TheInfoList

The density (more precisely, the volumetric mass density; also known as specific mass), of a substance is its
mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
per unit
volume Volume is a scalar quantity expressing the amount Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude Multitude is a term for a group of people who cannot be classed under any other distinct category, except for their shared fact ... . The symbol most often used for density is ''ρ'' (the lower case Greek letter
rho Rho (uppercase Ρ, lowercase ρ or ; el, ῥῶ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician ...
), although the Latin letter ''D'' can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume: :$\rho = \frac$ where ''ρ'' is the density, ''m'' is the mass, and ''V'' is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its
weight In science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as ... per unit
volume Volume is a scalar quantity expressing the amount Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude Multitude is a term for a group of people who cannot be classed under any other distinct category, except for their shared fact ... , although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called
specific weightThe specific weight, also known as the unit weight, is the weight In science and engineering, the weight of an object is the force acting on the object due to gravity. Some standard textbooks define weight as a Euclidean vector, vector quantity, t ...
. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its
mass concentrationMass concentration or mascon may refer to: * Mass concentration (chemistry), the mass of a constituent divided by the volume of a mixture, this formula is generally learned in year 8 * Mass concentration (astronomy), a region of a planet or moon's cr ...
. Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to
buoyancy Buoyancy (), or upthrust, is an upward exerted by a that opposes the of a partially or fully immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bo ... , purity and
packaging Packaging is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a disco ... .
Osmium Osmium (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximat ... and
iridium Iridium is a with the Ir and 77. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white of the , iridium is considered to be the second-densest naturally occurring metal (after ) with a density of as defined by experimental . It is the most -resistant meta ... are the densest known elements at
standard conditions for temperature and pressure Standard temperature and pressure (STP) are standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), ...
. To simplify comparisons of density across different systems of units, it is sometimes replaced by the
dimensionless In dimensional analysis In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantity, base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric curre ...
quantity "
relative density Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemon ...
" or "
specific gravity Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemon ...
", i.e. the ratio of the density of the material to that of a standard material, usually water. Thus a relative density less than one relative to water means that the substance floats in water. The density of a material varies with temperature and pressure. This variation is typically small for solids and liquids but much greater for gases. Increasing the pressure on an object decreases the volume of the object and thus increases its density. Increasing the temperature of a substance (with a few exceptions) decreases its density by increasing its volume. In most materials, heating the bottom of a fluid results in
convection Convection is single or multiphase fluid flow that occurs Spontaneous process, spontaneously due to the combined effects of material property heterogeneity and body forces on a fluid, most commonly density and gravity (see buoyancy). When t ... of the heat from the bottom to the top, due to the decrease in the density of the heated fluid, which causes it to rise relative to denser unheated material. The reciprocal of the density of a substance is occasionally called its
specific volumeIn thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these quantiti ...
, a term sometimes used in
thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these quantities is governed b ... . Density is an
intensive propertyIn grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are usually lexical formations, but there may be a regular process for formi ...
in that increasing the amount of a substance does not increase its density; rather it increases its mass.

# History

In a well-known but probably
apocryphal Apocrypha (Gr. ἀπόκρυφος, ‘the hidden hings��) The biblical Books received by the early Church as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament, but not included in the Hebrew Bible, being excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews from t ...
tale,
Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse (; grc, ; ; ) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ... was given the task of determining whether King Hiero's
goldsmith A goldsmith is a Metalworking, metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Nowadays they mainly specialize in jewelry-making but historically, goldsmiths have also made cutlery, silverware, platter (dishware), pl ... was embezzling
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ... during the manufacture of a golden
wreath A wreath () is an assortment of s, , s, s, or various materials that is constructed to form a circle . In English-speaking countries, wreaths are used typically as household ornaments, most commonly as an . They are also used in ceremonial ev ... dedicated to the gods and replacing it with another, cheaper
alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in ...
. Archimedes knew that the irregularly shaped wreath could be crushed into a cube whose volume could be calculated easily and compared with the mass; but the king did not approve of this. Baffled, Archimedes is said to have taken an immersion bath and observed from the rise of the water upon entering that he could calculate the volume of the gold wreath through the
displacement Displacement may refer to: Physical sciences Mathematics and Physics *Displacement (geometry), is the difference between the final and initial position of a point trajectory (for instance, the center of mass of a moving object). The actual path c ...
of the water. Upon this discovery, he leapt from his bath and ran naked through the streets shouting, "Eureka! Eureka!" (Εύρηκα! Greek "I have found it"). As a result, the term "
eureka Eureka often refers to: * Eureka (word) file:Eureka! Archimede.jpg, Archimedes exclaiming ''Eureka''. In his excitement, he forgets to dress and runs nude in the streets straight out of his bath ''Eureka'' ( grc, εὕρηκα) is an interjection ...
" entered common parlance and is used today to indicate a moment of enlightenment. The story first appeared in written form in
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') i ... ' ''
books of architecture '', two centuries after it supposedly took place. Some scholars have doubted the accuracy of this tale, saying among other things that the method would have required precise measurements that would have been difficult to make at the time.

