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Sir Christopher Wren PRS
FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources Survey, a survey to c ...
(; – ) was one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history, as well as an
anatomist Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, mo ...
,
astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of . They observe s such as s, s, , s and – in either (by analyzing the data) or . Examples of topics or fields astronomers stud ...

astronomer
,
geometer A geometer is a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, st ...
, and mathematician-
physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classical antiquity, there was no real ancient analog of a modern sci ...

physicist
. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
after the in 1666, including what is regarded as his masterpiece,
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
, on
Ludgate Hill Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the prim ...

Ludgate Hill
, completed in 1710. The principal creative responsibility for a number of the churches is now more commonly attributed to others in his office, especially
Nicholas Hawksmoor Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 – 25 March 1736) was an English architect. He was a leading figure of the English Baroque English Baroque is a term sometimes used to refer to modes of English architecture 's 'Gherkin' (2004) rises above ...
. Other notable buildings by Wren include the
Royal Hospital Chelsea The Royal Hospital Chelsea is a retirement home and nursing home for some 300 veterans of the British Army. Founded as an almshouse, the ancient sense of the word "hospital", it is a site located on Royal Hospital Road in Chelsea, London, Chels ...

Royal Hospital Chelsea
, the
Old Royal Naval College The Old Royal Naval College is the architectural centrepiece of Maritime Greenwich, a World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations E ...

Old Royal Naval College
, Greenwich, and the south front of
Hampton Court Palace Hampton Court Palace is a Listed building, Grade I listed royal palace in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west and upstream of central London on the River Thames. Building of the palace began in 1514 for Cardinal Thomas Wolsey ...

Hampton Court Palace
. Educated in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
and
Aristotelian physics Aristotelian physics is the form of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general) ...
at the
University of Oxford , mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = £2.145 billion (2019–20) , chancellor = The Lord Patten of Barnes Christopher Francis Patten, Baron ...
, Wren was a founder of the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a and the 's national . Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a by as The Royal Society. The society fulfils a number of roles: promoting sc ...
and served as its president from 1680 to 1682. His scientific work was highly regarded by
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of s ...

Isaac Newton
and
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, philosopher, writer and Catholic Church, Catholic theologian. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector i ...

Blaise Pascal
.


Life and works

Wren was born in
East Knoyle East Knoyle is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish in Wiltshire, in the south-west of England, just west of the A350 road, A350 and about south of Warminster and north of Shaftesbury, Dorset. It was the birthplace of the archi ...
in
Wiltshire Wiltshire (; abbreviated Wilts) is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in South West England with an area of . It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. The county ...
, the only surviving son of Christopher Wren the Elder (1589–1658) and Mary Cox, the only child of the Wiltshire squire Robert Cox from Fonthill Bishop. Christopher Sr. was, at that time, the rector of East Knoyle and, later,
Dean of Windsor The dean of Windsor is the spiritual head of the Canons of St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west ...
. It was while they were living at East Knoyle that all their children were born; Mary, Catherine and Susan were all born by 1628 but then several children were born who died within a few weeks of their birth. Their son Christopher was born in 1632 then, two years later, another daughter named Elizabeth was born. Mary must have died shortly after the birth of Elizabeth, although there does not appear to be any surviving record of the date. Through Mary Cox, however, the family became well off financially for, as the only heir, she had inherited her father's estate. As a child Wren "seem'd consumptive". Although a sickly child, he would survive into robust old age. He was first taught at home by a private tutor and his father. After his father's royal appointment as
Dean of Windsor The dean of Windsor is the spiritual head of the Canons of St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west ...
in March 1635, his family spent part of each year there, but little is known about Wren's life at Windsor. He spent his first eight years at East Knoyle and was educated by the Rev. William Shepherd, a local clergyman. Little is known of Wren's schooling thereafter, during dangerous times when his father's Royal associations would have required the family to keep a very low profile from the ruling Parliamentary authorities. It was a tough time in his life, but one which would go on to have a significant impact upon his later works. The story that he was at
Westminster School (God Gives the Increase) , established = Earliest records date from the 14th century, refounded in 1560 , type = Public school (United Kingdom), Public school Independent school (United Kingdom), Independent day school, day and b ...
between 1641 and 1646 is substantiated only by ''Parentalia'', the biography compiled by his son, a fourth Christopher, which places him there "for some short time" before going up to Oxford (in 1650); however, it is entirely consistent with headmaster Doctor Busby's well-documented practice of educating the sons of impoverished Royalists and Puritans alike, irrespective of current politics or his own position. Some of Wren's youthful exercises preserved or recorded (though few are datable) showed that he received a thorough grounding in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
and also learned to draw. According to ''Parentalia'', he was "initiated" in the principles of mathematics by Dr
William Holder William Holder FRS (1616 – 24 January 1698) was an English clergyman and music theorist Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition throug ...
, who married Wren's elder sister Susan (or Susanna) in 1643. His drawing was put to academic use in providing many of the anatomical drawings for the anatomy textbook of the brain, ''Cerebri Anatome'' (1664), published by
Thomas Willis Thomas Willis FRS (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structu ...

