
Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of We ...

Assyria
,
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...

Urartu
, and several cities, in turn surrounded by a "bitter river" (
Oceanus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...

Oceanus
), with seven islands arranged around it so as to form a seven-pointed star. The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean. The descriptions of five of them have survived. In contrast to the ''Imago Mundi'', an earlier Babylonian
world map A world map is a map A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherw ...

world map
dating back to the 9th century BC depicted Babylon as being further north from the center of the world, though it is not certain what that center was supposed to represent. The ideas of
Anaximander Anaximander (; grc-gre, Ἀναξίμανδρος ''Anaximandros''; ) was a who lived in ,"Anaximander" in '. London: , 1961, Vol. 1, p. 403. a city of (in modern-day Turkey). He belonged to the and learned the teachings of his master . He s ...

Anaximander
(c. 610–545 BC): considered by later Greek writers to be the true founder of geography, come to us through fragments quoted by his successors. Anaximander is credited with the invention of the
gnomon A gnomon (, from Greek , ''gnōmōn'', literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow. The term is used for a variety of purposes in mathematics and other fields. History A painted stick dating from 2 ...

gnomon
, the simple, yet efficient Greek instrument that allowed the early measurement of
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
.
Thales Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), ''Thalēs''; ) was a Greek mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive kn ...

Thales
is also credited with the prediction of eclipses. The foundations of geography can be traced to the ancient cultures, such as the ancient, medieval, and early modern
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
. The
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
, who were the first to explore geography as both art and science, achieved this through
Cartography Cartography (; from χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using s. Combining , , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that rea ...
,
Philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...
, and
Literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...
, or through
Mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
. There is some debate about who was the first person to assert that the Earth is spherical in shape, with the credit going either to
Parmenides Parmenides of Elea (; grc-gre, Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης; ) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit ...

Parmenides
or
Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos, or simply ; in Ionian Greek () was an ancient Ionians, Ionian Ancient Greek philosophy, Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graec ...

Pythagoras
.
Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (; grc-gre, Ἀναξαγόρας, ''Anaxagoras'', "lord of the assembly";  BC) was a Pre-Socratic Pre-Socratic philosophy is ancient Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, at a time when the i ...

Anaxagoras
was able to demonstrate that the profile of the Earth was circular by explaining
eclipse ECLiPSe is a software system for the development and deployment of Constraint Programming Constraint programming (CP) is a paradigm for solving combinatorial problems that draws on a wide range of techniques from artificial intelligence ...

eclipse
s. However, he still believed that the Earth was a flat disk, as did many of his contemporaries. One of the first estimates of the radius of the Earth was made by
Eratosthenes Eratosthenes of Cyrene (; grc-gre, Ἐρατοσθένης ;  – ) was a Greek polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a ...

Eratosthenes
. The first rigorous system of
latitude and longitude In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...
lines is credited to
Hipparchus Hipparchus of Nicaea (; el, Ἵππαρχος, ''Hipparkhos'';  BC) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the ...
. He employed a
sexagesimal Sexagesimal, also known as base 60 or sexagenary, is a numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ...
system that was derived from
Babylonian mathematics Babylonian mathematics (also known as ''Assyro-Babylonian mathematics'') denotes the mathematics developed or practiced by the people of Mesopotamia, from the days of the early Sumerians to the centuries following the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. Bab ...
. The meridians were sub-divided into 360°, with each degree further subdivided into 60 (
minutes Minutes, also known as minutes of meeting (abbreviation MoM), protocols or, informally, notes, are the instant written record of a meeting A meeting is when two or more people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people ...
). To measure the longitude at different locations on Earth, he suggested using eclipses to determine the relative difference in time. The extensive mapping by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
as they explored new lands would later provide a high level of information for
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
to construct detailed
atlas Blaeu's world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''Atlas Maior">Joan_Blaeu.html" ;"title="world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu">world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''Atlas Maior'', published in the first b ...