# Measurement of density

A number of techniques as well as standards exist for the measurement of density of materials. Such techniques include the use of a hydrometer (a buoyancy method for liquids), Hydrostatic balance (a buoyancy method for liquids and solids), immersed body method (a buoyancy method for liquids), pycnometer (liquids and solids), air comparison pycnometer (solids), oscillating densitometer (liquids), as well as pour and tap (solids). However, each individual method or technique measures different types of density (e.g. bulk density, skeletal density, etc.), and therefore it is necessary to have an understanding of the type of density being measured as well as the type of material in question.

## Unit

From the equation for density (''ρ'' = ''m''/''V''), mass density has any unit that is ''mass divided by volume''. As there are many units of mass and volume covering many different magnitudes there are a large number of units for mass density in use. The
SI unit of
kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of " ...
per
cubic metre The cubic metre (in Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsula on the (not to b ...
(kg/m3) and the
cgs unit of
gram The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) is a metric system The metric system is a that succeeded the decimalised system based on the introduced in France in the 1790s. The historical development of these systems culm ...
per
cubic centimetre A cubic centimetre (or cubic centimeter in US English) (SI unit symbol: cm3; non-SI abbreviations: cc and ccm) is a commonly used unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction t ...
(g/cm3) are probably the most commonly used units for density. One g/cm3 is equal to 1000 kg/m3. One cubic centimetre (abbreviation cc) is equal to one millilitre. In industry, other larger or smaller units of mass and or volume are often more practical and
US customary units United States customary units form a system of Units of measurement, measurement units commonly used in the United States and Territories of the United States, U.S. territories since being formalized in 1832. The United States customary system (U ...
may be used. See below for a list of some of the most common units of density.

## Homogeneous materials

The density at all points of a
homogeneous Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about th ...
object equals its total
mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
divided by its total volume. The mass is normally measured with a
scale or balance ; the volume may be measured directly (from the geometry of the object) or by the displacement of a fluid. To determine the density of a liquid or a gas, a
hydrometer A hydrometer is an instrument used for measuring the relative density Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight orange ... , a
dasymeter A dasymeter was meant initially as a device to demonstrate the buoyant effect of gases like air (as shown in the adjacent pictures). A dasymeter which allows weighing acts as a densimeter used to measure the density The density (more pre ...
or a
Coriolis flow meter A mass flow meter, also known as an inertial flow meter is a device that measures mass flow rate of a fluid traveling through a tube. The mass flow rate is the mass of the fluid traveling past a fixed point per unit time. The mass flow meter does ...
may be used, respectively. Similarly,
hydrostatic weighing Hydrostatic weighing, also referred to as "underwater weighing", "hydrostatic body composition analysis", and "hydrodensitometry" is a technique for measuring the density The density (more precisely, the volumetric mass density; also known a ...
uses the displacement of water due to a submerged object to determine the density of the object.