Thomas Willis
, which coined the term "neurology." During this time period, Wren became interested in the design and construction of mechanical instruments. It was probably through Holder that Wren met Sir Charles Scarburgh whom Wren assisted in his anatomical studies. On 25 June 1650, Wren entered
Wadham College, Oxford Wadham College () is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford , mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = £2.145 billion (2019 ...
, where he studied
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
and the works of
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
. It is anachronistic to imagine that he received scientific training in the modern sense. However, Wren became closely associated with
John Wilkins John Wilkins, (14 February 161419 November 1672) was an Anglican ministry, Anglican clergyman, natural philosophy, natural philosopher and author, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society. He was Bishop of Chester from 1668 until his ...

John Wilkins
, the Warden of Wadham. The Wilkins circle was a group whose activities led to the formation of the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a and the 's national . Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a by as The Royal Society. The society fulfils a number of roles: promoting sc ...
, comprising a number of distinguished mathematicians, creative workers and experimental philosophers. This connection probably influenced Wren's studies of science and mathematics at Oxford. He graduated B.A. in 1651, and two years later received M.A.


1653–1664

Receiving his
M.A. A Master of Arts ( la, Magister Artium or ''Artium Magister''; abbreviated MA or AM) is the holder of a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch ...
in 1653, Wren was elected a fellow of
All Souls' College All Souls College (official name: College of the Souls of All the Faithful Departed) is a Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Unique to All Souls, all of its members automatically beco ...

All Souls' College
in the same year and began an active period of research and experiment in Oxford. Among these were a number of physiological experiments on dogs, including one now recognized as the first injection of fluids into the bloodstream of a live animal under laboratory conditions. His days as a fellow of All Souls ended when Wren was appointed Professor of Astronomy at
Gresham College Gresham College is an institution of higher learning located at Barnard's Inn Barnard's Inn is a former Inns of Chancery, Inn of Chancery in Holborn, London. It is now the home of Gresham College, an institution of higher learning establish ...
, London in 1657. He was there provided with a set of rooms and a stipend and required to give weekly lectures in both Latin and English. Wren took up this new work with enthusiasm. He continued to meet the men with whom he had frequent discussions in Oxford. They attended his London lectures and in 1660, initiated formal weekly meetings. It was from these meetings that the Royal Society, England's premier scientific body, was to develop. He undoubtedly played a major role in the early life of what would become the Royal Society; his great breadth of expertise in so many different subjects helping in the exchange of ideas between the various scientists. In fact, the report on one of these meetings reads: In 1662, they proposed a society "for the promotion of Physico-Mathematicall Experimental Learning." This body received its Royal Charter from and "The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge" was formed. In addition to being a founder member of the Society, Wren was president of the Royal Society from 1680 to 1682. In 1661, Wren was elected Savilian Professor of
Astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
at Oxford, and in 1669 he was appointed Surveyor of Works to Charles II. From 1661 until 1668 Wren's life was based in Oxford, although his attendance at meetings of the Royal Society meant that he had to make occasional trips to London. The main sources for Wren's scientific achievements are the records of the Royal Society. His scientific works ranged from astronomy,
optics Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of optical instruments, instruments that use or Photodetector, detect it. Optics usually describes t ...

optics
, the problem of finding
longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a coordinate system associated with position (geometry), positions on Earth (geographic position). A GCS can give positions: *as Geodetic coordinates, ...

longitude
at sea,
cosmology Cosmology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
,
mechanics Mechanics (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximat ...

mechanics
,
microscopy Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of micr ...

microscopy
,
surveying Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land survey ...

surveying
, medicine and
meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the f ...
. He observed, measured, dissected, built models and employed, invented and improved a variety of instruments.


