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The Department of Education (abbreviated as DepEd; fil, Kagawaran ng Edukasyon) is the
executive department The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government that enforces law, and has Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. In political systems based on the principle ...
of the
Philippine government The Government of the Philippines ( fil, Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas) is the national government of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, lin ...
responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education. It is the main agency tasked to manage and govern the Philippine system of
basic education According to the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Education is the process of facilitating ...
. It is the chief formulator of Philippine education policy and responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school systems. It has its headquarters at the DepEd Complex in
Meralco Avenue Meralco Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare located in Ortigas Center in Pasig, Metro Manila, Philippines. It links Ortigas Avenue in the north and Shaw Boulevard in the south and borders the western edge of Valle Verde in Ugong, Pasig, Ugong. It ...
,
Pasig , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a in the of the . According to the , it has a population of people. Located along the eastern border of Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang ...
. The department is currently led by the
Secretary of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of Education, Department of Education, and Ministry of Pub ...
, nominated by the
President of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometimes referred to as ''Presidente ng Pilipinas'') is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or person ...
and confirmed by the
Commission on Appointments The Commission on Appointments ( fil, Komisyon sa Paghirang, abbreviated as CA) is a constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. ...
. The Secretary is a member of the
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
. The current Secretary of Education is
Leonor Briones Leonor "Liling" Mirasol Magtolis-Briones (born October 16, 1940) is a Filipina academician, economist, and civil servant who is the incumbent Secretary of Education (Philippines), Secretary of Education under the administration of President Rodr ...
. Presently, its mission is to provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all and lay the foundation for lifelong learning and service for the common good. It has changed its vision statement, removing a phrase that some groups deem to be "too sectarian" for a government institution.


History

Philippine Education has undergone different stages of progress from the pre-Spanish era to the present. During the early Spanish period,
education in the Philippines Education in the Philippines is provided by public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (En ...
was
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
-oriented and was primarily for the elite, especially in the first years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the establishment of at least one
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government, and the establishment of a
normal school A normal school is an institution created to train high school graduates to be teachers by educating them in the norms of pedagogy Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and h ...
for male teachers under the supervision of the
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...
. Primary instruction was secularized and free, and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. It was also through this decree that the 'Superior Commission of Primary Instruction' was established, the seminal agency of the Department of Education. The defeat of Spain by
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
forces in 1898 paved the way for
Aguinaldo
Aguinaldo
's Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed temporarily but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of the Interior. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the
Malolos Constitution The Political Constitution of 1899 ( es, Constitución Política de 1899), informally known as the Malolos Constitution, was the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or valu ...
, under Article 23. However, this first sovereign education system was interrupted in 1899 with the start of the Philippine–American War, and was finally dismantled. A secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the
Schurman Commission The Schurman Commission, also known as the First Philippine Commission, was established by United States President William McKinley William McKinley (January 29, 1843September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States ...
in 1900. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship was enforced by the
Taft Commission The Taft Commission, also known as the Second Philippine Commission (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Ph ...
as per instructions of
US President The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of ...

US President
William McKinley William McKinley (January 29, 1843September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...
. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction. A highly centralized public school system was instituted in January 1901 by the Taft Commission, by virtue of Act No. 74. This act also established the Department of Public Instruction, headed by a General Superintendent. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Superintendent of Public Instruction to bring 500 teachers from the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
to the Philippines. They would later be popularly known as the
Thomasites The Thomasites were a group of 600 American teachers who travelled from the United States to the newly occupied territory of the Philippines on the USAT Thomas, U.S. Army Transport ''Thomas''. The group included 346 men and 180 women, hailing from ...
. In 1908, the
Philippine Legislature The Philippine Legislature was the legislature of the Philippines from 1907 to 1935, during the History of the Philippines (1898-1946), American colonial period, and predecessor of the current Congress of the Philippines. It was bicameralism, ...
approved Act No. 1870, creating the
University of the Philippines The University of the Philippines (UP; fil, Pamantasan ng Pilipinas Unibersidad ng Pilipinas) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
. The Organic Act of 1916 reorganized the Department of Public Instruction, mandating that it be headed by a Secretary. This act also mandated the Filpinization of department secretaries, except that of the Secretary of Public Instruction. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the department was reorganized once again through the Japanese's Military Order No. 2 in February 1942, splitting the department into the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Public Instruction. Under the Japanese, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine history, and character education was given priority. Love for work and the
dignity of labor The dignity of labour is the philosophy that all types of jobs are respected equally, and no occupation is considered superior and none of the jobs should be discriminated on any basis. Regardless of whether one's occupation involves physical work ...
were also emphasized. In October 1944, months after Pres.
Manuel L. Quezon Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, (, ; 19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944), also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''F ...
's death, the department was renamed as the Department of Public Instruction and Information, with at the helm. Upon the return and resumption of the
Commonwealth Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia, a federalism, federal parliamentary system, parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Like other Westminster system, Westminster-styl ...
in February 1945, its name was changed to the Department of Instruction. In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No. 94 by Pres.
Manuel Roxas Manuel Acuña Roxas (; born Manuel Roxas y Acuña; January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the fifth President of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometimes referred to as ''Presidente ng Pil ...