## Heterogeneous materials

If the body is not homogeneous, then its density varies between different regions of the object. In that case the density around any given location is determined by calculating the density of a small volume around that location. In the limit of an infinitesimal volume the density of an inhomogeneous object at a point becomes: $\rho\left(\vec\right) = dm/dV$, where $dV$ is an elementary volume at position $r$. The mass of the body then can be expressed as :$m = \int_V \rho\left(\vec\right)\,dV.$

## Non-compact materials

In practice, bulk materials such as sugar, sand, or snow contain voids. Many materials exist in nature as flakes, pellets, or granules. Voids are regions which contain something other than the considered material. Commonly the void is air, but it could also be vacuum, liquid, solid, or a different gas or gaseous mixture. The bulk volume of a material—inclusive of the void fraction—is often obtained by a simple measurement (e.g. with a calibrated measuring cup) or geometrically from known dimensions. Mass divided by ''bulk'' volume determines
bulk densityBulk density, also called apparent density or volumetric density, is a property of powders, granules, and other "divided" solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecu ...
. This is not the same thing as volumetric mass density. To determine volumetric mass density, one must first discount the volume of the void fraction. Sometimes this can be determined by geometrical reasoning. For the
close-packing of equal spheres In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space that ...
the non-void fraction can be at most about 74%. It can also be determined empirically. Some bulk materials, however, such as sand, have a ''variable'' void fraction which depends on how the material is agitated or poured. It might be loose or compact, with more or less air space depending on handling. In practice, the void fraction is not necessarily air, or even gaseous. In the case of sand, it could be water, which can be advantageous for measurement as the void fraction for sand saturated in water—once any air bubbles are thoroughly driven out—is potentially more consistent than dry sand measured with an air void. In the case of non-compact materials, one must also take care in determining the mass of the material sample. If the material is under pressure (commonly ambient air pressure at the earth's surface) the determination of mass from a measured sample weight might need to account for buoyancy effects due to the density of the void constituent, depending on how the measurement was conducted. In the case of dry sand, sand is so much denser than air that the buoyancy effect is commonly neglected (less than one part in one thousand). Mass change upon displacing one void material with another while maintaining constant volume can be used to estimate the void fraction, if the difference in density of the two voids materials is reliably known.

# Changes of density

In general, density can be changed by changing either the
pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving fr ... or the
temperature Temperature ( ) is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can be seen on this hot metalwork. Thermal energy refers to several distinct physical concept ... . Increasing the pressure always increases the density of a material. Increasing the temperature generally decreases the density, but there are notable exceptions to this generalization. For example, the density of
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ... increases between its melting point at 0 °C and 4 °C; similar behavior is observed in
silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a Tetravalence, tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member ... at low temperatures. The effect of pressure and temperature on the densities of liquids and solids is small. The
compressibility In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these quan ...
for a typical liquid or solid is 10−6
bar Bar or BAR may refer to: Food *Bar (establishment) A bar is a long raised narrow table or bench designed for dispensing beer or other alcoholic beverage, alcoholic drinks. They were originally chest high, and a bar, often brass, ran the len ...
−1 (1 bar = 0.1 MPa) and a typical thermal expansivity is 10−5
K −1. This roughly translates into needing around ten thousand times atmospheric pressure to reduce the volume of a substance by one percent. (Although the pressures needed may be around a thousand times smaller for sandy soil and some clays.) A one percent expansion of volume typically requires a temperature increase on the order of thousands of degrees
Celsius The degree Celsius is a unit of temperature on the Celsius scale, a temperature scale Scale of temperature is a methodology of calibrating the physical quantity temperature in metrology. Empirical scales measure temperature in relation to conv ... . In contrast, the density of gases is strongly affected by pressure. The density of an
ideal gas An ideal gas is a theoretical gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion ...
is :$\rho = \frac ,$ where is the
molar mass In , the molar mass of a is defined as the of a sample of that compound divided by the in that sample, measured in . The molar mass is a bulk, not molecular, property of a substance. The molar mass is an ''average'' of many instances of the co ...
, is the pressure, is the
universal gas constant The molar gas constant (also known as the gas constant, universal gas constant, or ideal gas constant) is denoted by the symbol or . It is the molar equivalent to the Boltzmann constant The Boltzmann constant ( or ) is the proportionality fac ...
, and is the
absolute temperature Thermodynamic temperature is a quantity defined in thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of ...
. This means that the density of an ideal gas can be doubled by doubling the pressure, or by halving the absolute temperature. In the case of volumic thermal expansion at constant pressure and small intervals of temperature the temperature dependence of density is :$\rho = \frac,$ where $\rho_$ is the density at a reference temperature, $\alpha$ is the thermal expansion coefficient of the material at temperatures close to $T_0$.