1665–1723

It was probably around this time that Wren was drawn into redesigning a battered
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
. Making a trip to Paris in 1665, Wren studied the architecture, which had reached a climax of creativity, and perused the drawings of
Bernini Gian Lorenzo (or Gianlorenzo) Bernini (, , ; Italian Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 159828 November 1680) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simp ...
, the great Italian sculptor and architect, who himself was visiting Paris at the time. Returning from Paris, he made his first design for St Paul's. A week later, however, the destroyed two-thirds of the city. Wren submitted his plans for rebuilding the city to King Charles II, although they were never adopted. With his appointment as King's Surveyor of Works in 1669, he had a presence in the general process of rebuilding the city, but was not directly involved with the rebuilding of houses or companies' halls. Wren was personally responsible for the rebuilding of 51 churches; however, it is not necessarily true to say that each of them represented his own fully developed design. Wren was
knighted A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some ...
on 14 November 1673. This honour was bestowed on him after his resignation from the Savilian chair in Oxford, by which time he had already begun to make his mark as an architect, both in services to the Crown and in playing an important part in rebuilding London after the Great Fire. Additionally, he was sufficiently active in public affairs to be returned as
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
on four occasions. Wren first stood for
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
in a by-election in 1667 for the Cambridge University constituency, losing by six votes to Sir Charles Wheler. He was unsuccessful again in a by-election for the Oxford University constituency in 1674, losing to Thomas Thynne. At his third attempt Wren was successful, and he sat for Plympton Erle during the Loyal Parliament of 1685 to 1687. Wren was returned for New Windsor on 11 January 1689 in the
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
, but his election was declared void on 14 May 1689. He was elected again for New Windsor on 6 March 1690, but this election was declared void on 17 May 1690. Over a decade later he was elected unopposed for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis at the November 1701 general election. He retired at the
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
the following year. Wren's career was well established by 1669, and it may have been his appointment as
Surveyor of the King's Works Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyo ...
early that year that persuaded him that he could finally afford to marry. In 1669, the 37-year-old Wren married his childhood neighbour, the 33-year-old Faith Coghill, daughter of Sir John Coghill of
Bletchingdon Bletchingdon (also known as Bletchington) is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish north of Kidlington and southwest of Bicester in Oxfordshire, England. Bletchingdon parish includes the hamlet of Enslow just over west of the ...
. Little is known of Faith, but a love letter from Wren survives, which reads, in part: This brief marriage produced two children: Gilbert, born October 1672, who suffered from convulsions and died at about 18 months old, and Christopher, born February 1675. The younger Christopher was trained by his father to be an architect. It was this Christopher that supervised the topping out ceremony of in 1710 and wrote the famous '' Parentalia, or, Memoirs of the family of the Wrens''. Faith Wren died of
smallpox Smallpox was an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the infectious ...

smallpox
on 3 September 1675. She was buried in the
chancel In church architecture Church architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion, partly by innovation and partly by imitating other architectur ...

chancel
of
St Martin-in-the-Fields St Martin-in-the-Fields is an English Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. A ...

St Martin-in-the-Fields
beside the infant Gilbert. A few days later Wren's mother-in-law, Lady Coghill, arrived to take the infant Christopher back with her to Oxfordshire to raise. In 1677, 17 months after the death of his first wife, Wren remarried, this time to Jane Fitzwilliam, daughter of
William FitzWilliam, 2nd Baron FitzWilliam William Fitzwilliam, 2nd Baron Fitzwilliam Member of parliament, MP (c.1609 – 21 February 1658) was an English nobleman and politician who sat in the House of Commons of England between 1640 and 1653. Fitzwilliam was the son of William Fitzw ...
and his wife Jane Perry, the daughter of a prosperous London merchant. She was a mystery to Wren's friends and companions.
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
, who often saw Wren two or three times every week, had, as he recorded in his diary, never even heard of her, and was not to meet her till six weeks after the marriage. As with the first marriage, this too produced two children: a daughter Jane (1677–1702); and a son William, "Poor Billy" born June 1679, who was developmentally delayed. Like the first, this second marriage was also brief. Jane Wren died of
tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the in ...

tuberculosis
in September 1680. She was buried alongside Faith and Gilbert in the chancel of St Martin-in-the-Fields. Wren was never to marry again; he lived to be over 90 years old and of those years was married only nine. Bletchingdon was the home of Wren's brother-in-law William Holder, who was rector of the local church. Holder had been a Fellow of
Pembroke College, Oxford Pembroke College, a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education an ...