atlas
es. He extended the work of
Hipparchus Hipparchus of Nicaea (; el, Ἵππαρχος, ''Hipparkhos'';  BC) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the ...
, using a grid system on his maps and adopting a length of 56.5 miles for a degree. From the 3rd century onwards,
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
methods of geographical study and writing of geographical literature became much more comprehensive than what was found in Europe at the time (until the 13th century). Chinese geographers such as
Liu An Liú Ān (, c. 179–122 BC) was a Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the Ho ...
,
Pei Xiu Pei Xiu (224–271), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including Chi ...
, Jia Dan,
Shen Kuo Shen Kuo (; 1031–1095) or Shen Gua, courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...
,
Fan ChengdaFan Chengda (, 1126–1193), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, including China, Japan, Korea, an ...
,
Zhou Daguan Zhou Daguan (; French: Tcheou Ta-Kouan; c. 1270–?) was a Chinese diplomat of the Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, o ...
, and
Xu Xiake Xu Xiake (, January 5, 1587 – March 8, 1641), born Xu Hongzu (), courtesy name Zhenzhi (), was a Chinese travel writer and geographer of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), known best for his famous geographical treatise, and noted for his braver ...

Xu Xiake
wrote important treatises, yet by the 17th century advanced ideas and methods of Western-style geography were adopted in China. During the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, the
fall of the Roman empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roma ...
led to a shift in the evolution of geography from Europe to the
Islamic world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...

Islamic world
. Muslim geographers such as
Muhammad al-Idrisi Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi ( ar, أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; la, Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab The Arabs (singular ...
produced detailed world maps (such as
Tabula Rogeriana The ''Nuzhat al-mushtāq fī ikhtirāq al-āfāq'' ( ar, نزهة المشتاق في اختراق الآفاق, lit. "The Excursion of One Who is Eager to Traverse the Regions of the World"), commonly known in the West as the ''Tabula Rogeriana' ...
), while other geographers such as
Yaqut al-Hamawi Yāqūt Shihāb al-Dīn ibn-'Abdullāh al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) ( ar, ياقوت الحموي الرومي) is famous for his great "geography", ''Mu'jam ul-Buldān'', an encyclopedia of Islam written in the late Abbāsid era and as muc ...
,
Abu Rayhan Biruni Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian peoples, Iranian in scholar and polymath during the Islamic Golden Age. He has been variously called as the "founder of Indology", "Father of Comparative religion, Comparative Religion ...
,
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 13041368/1369); fully: ; Arabic: was a Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an e ...
, and
Ibn Khaldun Ibn Khaldun (; ar, أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي, ; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was an Arabs, Arab The Historical Muhammad', Irving M. Zeitlin, (Polity Press, 2007), p. 21; "It is, of course ...
provided detailed accounts of their journeys and the geography of the regions they visited. Turkish geographer,
Mahmud al-Kashgari Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari, ''Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī'', tr, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd, ug, مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, ''Mehmud Qeshqiri'' / Мәһмуд Қәшқири uz, Mahmud Qashg'ariy / М ...
drew a world map on a linguistic basis, and later so did
Piri Reis Ahmed Muhiddin Piri ( 1465 – 1553), better known as Piri Reis ( tr, Pîrî Reis or '' Hacı Ahmet Muhittin Pîrî Bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg ...

Piri Reis
(
Piri Reis map The Piri Reis map is a world map A world map is a map of most or all of the surface of Earth. World maps, because of their scale, must deal with the problem of map projection, projection. Maps rendered in two dimensions by necessity distort ...
). Further, Islamic scholars translated and interpreted the earlier works of the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
and the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
and established the
House of Wisdom The House of Wisdom ( ar, بيت الحكمة, Bayt al-Ḥikmah), also known as the Grand Library of Baghdad, refers to either a major Abbasid Caliphate, Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library be ...
in
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
for this purpose. Abū Zayd al-Balkhī, originally from
Balkh ), named for its green-tiled ''Gonbad'' ( fa, گُنبَد, dome), in July 2001 , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_size = , image_shield ...