Manuel Roxas
, the department was reorganized to the Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools. Upon the start of
Martial Law Martial law is the temporary imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an occupied te ...
in September 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture and subsequently reorganized into the Ministry of Education and Culture in June 1978 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1397, due to the shift to a
parliamentary system of government A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system. The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, which became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) in 1987 via Executive Order No. 117 by President Corazon C. Aquino. The structure of DECS as embodied in EO 117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994, when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was established, and on August 25, 1994, when the
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA ; fil, Pangasiwaan sa Edukasyong Teknikal at Pagpapaunlad ng Kasanayan) serves as the Philippines' TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training), Technical Vocational Educat ...
(TESDA) was established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively. The trifocal education system refocused the department's mandate to basic education which covers elementary, secondary and non-formal education, including culture and sports. CHED is responsible for tertiary education, while TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development. In August 2001, the Governance of Basic Education Act was passed, renaming the DECS to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices, which include regional offices, division offices, district offices, and schools. The Act removed the administration of cultural and sports activities from the department. The National Historical Institute, Records Management and Archives Office, and the National Library are now administratively attached to the
National Commission for Culture and the Arts The National Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Philippines ( fil, Pambansang Komisyon para sa Kultura at mga Sining, ceb, Nasodnong Komisyon alang sa Budaya ug mga Arte) is the official government agency for culture in the Philippines. ...
(NCCA). All previous functions, programs, and activities related to sports competition were transferred to the
Philippine Sports Commission The Philippine Sports Commission (PSC, ) is an agency of the Philippine government which tackles matters concerning sports in the country. The sports agency is independent from the Philippine Olympic Committee which enjoys autonomy from the gove ...
(PSC). In addition, the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports was abolished.


List of Secretaries of Education


Organizational structure

At present, the Department is headed by the
Secretary of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of Education, Department of Education, and Ministry of Pub ...
, with the following undersecretaries and assistant secretaries: *Undersecretary for Curriculum and Instruction *Undersecretary for Administration *Undersecretary for Planning Service and Field Operations *Undersecretary for Finance *Undersecretary for Legislative Affairs, External Partnerships and School Sports *Undersecretary for Legal Affairs *Undersecretary for Field Operations, Employee Welfare, Personnel and DEACO *Undersecretary/Chief of Staff *Assistant Secretary for Curriculum and Instruction *Assistant Secretary for Finance-BPM and Procurement *Assistant Secretary for Legal Affairs *Assistant Secretary for Alternative Learning System Under the Office of the Secretary are the following offices and services: *Teacher Education Council *Literacy Coordinating Council *Internal Audit Service A director is assigned to each of the 17
regions of the Philippines In the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de ...
; the
Ministry of Basic, Higher and Technical Education (Bangsamoro) The Ministry of Basic, Higher and Technical Education (MBHTE), is the regional executive department of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM) responsible for affairs relating to education in the region. History The Ministry of ...
(BARRM) is governed by a regional minister. A division superintendent is assigned to each of the school divisions defined by the department.


Bureaus and services

DepEd is composed of 18 bureaus and services: *Administrative Service (AS) *Bureau of Curriculum Development (BCD) *Bureau of Education Assessment (BEA) *Bureau of Human Resources and Organizational Development (BHROD) *Bureau of Learning Delivery (BLD) *Bureau of Learning Resources (BLR) *Bureau of Learner Support Service (BLSS) *Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) *Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Service (DRRMS) *External Partnerships Service (EPS) *Finance Service (FS) *Information and Communications Technology Service (ICTS) *Legal Service (LS) *National Educators' Academy of the Philippines (NEAP) *Planning Service (PS) *Procurement Service (PROCS) *Project Management Service (PMS) *Public Affairs Service (PAS)


Attached agencies

The following agencies, councils and schools are attached to DepEd for policy and program coordination: * Ministry of Basic, Higher and Technical Education * Instructional Materials Council (IMC) * National Academy of Sports (NAS) * National Book Development Board (NBDB) * National Council for Children's Television (NCCT) *
National Museum of the Philippines The National Museum of the Philippines ( fil, Pambansang Museo ng Pilipinas}) is an umbrella government organization that oversees a number of national museums in the Philippines including ethnographic, anthropological, archaeological and visual ...

National Museum of the Philippines
* National Science Teaching Instrumentation Center (NSTIC) *
Philippine High School for the Arts The Philippine High School for the Arts (PHSA) is a specialized public high school in the Philippines offering arts-focused education established in 1978 by virtue of Presidential Decree 1287. An attached agency of the Department of Education, it c ...
(PHSA) The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) is now attached to the Office of the President, while the
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA ; fil, Pangasiwaan sa Edukasyong Teknikal at Pagpapaunlad ng Kasanayan) serves as the Philippines' TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training), Technical Vocational Educat ...
(TESDA) is now attached to the Department of Trade and Industry.


Controversies


Christmas ham and cheese bid

The Department of Education drew flak online in November 2020 for an invitation for bidding on its website for the supply and delivery of ham and cheese for the DepEd Central Office worth . The invitation read that the cost is equivalent to 4,260 hams and 2,160 cheese supplies for the annual Christmas celebration of the central office. Netizens criticized the bidding as ill-timed as it was posted during the onset of Typhoon Rolly and Typhoon Ulysses, which at the time, caused extensive damage and casualties to the affected areas. In response, the department has since canceled and retracted the bidding and pledged to reallocate the funds to typhoon relief efforts and for their COVID-19 response.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Department of Education (Philippines)
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...
Philippines, Education
Education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...