Pembroke College, Oxford
. An intellectual of considerable ability, he is said to have been the figure who introduced Wren to arithmetic and geometry. Wren's later life was not without criticisms and attacks on his competence and his taste. In 1712, the ''Letter Concerning Design'' of Anthony Ashley Cooper, third
Earl of Shaftesbury Earl of Shaftesbury is a title in the Peerage of England The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union 1707, Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Peerage ...

Earl of Shaftesbury
, circulated in manuscript. Proposing a new British style of architecture, Shaftesbury censured Wren's cathedral, his taste and his long-standing control of royal works. Although Wren was appointed to the Fifty New Churches Commission in 1711, he was left only with nominal charge of a board of works when the surveyorship started in 1715. On 26 April 1718, on the pretext of failing powers, he was dismissed in favour of William Benson. In 1713, he bought the manor of Wroxall, Warwickshire from the Burgoyne family, to which his son
Christopher Christopher is the English language, English version of a Europe-wide name derived from the Greek language, Greek name Χριστόφορος (''Christóforos''). The constituent parts are Χριστός (''Christós''), "Christ (title), Christ" or ...
retired in 1716 after losing his post as Clerk of Works. Several of Wren's descendants would be buried there in the .


Death

The Wren family estate was at
The Old Court House The Old Court House is a Listed building, Grade II* listed house located off Hampton Court Green in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames; its origins date back to 1536. The architect Sir Christopher Wren, who lived there from 1708 to 1723, ...
in the area of
Hampton Court Hampton Court Palace is a Grade I listed A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monu ...

Hampton Court
. He had been given a lease on the property by
Queen Anne Queen Anne often refers to: * Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714), queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (1702–1707) and of Great Britain (1707–1714) **Queen Anne style architecture, an architectural style from her reign, and its revival ...

Queen Anne
in lieu of salary
arrears Arrears (or arrearage) is a legal term for the part of a debt Debt is an obligation that requires one party, the debtor A debtor or debitor is a legal entity (legal person) that owes a debt Debt is an obligation that requires one ...
for building St Paul's. For convenience Wren also leased a house on
St James's Street St James's Street is the principal street in the district of St James's St James's is a central district in the City of Westminster, London, forming part of the West End. In the 17th century the area developed as a residential location for th ...
in London. According to a 19th-century legend, he would often go to London to pay unofficial visits to St Paul's, to check on the progress of "my greatest work". On one of these trips to London, at the age of ninety, he caught a chill which worsened over the next few days. On 25 February 1723 a servant who tried to awaken Wren from his nap found that he had died. Wren was laid to rest on 5 March 1723. His remains were placed in the south-east corner of the crypt of St Paul's. There is a memorial to him in the crypt at
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
. beside those of his daughter Jane, his sister Susan Holder, and her husband William. The plain stone plaque was written by Wren's eldest son and heir, Christopher Wren the Younger The inscription, which is also inscribed in a circle of black marble on the main floor beneath the centre of the dome, reads: which translates from Latin as: His
obituary An obituary (obit Obit may refer to: *Obituary An obituary ( obit for short) is a news article that reports the recent death of a person, typically along with an account of the person's life and information about the upcoming funeral. ...
was published in the ''Post Boy'' No. 5244 London 2 March 1723:
Sir Christopher Wren who died on Monday last in the 91st year of his age, was the only son of Dr. Chr. Wren, Dean of Windsor & Wolverhampton, Registar of the Garter, younger brother of Dr. Mathew (
sic The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with ...