Balkh
, founded the "Balkhī school" of terrestrial mapping in
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
. Suhrāb, a late tenth century Muslim geographer accompanied a book of geographical coordinates, with instructions for making a rectangular world map with equirectangular projection or cylindrical equidistant projection.
Abu Rayhan Biruni Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian peoples, Iranian in scholar and polymath during the Islamic Golden Age. He has been variously called as the "founder of Indology", "Father of Comparative religion, Comparative Religion ...
(976–1048) first described a polar equi-
azimuthal equidistant projection An azimuth (; from Arabic اَلسُّمُوت ''as-sumūt'', 'the directions', the plural form of the Arabic noun السَّمْت ''as-samt'', meaning 'the direction') is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector spa ...
of the
celestial sphere In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ...

celestial sphere
. He was regarded as the most skilled when it came to mapping cities and measuring the distances between them, which he did for many cities in the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. He often combined astronomical readings and mathematical equations, in order to develop methods of pin-pointing locations by recording degrees of
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
and
longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a coordinate system associated with position (geometry), positions on Earth (geographic position). A GCS can give positions: *as Geodetic coordinates, ...

longitude
. He also developed similar techniques when it came to measuring the heights of mountains, depths of the
valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by erosion of the land surface by rivers or streams over ...

valley
s, and expanse of the
horizon The horizon is the apparent line that separates the surface of a celestial body In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that st ...

horizon
. He also discussed
human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a coun ...
and the
planetary habitability Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to develop and maintain environments hospitable to life. Life may be abiogenesis, generated directly on a planet or satellite endogenously or be transferred t ...
of the Earth. He also calculated the
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
of Kath,
Khwarezm Khwarazm , or Chorasmia (Old Persian: ''Uvârazmiya'', fa, خوارزم, ''Xwârazm'' or ''Xârazm''), is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the ea ...
, using the maximum altitude of the Sun, and solved a complex
geodesic In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position o ...
equation in order to accurately compute the
Earth's circumference Earth's circumference is the distance Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects or points are. In physics or everyday usage, distance may refer to a physical length or an estimation based on other criteria (e.g. "two coun ...
, which was close to modern values of the Earth's circumference. His estimate of 6,339.9 km for the
Earth radius Earth radius is the distance from the center of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is o ...
was only 16.8 km less than the modern value of 6,356.7 km. In contrast to his predecessors, who measured the Earth's circumference by sighting the Sun simultaneously from two different locations,
al-Biruni Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a co ...
developed a new method of using
trigonometric Trigonometry (from Ancient Greek, Greek ''wikt:τρίγωνον, trigōnon'', "triangle" and ''wikt:μέτρον, metron'', "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships between side lengths and angles of triangles. The fiel ...

trigonometric
calculations, based on the angle between a
plain In geography, a plain is a flat expanse of land that generally does not change much in elevation, and is primarily treeless. Plains occur as lowlands along valleys or at the base of mountains, as coastal plains, and as plateaus or Highland, up ...

plain
and mountain top, which yielded more accurate measurements of the Earth's circumference, and made it possible for it to be measured by a single person from a single location. The European
Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period The early modern period of modern history ...
during the 16th and the 17th centuries, where many new lands were discovered and accounts by European explorers such as
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
,
Marco Polo Marco Polo (, , ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a merchant, explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in ' (also known as ''Book of the Marvels of the World '' and '' ...

Marco Polo
, and
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
revived a desire for both accurate geographic detail, and more solid theoretical foundations in Europe. The problem facing both explorers and geographers was finding the latitude and longitude of a geographic location. The problem of latitude was solved long ago but that of longitude remained; agreeing on what zero meridian should be was only part of the problem. It was left to
John Harrison John Harrison ( – 24 March 1776) was a self-educated English carpenter Carpenters in an Indian village Carpentry is a skilled trade and a craft in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building mate ...