# Density of solutions

The density of a
solution Solution may refer to: * Solution (chemistry) Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, upMaking a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute and the water the solvent. In chemistry ...
is the sum of mass (massic) concentrations of the components of that solution. Mass (massic) concentration of each given component ρi in a solution sums to density of the solution, :$\rho = \sum_i \varrho_i .$ Expressed as a function of the densities of pure components of the mixture and their volume participation, it allows the determination of excess molar volumes: :$\rho = \sum_i \rho_i \frac\, = \sum_i \rho_i \varphi_i = \sum_i \rho_i \frac,$ provided that there is no interaction between the components. Knowing the relation between excess volumes and activity coefficients of the components, one can determine the activity coefficients: :$\overline_i = RT \frac.$

# Densities

## Various materials

:''Selected chemical elements are listed here. For the densities of all chemical elements, see
List of chemical elements This is a list of the 118 chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have th ...
''

## Air ## Molar volumes of liquid and solid phase of elements # Common units

The
SI unit for density is: *
kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of " ...
per
cubic metre The cubic metre (in Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsula on the (not to b ...
(kg/m3) The litre and tonne are not part of the SI, but are acceptable for use with it, leading to the following units: *
kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of " ...
per
litre The litre (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ... (kg/L) *
gram The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) is a metric system The metric system is a that succeeded the decimalised system based on the introduced in France in the 1790s. The historical development of these systems culm ...
per
millilitre The litre (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...
(g/mL) *
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a meas ...
per cubic metre (t/m3) Densities using the following metric units all have exactly the same numerical value, one thousandth of the value in (kg/m3). Liquid
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ... has a density of about 1 kg/dm3, making any of these SI units numerically convenient to use as most
solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter 4 (four) is a number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is an ... s and
liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects, ... s have densities between 0.1 and 20 kg/dm3. * kilogram per cubic decimetre (kg/dm3) * gram per cubic centimetre (g/cm3) ** 1 g/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3 * megagram (metric ton) per cubic metre (Mg/m3) In
US customary units United States customary units form a system of Units of measurement, measurement units commonly used in the United States and Territories of the United States, U.S. territories since being formalized in 1832. The United States customary system (U ...
density can be stated in: *
Avoirdupois ounce The ounce is the name of several different units of mass, weight In science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowle ...
per
cubic inch The cubic inch (symbol in3) is a unit of volume in the Imperial units and United States customary units systems. It is the volume of a cube with each of its three dimensions (length, width, and depth) being one inch long which is equivalent to 1 ...
(1 g/cm3 ≈ 0.578036672 oz/cu in) *
Avoirdupois ounce The ounce is the name of several different units of mass, weight In science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowle ...
per
fluid ounce A fluid ounce (abbreviated fl oz, fl. oz. or oz. fl., old forms ℥, fl ℥, f℥, ƒ ℥) is a unit of volume Volume is a scalar quantity expressing the amount Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude Multitude is ...
(1 g/cm3 ≈ 1.04317556 oz/US fl oz = 1.04317556 lb/US fl pint) *
Avoirdupois pound The pound or pound-mass is a unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a discrete piece of action (or beat) in a theatrica ...
per cubic inch (1 g/cm3 ≈ 0.036127292 lb/cu in) * pound per
cubic foot The cubic foot (symbol ft3 or cu ft)
, .
is an Imperial unit, imperial and United States customary unit ...
(1 g/cm3 ≈ 62.427961 lb/cu ft) * pound per
cubic yard A cubic yard (symbol yd3)IEEE Std 260.1-2004 is an Imperial unit, Imperial / U.S. customary unit, U.S. customary (non-SI non-Metric system, metric) unit of volume, used in the United States. It is defined as the volume of a cube with sides of 1 yard ...
(1 g/cm3 ≈ 1685.5549 lb/cu yd) * pound per
US liquid gallon The gallon is a units of measurement, unit of measurement for volume and fluid capacity in both the United States customary units, US customary units and the imperial units, British imperial systems of measurement. Three significantly different s ...
(1 g/cm3 ≈ 8.34540445 lb/US gal) * pound per US
bushel A bushel (abbreviation: bsh. or bu.) is an imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperi ...
(1 g/cm3 ≈ 77.6888513 lb/bu) *
slug Slug, or land slug, is a common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. ...
per cubic foot
Imperial units The imperial system of units, imperial system or imperial units (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1826) is the system of units A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement A unit of measureme ...
differing from the above (as the Imperial gallon and bushel differ from the US units) in practice are rarely used, though found in older documents. The Imperial gallon was based on the concept that an
Imperial fluid ounce A fluid ounce (abbreviated fl oz, fl. oz. or oz. fl., old forms ℥, fl ℥, f℥, ƒ ℥) is a unit of volume Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance ( solid, l ...
of water would have a mass of one Avoirdupois ounce, and indeed 1 g/cm3 ≈ 1.00224129 ounces per Imperial fluid ounce = 10.0224129 pounds per Imperial gallon. The density of
precious metal Precious metals are rare, naturally occurring metal A metal (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located ...
s could conceivably be based on
Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkale. It is known as the setting for the Greek mythology, Greek myth of the ...
ounces and pounds, a possible cause of confusion. Knowing the volume of the
unit cell In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space t ... of a crystalline material and its formula weight (in daltons), the density can be calculated. One dalton per cubic
ångström The angstromEntry "angstrom" in the Oxford online dictionary. Retrieved on 2019-03-02 from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/angstrom.Entry "angstrom" in the Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Retrieved on 2019-03-02 from https://www.me ... is equal to a density of 1.660 539 066 60 g/cm3.