sic
) Wren Ld Bp of Ely, a branch of the ancient family of Wrens of Binchester in the Bishoprick of Durham
1653. Elected from Wadham into fellowship of All Souls
1657. Professor of Astronomy Gresham College London
1660. Savilian Professor. Oxford
After 1666. Surveyor General for Rebuilding the Cathedral Church of St.Paul and the Parochial Churches & all other Public Buildings which he lived to finish
1669. Surveyor General till April 26. 1718
1680. President of the Royal Society
1698. Surveyor General & Sub Commissioner for Repairs to Westminster Abbey by Act of Parliament, continued till death.
His body is to be deposited in the Great Vault under the Dome of the Cathedral of St. Paul.
"The Curious and Entire Libraries of Sir Christopher Wren", and of his son, were auctioned by and Cock at Mr Cock's in Covent Garden on 24–27 October 1748.


Scientific career

One of Wren's friends, scientist and architect and a fellow
Westminster School (God Gives the Increase) , established = Earliest records date from the 14th century, refounded in 1560 , type = Public school (United Kingdom), Public school Independent school (United Kingdom), Independent day school, day and b ...
boy,
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
said of him "Since the time of
Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse (; grc, ; ; ) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...

Archimedes
there scarce ever met in one man in so great perfection such a mechanical hand and so philosophical mind." When a fellow of , Wren constructed a transparent beehive for scientific observation; he began observing the moon, which was to lead to the invention of
micrometerMicrometer can mean: * Micrometer (device) A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for Accuracy and precision, accurate measurement of components in mechanical engineeri ...
s for the telescope. According to Parentalia (pp. 210–211), his solid model of the moon attracted the attention of the King who commanded Wren to perfect it and present it to him. He experimented on terrestrial
magnetism Magnetism is a class of physical attributes that are mediated by magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For in ...

magnetism
and had taken part in medical experiments while at
Wadham College Wadham College () is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford , mottoeng = Psalm 27, The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (as of 31 July 2019) , budget = £2.14 ...
, performing the first successful injection of a substance into the bloodstream (of a
dog The dog or domestic dog (''Canis familiaris'' or ''Canis lupus familiaris'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the ...

dog
). In
Gresham College Gresham College is an institution of higher learning located at Barnard's Inn Barnard's Inn is a former Inns of Chancery, Inn of Chancery in Holborn, London. It is now the home of Gresham College, an institution of higher learning establish ...
, he did experiments involving determining
longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a coordinate system associated with position (geometry), positions on Earth (geographic position). A GCS can give positions: *as Geodetic coordinates, ...

longitude
through magnetic variation and through lunar observation to help with
navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:799. The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, ...

navigation
, and helped construct a telescope with Sir Paul Neile. Wren also studied and improved the microscope and telescope at this time. He had also been making observations of the planet
Saturn Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius of about nine and a half times that of Earth. It only has one-eighth the average density of Earth; how ...

Saturn
from around 1652 with the aim of explaining its appearance. His hypothesis was written up in ''De corpore saturni'' but before the work was published, presented his theory of the rings of Saturn. Immediately Wren recognised this as a better hypothesis than his own and ''De corpore saturni'' was never published. In addition, he constructed an exquisitely detailed lunar model and presented it to the king. In 1658, he found the length of an arc of the
cycloid In geometry, a cycloid is the curve traced by a point on a circle as it Rolling, rolls along a Line (geometry), straight line without slipping. A cycloid is a specific form of trochoid and is an example of a roulette (curve), roulette, a curve g ...

cycloid
using an exhaustion proof based on dissections to reduce the problem to summing segments of chords of a circle which are in geometric progression. A year into Wren's appointment as a Savilian Professor in Oxford, the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a and the 's national . Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a by as The Royal Society. The society fulfils a number of roles: promoting sc ...
was created and Wren became an active member. As Savilian Professor, Wren studied
mechanics Mechanics (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximat ...

mechanics
thoroughly, especially
elastic collision An elastic collision is an encounter between two bodies in which the total kinetic energy of the two bodies remains the same. In an ideal, perfectly elastic collision, there is no net conversion of kinetic energy into other forms such as heat, no ...

elastic collision
s and
pendulum A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot Pivot may refer to: *Pivot, the point of rotation in a lever A lever ( or ) is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or '':wikt:fulcrum, fulcrum''. A lever ...