John Harrison
to solve it by inventing the chronometer H-4 in 1760, and later in 1884 for the
International Meridian Conference The International Meridian Conference was a conference held in October 1884 in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument and Lincoln Mem ...
to adopt by convention the
Greenwich meridian The prime meridian is a geographical reference line that passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in South London, south-east London, England, centred east-southeast of Charing Cross and located ...
as zero meridian. The 18th and the 19th centuries were the times when geography became recognized as a discrete
academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is ...
, and became part of a typical university curriculum in Europe (especially Paris and
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
). The development of many geographic societies also occurred during the 19th century, with the foundations of the Société de Géographie in 1821, the
Royal Geographical Society The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) is one of the United Kingdom's learned societies and the professional body for geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to ...
in 1830,
Russian Geographical Society The Russian Geographical Society (Russian: Ру́сское географи́ческое о́бщество «РГО») (RGO) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic associati ...
in 1845,
American Geographical Society The American Geographical Society (AGS) is an organization of professional geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', liter ...
in 1851, and the
National Geographic Society The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational organizations in the world. Founded in 1888, its interests include geography, archaeology, and ...
in 1888. The influence of
Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about r ...

Immanuel Kant
,
Alexander von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a , , , , and proponent of philosophy and . He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work ...

Alexander von Humboldt
,
Carl Ritter Carl Ritter (August 7, 1779September 28, 1859) was a German geographer. Along with Alexander von Humboldt, he is considered one of the founders of modern geography. From 1825 until his death, he occupied the first chair in geography at the Univers ...

Carl Ritter
, and Paul Vidal de la Blache can be seen as a major turning point in geography from a philosophy to an academic subject. Over the past two centuries, the advancements in technology with computers have led to the development of
geomatics Geomatics is defined in the ISO/TC 211 ISO/TC 211 is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard ...
and new practices such as participant observation and geostatistics being incorporated into geography's portfolio of tools. In the West during the 20th century, the discipline of geography went through four major phases:
environmental determinism Environmental determinism (also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism) is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories. Jared Diamond, Jeffrey Herbst, I ...
,
regional geography Regional geography is a major branch of geography. It focuses on the interaction of different cultural and natural geofactors in a specific land or landscape, while its counterpart, systematic geography, concentrates on a specific geofactor at the ...
, the
quantitative revolution The quantitative revolution (QR) .html" ;"title="/sup>">/sup> was a paradigm shift that sought to develop a more rigorous and systematic methodology for the discipline of geography. It came as a response to the inadequacy of regional geography to ...
, and
critical geography Critical geography is theoretically informed geographical scholarship that promotes social justice, Emancipation, liberation, and Left-wing politics, leftist politics. Critical geography is also used as an umbrella term for Marxist ...
. The strong interdisciplinary links between geography and the sciences of geology and
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, as well as economics, sociology and
demographics Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek δῆμος (''dēmos'') meaning 'the people', and ''-graphy'' from γράφω (''graphō'') meaning 'writing, description or measurement') is the statistics, statistical study of populat ...

demographics
have also grown greatly, especially as a result of
earth system science Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science Systems science is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g. ...
that seeks to understand the world in a holistic view.


Notable geographers

*
Alexander von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a , , , , and proponent of philosophy and . He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work ...

Alexander von Humboldt
(1769–1859) – published ''
Cosmos The cosmos (, ) is another name for the Universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prev ...
'' and founder of the sub-field biogeography. *
Arnold Henry Guyot Arnold Henry Guyot ( ) (September 28, 1807February 8, 1884) was a Switzerland, Swiss-American geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, a ...

Arnold Henry Guyot
(1807–1884) – noted the structure of glaciers and advanced understanding in glacier motion, especially in fast ice flow. *
Carl O. Sauer Carl Ortwin Sauer (December 24, 1889 – July 18, 1975) was an American geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist and humanist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human soc ...
(1889–1975) – cultural geographer. *
Carl Ritter Carl Ritter (August 7, 1779September 28, 1859) was a German geographer. Along with Alexander von Humboldt, he is considered one of the founders of modern geography. From 1825 until his death, he occupied the first chair in geography at the Univers ...