*
Densities of the elements (data page)Density, solid phase In the following table, the use row is the value recommended for use in other Wikipedia pages in order to maintain consistency across content. Density, liquid phase Density, gas phase Notes * The suggested values f ...
*
List of elements by density *
Air density The density of air or atmospheric density, denoted ''ρ'' (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Sout ...
*
Area density The area density (also known as areal density, surface density, superficial density, areic density, mass thickness, column density, or density thickness) of a two-dimensional object is calculated as the mass Mass is both a property Proper ...
*
Bulk densityBulk density, also called apparent density or volumetric density, is a property of powders, granules, and other "divided" solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecu ...
*
Buoyancy Buoyancy (), or upthrust, is an upward exerted by a that opposes the of a partially or fully immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bo ... *
Charge density In electromagnetism Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electric charge, electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is c ... * Density prediction by the Girolami method * Dord *
Energy density In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "P ... *
Lighter than air A lifting gas or lighter than air gas is a gas that has a lower density than normal atmospheric gases and rises above them as a result. It is required for aerostats An aerostat (From greek language, Greek ἀήρ ''aer'' (air) + στατός '' ...
*
Linear density Linear density is the measure of a quantity of any characteristic value per unit of length. Linear mass density (titer in Textile Engineering, textile engineering, the amount of mass per unit length) and linear charge density (the amount of electr ...
*
Number densityThe number density (symbol: ''n'' or ''ρ''N) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds ...
* Orthobaric density *
Paper density Paper density is a paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through fine ...
*
Specific weightThe specific weight, also known as the unit weight, is the weight In science and engineering, the weight of an object is the force acting on the object due to gravity. Some standard textbooks define weight as a Euclidean vector, vector quantity, t ...
* Spice (oceanography) *
Standard temperature and pressure Standard temperature and pressure (STP) are standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), a ...

# References

* *
Video: Density Experiment with Oil and Alcohol

Video: Density Experiment with Whiskey and Water

Glass Density Calculation – Calculation of the density of glass at room temperature and of glass melts at 1000 – 1400°C

List of Elements of the Periodic Table – Sorted by Density

Calculation of saturated liquid densities for some components

* ttp://www.adamequipment.com/education/Documents/EdExp1.pdf A delicious density experiment
Water density calculator
Water density for a given salinity and temperature.
Liquid density calculator
Select a liquid from the list and calculate density as a function of temperature.
Gas density calculator
Calculate density of a gas for as a function of temperature and pressure.

Determination of Density of Solid
instructions for performing classroom experiment.
density prediction

density prediction
{{Authority control Physical quantities