pendulum
motions. He also directed his far-ranging intelligence to the study of
meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the f ...
: in 1662, he invented the tipping bucket
rain gauge A rain gauge (also known as an udometer,pluvia metior, pluviometer, ombrometer, and hyetometer) is an instrument used by meteorologist A meteorologist is a scientist who studies and works in the field of meteorology Meteorology is a branch of ...
and, in 1663, designed a "weather-clock" that would record temperature, humidity, rainfall and barometric pressure. A working weather clock based on Wren's design was completed by Robert Hooke in 1679. In addition, Wren experimented on muscle functionality, hypothesizing that the swelling and shrinking of muscles might proceed from a fermentative motion arising from the mixture of two heterogeneous fluids. Although this is incorrect, it was at least founded upon observation and may mark a new outlook on medicine: specialisation. Another topic to which Wren contributed was optics. He published a description of an engine to create perspective drawings and he discussed the grinding of conical lenses and mirrors. Out of this work came another of Wren's important mathematical results, namely that the
hyperboloid In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position o ...
of revolution is a ruled surface. These results were published in 1669. In subsequent years, Wren continued with his work with the Royal Society, although after the 1680s his scientific interests seem to have waned: no doubt his architectural and official duties absorbed more time. It was a problem posed by Wren that serves as an ultimate source to the conception of Newton's ''
Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis Principia may refer to: * ''Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica'', Isaac Newton's three-volume work about his laws of motion and universal gravitation * Principia ( "primary buildings"), the headquarters at the center of Roman forts ( la, ...
''.
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
had theorised that planets, moving in vacuo, describe orbits around the Sun because of a rectilinear inertial motion by the tangent and an accelerated motion towards the Sun. Wren's challenge to and Hooke, for the reward of a book worth thirty shillings, was to provide, within the context of Hooke's hypothesis, a mathematical theory linking
Kepler's laws In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ma ...
with a specific force law. Halley took the problem to Newton for advice, prompting the latter to write a nine-page answer, ''
De motu corporum in gyrum :''For other works by a similar name see De Motu (disambiguation)''. ''De motu corporum in gyrum'' ('On the motion of bodies in an orbit') is the presumed title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – ...
'', which was later to be expanded into the ''Principia''. Mentioned above are only a few of Wren's scientific works. He also studied other areas, ranging from agriculture,
ballistics Ballistics is the field of mechanics Mechanics (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in South ...
, water and freezing, light and
refraction In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...

refraction
, to name only a few.
Thomas Birch Thomas Birch (23 November 17059 January 1766) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...

Thomas Birch
's ''History of the Royal Society'' (1756–57) is one of the most important sources of our knowledge not only of the origins of the Society, but also the day-to-day running of the Society. It is in these records that most of Wren's known scientific works are recorded.


Architectural career

In 1661, just months after taking his post at Oxford, Wren was invited by Charles II to oversee the construction of new harbour defences at Tangier—then-newly under British control. Wren ultimately excused himself from the King's offer. Letters dated to the end of 1661 note that in addition to the Tangier project, Charles II had also sought Wren for consultation regarding repairs to
Old St Paul's Cathedral Old St Paul's Cathedral was the cathedral of the City of London that, until the Great Fire of London, Great Fire of 1666, stood on the site of the present St Paul's Cathedral. Built from 1087 to 1314 and dedicated to Paul of Tarsus, Saint Paul ...
, the reconstruction of which would ultimately be the architect's magnum opus. Speaking of Wren's vocational transition from academic to architect-engineer, biographer
Adrian Tinniswood Adrian John Tinniswood (born 1954) is an English writer and historian. Tinniswood studied English studies, English and Philosophy at Southampton University and was awarded an MPhil at Leicester University. He has acted as a consultant to the Nati ...
writes "the use of mathematicians in military fortification was not unusual... Perhaps Wren also had experience of the business of fortification, more than we know."