Carl Ritter
(1779–1859) – occupied the first chair of geography at Berlin University. *
David Harvey David W. Harvey (born 31 October 1935) is a British-born Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand Social ...

David Harvey
(born 1935) – Marxist geographer and author of theories on spatial and urban geography, winner of the
Vautrin Lud PrizeImage:VautrinLud.jpg, Vautrin Lud The ''Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud'', known in English as the Vautrin Lud Prize, is the highest award in the field of geography. Established in 1991, the award is modeled on the Nobel Prize, and col ...
. * Doreen Massey (1944–2016) – scholar in the space and places of
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...

globalization
and its pluralities; winner of the
Vautrin Lud PrizeImage:VautrinLud.jpg, Vautrin Lud The ''Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud'', known in English as the Vautrin Lud Prize, is the highest award in the field of geography. Established in 1991, the award is modeled on the Nobel Prize, and col ...
. *
Edward Soja Edward William Soja (; 1940–2015) was a self-described "urbanist," a noted postmodern Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism, marking a depa ...
(1940–2015) – worked on regional development, planning and governance and coined the terms Synekism and Postmetropolis; winner of the
Vautrin Lud PrizeImage:VautrinLud.jpg, Vautrin Lud The ''Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud'', known in English as the Vautrin Lud Prize, is the highest award in the field of geography. Established in 1991, the award is modeled on the Nobel Prize, and col ...
. *
Ellen Churchill Semple Ellen Churchill Semple (January 8, 1863 – May 8, 1932) was an American geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist and humanist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human soc ...
(1863–1932) – first female president of the
Association of American Geographers The American Association of Geographers (AAG) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collec ...
. *
Eratosthenes Eratosthenes of Cyrene (; grc-gre, Ἐρατοσθένης ;  – ) was a Greek polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a ...

Eratosthenes
( 276–c. 195/194 BC) – calculated the size of the Earth. *
Ernest Burgess Ernest Watson Burgess (May 16, 1886 – December 27, 1966) was a Canadian-American urban sociologist born in Tilbury, Ontario. He was educated at Kingfisher College in Oklahoma and continued graduate studies in sociology at the University of Ch ...
(1886–1966) – creator of the
concentric zone model The concentric zone model, also known as the Burgess model or the CCD model, is one of the earliest theoretical models to explain urban social structures. It was created by sociologist Ernest Burgess in 1925. The model Based on human ecology th ...
. *
Gerardus Mercator Gerardus Mercator (; 5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', lite ...

Gerardus Mercator
(1512–1594) –
cartographer Cartography (; from Greek χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science Science (from the Latin word ''scienti ...
who produced the
mercator projection The Mercator projection () is a cylindrical map projection presented by Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian dialect cluster of the Dutch language. It is sometimes referred to as Flemish Dutch (), Belgian Dutch ( ), or Souther ...

mercator projection
*
John Francon Williams John Francon Williams FRGS (1854 – 4 September 1911) was a Welsh writer, geographer, historian, journalist, cartographer, and inventor, born in Llanllechid, Caernarvonshire. His seminal work was ''The Geography of the Oceans''. Family John Fr ...
(1854–1911) – author of ''The Geography of the Oceans''. *
Karl Butzer Karl W. Butzer (August 19, 1934 – May 4, 2016) was a German-born American geographer, ecologist, and archaeologist. He received two degrees at McGill University McGill University is a public university, public research university in Montreal, ...
(1934–2016) – German-American geographer, cultural ecologist and environmental archaeologist. * Michael Frank Goodchild (born 1944) – GIS scholar and winner of the RGS founder's medal in 2003. *
Muhammad al-Idrisi Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi ( ar, أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; la, Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab The Arabs (singular ...
(Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي; Latin: Dreses) (1100–1165) – author of Nuzhatul Mushtaq. * Nigel Thrift (born 1949) – originator of
non-representational theoryNon-representational theory is the study of a specific theory focused on human geography. It is the work of Nigel Thrift (Warwick University). The theory is based on using social theory, conducting Geography, geographical research, and the 'embod ...
. * Paul Vidal de La Blache (1845–1918) – founder of the French school of geopolitics, wrote the principles of human geography. *
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
(c. 100–c. 170) – compiled Greek and Roman knowledge into the book
Geographia The ''Geography'' ( grc-gre, Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, ''Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis'',  "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic b ...
. *
Radhanath Sikdar Radhanath Sikdar (Bengali: রাধানাথ শিকদার; 5 October 1813 – 17 May 1870) was an India, Indian mathematician who is best known for calculating the height of Mount Everest. Great Trigonometric Survey In 1831, George E ...

