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In
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

, events are objects in
time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...

or instantiations of
properties Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing. In the context of this article, it is one or more components (rather than attributes), whether phys ...
in objects. On some views, only changes in the form of acquiring or losing a property can constitute events, like the lawn's becoming dry. According to others, there are also events that involve nothing but the retaining of a property, e.g. the lawn's staying wet. Events are usually defined as particulars that, unlike
universals In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities. In other words, universals are repeatable or recurrent entities that can be instantiated or exemplified by many particular things. For example ...
, cannot repeat at different times. Processes are complex events constituted by a sequence of events. But even simple events can be conceived as complex entities involving an object, a time and the property exemplified by the object at this time. Traditionally, metaphysicians tended to emphasize static being over dynamic events. This tendency has been opposed by so-called
process philosophy Process philosophy, also ontology of becoming, or processism, defines processes in the ordinary everyday real world as its only basic or elementary existents. It treats other real existents (examples: enduring physical objects, thoughts) as abstra ...
or
process ontology In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, lang ...
, which ascribes ontological primacy to events and processes.

# Kim’s property-exemplification

Jaegwon Kim Jaegwon Kim (September 12, 1934 – November 27, 2019) was a Korean-American Korean Americans () are Americans of Koreans, Korean ancestry (predominantly from South Korea (99%), with a very small minority from North Korea, Koreans in China, ...
theorized that events are structured.
They are composed of three things: # Object(s)
A unique event is defined by two principles:
:a) the existence condition and :b) the identity condition. The existence condition states “
particular In metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of ...

s that include changes and the states and conditions of that event. # Two, they have a semi-temporal location. # Three, only their constructive property creates distinct events. # Four, holding a constructive property as a generic event creates a type-token relationship between events, and events are not limited to their three requirements (i.e.
Myles Brand Myles Neil Brand (May 17, 1942 – September 16, 2009) was a university administrator who served as the 14th president of the University of Oregon The University of Oregon (UO, U of O or Oregon) is a public In public relations and comm ...
have suggested that the theory be modified so that an event had a spatiotemporal region; consider the event of a flash of lightning. The idea is that an event must include both the span of time of the flash of lightning and the area in which it occurred. Other problems exist within Kim's theory, as he never specified what properties were (e.g.
universals In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities. In other words, universals are repeatable or recurrent entities that can be instantiated or exemplified by many particular things. For example ...
,
tropes Trope or tropes may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Trope (cinema) In cinema Cinema may refer to: Film * Cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ...
, natural classes, etc.). In addition, it is not specified if properties are few or abundant. The following is Kim's response to the above. There is also a major debate about the essentiality of a constitutive object. There are two major questions involved in this: If one event occurs, could it have occurred in the same manner if it were another person, and could it occur in the same manner if it would have occurred at a different time? Kim holds that neither are true and that different conditions (i.e. a different person or time) would lead to a separate event. However, some consider it natural to assume the opposite.

# Davidson

Donald Davidson and
John Lemmon Edward John Lemmon (1 June 1930 – 29 July 1966) was a British logician Logic (from Greek: grc, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic ...
proposed a theory of events that had two major conditions, respectively: a causal criterion and a spatiotemporal criterion. The causal criterion defines an event as two events being the same if and only if they have the same
cause and effect Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is influence by which one event Event may refer to: Gatherings of people * Ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestur ...
. The spatiotemporal criterion defines an event as two events being the same if and only if they occur in the same
space Space is the boundless three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Gre ...

at the same
time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...

. Davidson however provided this scenario; if a metal ball becomes warmer during a certain minute, and during the same minute rotates through 35 degrees, must we say that these are the same event? However, one can argue that the warming of the ball and the rotation are possibly temporally separated and are therefore separate events.