Early architectural work

Wren's first known foray into architecture came after his uncle,
Matthew Wren Matthew Wren (3 December 1585 – 24 April 1667) was an influential English clergyman, bishop and scholar. Life He was the eldest son of Francis Wren, citizen and mercer of London, only son of Cuthbert Wren, of Monk's-Kirby, in the county o ...
,
Bishop of Ely The Bishop of Ely is the ordinary Ordinary or The Ordinary often refer to: Music * Ordinary (EP), ''Ordinary'' (EP) (2015), by South Korean group Beast * Ordinary (Every Little Thing album), ''Ordinary'' (Every Little Thing album) (2011) * Ordin ...
offered to finance a new chapel for
Pembroke College, Cambridge Pembroke College (officially "The Master, Fellows and Scholars of the College or Hall of Valence-Mary") is a Colleges of the University of Cambridge, constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college is the third-oldest col ...

Pembroke College, Cambridge
. Matthew commissioned his nephew for the design, finding the architecturally inexperienced Christopher to be both ideologically sympathetic and stylistically deferential. Wren produced his design in the Winter of 1662 or 1663 and the chapel was completed in 1665. Wren's second, similarly collegiate work followed soon after, when he was commissioned to design Oxford's " New Theatre," financed by
Gilbert Sheldon Gilbert Sheldon (19 June 1598 – 9 November 1677) was the Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and ...

Gilbert Sheldon
. His design for the structure was met with lukewarm to negative reception, with even Wren's defenders admitting the young architect to have not yet been "capable of handling a large architectural composition with assurance." Adrian Tinniswood credits the building's flaws to "Sheldon’s refusal to pay for an elaborate exterior, Wren’s inability to find an adequate external expression for a building which was wholly conditioned by the functionality of its interior space and, ...his refusal to bend the knee to classical authority in the way that our experience of eighteenth-century architecture has conditioned us to believe is right." Prior to the theatre's 1669 completion, Wren had received further commissions for the Garden Quadrangle at Trinity College, Oxford and the chapel of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Wren left for Paris in July of 1665 on his first and only trip abroad. In France, the architect encountered an architectural milieu more closely linked to the ideals of the Italian Renaissance. Wren also met Gian Lorenzo Bernini, who was "widely acknowledged by contemporaries as the greatest artist of the century." Though Bernini's concrete influence on Wren's designs was transmitted via published plans and engravings, the encounter surely impacted the budding architect and his vocational trajectory.


St Paul's Cathedral

St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
in London has always been the highlight of Wren's reputation. His association with it spans his whole architectural career, including the 36 years between the start of the new building and the declaration by parliament of its completion in 1711.Letters document Wren's involvement in St Paul as early as 1661, when he was consulted by Charles II regarding repairs to the medieval structure. In the spring of 1666, he made his first design for a dome for St Paul's. It was accepted in principle on 27 August 1666. One week later, however, the Great Fire of London reduced two-thirds of the City to a smoking desert and old St Paul's to a ruin. Wren was most likely at Oxford at the time, but the news, so fantastically relevant to his future, drew him at once to London. Between 5 and 11 September he ascertained the precise area of devastation, worked out a plan for rebuilding the City and submitted it to Charles II. Others also submitted plans. However, no new plan proceeded any further than the paper on which it was drawn. A Rebuilding of London Act 1666, Rebuilding of London Act which provided rebuilding of some essential buildings was passed in 1666. In 1669, the King's Surveyor of Works died and Wren was promptly installed. It was not until 1670 that the pace of rebuilding started accelerating. A Rebuilding of London Act 1670, second rebuilding act was passed that year, raising the tax on coal and thus providing a source of funds for rebuilding of churches destroyed within the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
. Wren presented his initial "First Model" for St Paul's. This plan was accepted, and demolition of the old cathedral began. By 1672, however, this design seemed too modest, and Wren met his critics by producing a design of spectacular grandeur. This modified design, called "Great Model", was accepted by the King and the construction started in November 1673. However, this design failed to satisfy the Cathedral chapter, chapter and clerical opinion generally; moreover, it had an economic drawback. Wren was confined to a "cathedral form" desired by the clergy. In 1674 he produced the rather meagre Classical-Gothic compromise known as the Warrant Design. However, this design, called so from the royal warrant of 14 May 1675 attached to the drawings, is not the design upon which work had begun a few weeks before. The cathedral that Wren started to build bears only a slight resemblance to the Warrant Design. In 1697, the first service was held in the cathedral when Wren was 65. There was still, however, no dome. Finally in 1711 the cathedral was declared complete, and Wren was paid the half of his salary that, in the hope of accelerating progress,
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
had withheld for 14 years since 1697. The cathedral had been built for 36 years under his direction, and the only disappointment he had about his masterpiece was the dome: against his wishes the commission engaged Thornhill to paint the inner dome in false perspective and finally authorised a balustrade around the roof line. This diluted the hard edge Wren had intended for his cathedral, and elicited the apt Parthian shot, parthian comment that "ladies think nothing well without an edging".