Radhanath Sikdar
(1813–1870) – calculated the height of
Mount Everest Mount Everest (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's ...

Mount Everest
. * Sir
Halford Mackinder Sir Halford John Mackinder (15 February 1861 – 6 March 1947) was an English geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist and humanist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and hu ...

Halford Mackinder
(1861–1947) – co-founder of the LSE,
Geographical Association The Geographical Association (GA) is a United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for th ...
. *
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
(64/63 BC – c. AD 24) – wrote
Geographica The ''Geographica'' (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...
, one of the first books outlining the study of geography. *
Walter Christaller Walter Christaller (April 21, 1893 – March 9, 1969), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, ...
(1893–1969) – human geographer and inventor of
Central place theory Central place theory is a geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
. *
William Morris Davis William Morris Davis (February 12, 1850 – February 5, 1934) was an American geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist and humanist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human ...

William Morris Davis
(1850–1934) – father of American geography and developer of the
cycle of erosionThe geographic cycle, or cycle of erosion, is an idealized model that explains the development of relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term ''wikt:rel ...
. *
Yi-Fu Tuan Yi-Fu Tuan (Traditional Chinese: 段義孚, born December 5, 1930) is a Chinese-American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United ...
(born 1930) – Chinese-American scholar credited with starting Humanistic Geography as a discipline.


Institutions and societies

*
American Association of Geographers The American Association of Geographers (AAG) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collecti ...
(AAG) *
American Geographical Society The American Geographical Society (AGS) is an organization of professional geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', liter ...
(US) * Anton Melik Geographical Institute (Slovenia) * Institute of Geographical Information Systems (Pakistan) * Karachi Geographical Society (Pakistan) *
National Geographic Society The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational organizations in the world. Founded in 1888, its interests include geography, archaeology, and ...
(US) *
Royal Canadian Geographical Society The Royal Canadian Geographical Society (RCGS) (French language, French: ''La Société géographique royale du Canada''; ''SRGC'') is a Canada, Canadian nonprofit educational organization dedicated to imparting a broader knowledge and deeper app ...
(Canada) * Royal Danish Geographical Society (Denmark) *
Royal Geographical Society The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) is one of the United Kingdom's learned societies and the professional body for geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to ...
(UK) *
Russian Geographical Society The Russian Geographical Society (Russian: Ру́сское географи́ческое о́бщество «РГО») (RGO) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic associati ...
(Russia)


Publications

* '' African Geographical Review'' * '' Annals of the American Association of Geographers'' * ''Antipode'' * ''
Geographical Review The ''Geographical Review'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Routledge Routledge () is a British multinational corporation, multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, and specialises in provid ...
'' * ''
The Geographical Journal ''The Geographical Journal'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified membe ...
'' * '' The Professional Geographer''


See also

* Geographical space


Notes


References

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Definition of Geography at Dictionary.com

Definition of geography by Lexico

Origin and meaning of geography by Online Etymology Dictionary

Topic Dictionaries at Oxford Learner's Dictionaries
{{Use British English Oxford spelling, date=August 2016 Earth sciences Social sciences Main topic articles