# Lewis

David LewisDavid or Dave Lewis may refer to: Academics *A. David Lewis (born 1977), American comic writer and scholar of religion and literature *David Lewis (academic) (born 1960), English scholar of development *David Lewis (lawyer) ( – 1584), Welsh ...
theorized that events are merely spatiotemporal regions and properties (i.e. membership of a class). He defines an event as “e is an event only if it is a class of spatiotemporal regions, both thisworldly (assuming it occurs in the actual world) and otherworldly.” The only problem with this definition is it only tells us what an event could be, but does not define a unique event. This theory entails
modal realism Modal realism is the view propounded by David Kellogg Lewis that all possible worlds are real in the same way as is the actual world: they are "of a kind with this world of ours." It is based on the following tenets: possible worlds exist; pos ...
, which assumes
possible worlds A possible world is a complete and consistent way the world is or could have been. They are widely used as a formal device in logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize ...
exist; worlds are defined as sets containing all objects that exist as a part of that set. However, this theory is controversial. Some philosophers have attempted to remove possible worlds, and reduce them to other
entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within an entity–relationship model or diagram * SGML entity, a primitive data type in Standard Gen ...
. They hold that the world we exist in is the only world that actually exists, and that possible worlds are only possibilities. Lewis’ theory is composed of four key points. Firstly, the non-duplication principle; it states that x and y are separate events if and only if there is one member of x that is not a member of y (or vice versa). Secondly, there exist regions that are subsets of possible worlds and thirdly, events are not structured by an essential time.

In ''Being and Event'',
Alain Badiou Alain Badiou (; ; born 17 January 1937) is a French philosopher, formerly chair of Philosophy at the École normale supérieure École may refer to: * an elementary school in the French educational stages Educational stages are subdivision ...
writes that the event (''événement'') is a multiple which basically does not make sense according to the rules of the "situation," in other words existence. Hence, the event "is not," and therefore, in order for there to be an event, there must be an "intervention" which changes the rules of the situation in order to allow that particular event to be ("to be" meaning to be a multiple which belongs to the multiple of the situation — these terms are drawn from or defined in reference to
set theory Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies Set (mathematics), sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, i ...
). In his view, there is no "one," and everything that a "multiple." "One" happens when the situation "counts," or accounts for, acknowledges, or defines something: it "counts it as one." For the event to be counted as one by the situation, or counted in the one of the situation, an intervention needs to decide its belonging to the situation. This is because his definition of the event violates the prohibition against self-belonging (in other words, it is a set-theoretical definition which violates set theory's rules of consistency), thus does not count as extant on its own.

# Deleuze

Gilles Deleuze Gilles Deleuze (; ; 18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1950s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such a ...

lectured on the concept of ''event'' on March 10, 1987. A sense of the lecture is described by James Williams. Williams also wrote, "From the point of view of the difference between two possible worlds, the event is all important". He also stated, "Every event is revolutionary due to an integration of signs, acts and structures through the whole event. Events are distinguished by the intensity of this revolution, rather than the types of freedom or chance." In 1988 Deleuze published a magazine article "Signes et événements" In his book ''Nietszche and Philosophy'', he addresses the question "Which one is beautiful?" In the preface to the English translation he wrote: :The one that ... does not refer to an individual, to a person, but rather to an event, that is, to the forces in their various relationships to a proposition or phenomenon, and the genetic relationship that determines these forces (power).

# Kirkeby

The Danish philosopher deserves mentioning, as he has written a comprehensive trilogy about the event, or in Danish "begivenheden". In the first work of the trilogy "Eventum tantum – begivenhedens ethos"Ole Fogh Kirkeby (2005) ''Eventum tantum : Begivenhedens ethos.'' København: Samfundslitteratur (Eventum tantum - the ethos of the event) he distinguishes between three levels of the event, inspired from
Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (1401 – 11 August 1464), also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicolaus Cusanus (), was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and f ...

: Eventum tantum as non aliud, the alma-event and the proto-event.

*
Free play (Derrida)Free play (french: jeu libre) is a literary concept from Jacques Derrida's 1966 essay, "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences". In his essay, Derrida speaks of a philosophical "Event (philosophy), event" that has occurred t ...