Later career

During the 1670s Wren received significant secular commissions. Among many of his remarkable designs at this time, the Monument to the Great Fire of London, monument (1671–76) commemorating the Great Fire also involved
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
, but Wren was in control of the final design, the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Royal Observatory (1675–76), and the Wren Library at Trinity College, Cambridge (1676–84) were the most important ones. In 1682, Wren advised that the original statues of the King's Beasts on St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, St George's Chapel, Windsor be removed. The pinnacles were left bare until 1925, when replica statues were installed. By historical accident, all Wren's large-scale secular commissions dated from after the 1680s. At the age of 50 his personal development, as was that of English architecture, was ready for a monumental but humane architecture, in which the scales of individual parts relates both to the whole and to the people who used them. The first large project Wren designed, the Chelsea Hospital (1682–92), does not entirely satisfy the eye in this respect, but met its brief with distinction and such success that even in the 21st century it fulfills its original function. The reconstruction of the state room at Windsor Castle was notable for the integration of architecture, sculpture and painting. This commission was in the hand of Hugh May, who died in February 1684, before the construction finished; Wren assumed his post and finalised the works. Between 1683 and 1685 he was much occupied in designing the King's House, Winchester, where Charles II had hoped to spend his declining years, but which was never completed. When Wren promised that it would be complete within a year the King, who was conscious of his mortality, replied that " a year is a great time in my life".After the death of Charles II in 1685, Wren's attention was directed mainly to Whitehall (1685–87). The new king, James II of England, James II, required a new chapel and also ordered a new gallery, council chamber and a riverside apartment for the Mary of Modena, Queen. Later, when James II was removed from the throne, Wren took on architectural projects such as Kensington Palace (1689–96) and
Hampton Court Hampton Court Palace is a Grade I listed A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monu ...

Hampton Court
(1689–1700). The erection of the present Windsor Guildhall was begun in 1687, under the direction of Sir Thomas Fitz (or Fiddes) but there is a story that on his death in 1689, the task was taken over by Sir Christopher Wren. It was completed at a cost of £2687 – 1s – 6d. The new building was supported around its perimeter by stone columns, providing a covered area beneath as a venue for Corn exchange, corn markets. The story is widely told that the borough Council demanded that Wren should insert additional columns within the covered area, in order to support the weight of the heavy building above; Wren, however, was adamant that these were not necessary. Eventually the council insisted and, in due course, the extra supporting columns were built, but Wren made them slightly short, so that they do not quite touch the ceiling, hence proving his claim that they were not necessary. However, there is little evidence that Wren was ever involved in the design or construction of the Guildhall. It is now believed that the story grew out of Wren's connections with Windsor and that his son, also called Christopher Wren, who served as a
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
for Windsor, commissioned the statue of Prince George of Denmark in 1713 on the south end of the building and his name was engraved underneath. The pillars were probably moved into the cornmarket from the east side of the building when an extension was added in 1829. The gaps at the top of the pillars are now filled with tiles smaller than the capitals. Wren did not pursue his work on architectural design as actively as he had before the 1690s, although he still played important roles in a number of royal commissions. In 1696 he was appointed Surveyor of Greenwich Hospital (London), Greenwich Naval Hospital, and in 1698 he was appointed Surveyor of the Fabric of Westminster Abbey, Surveyor of Westminster Abbey. He resigned the former role in 1716 but held the latter until his death, approving with a wavering signature Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, Burlington's revisions of Wren's own earlier designs for the great Archway of Westminster School.


Freemasonry

Since at least the 18th century, the Lodge of Antiquity No. 2, one of the four founding Masonic lodge, Masonic Lodges of the Premier Grand Lodge of England in 1717, has claimed Christopher Wren to have been its Master at the ''Goose and Gridiron'' at St. Paul's churchyard. Whilst he was rebuilding the cathedral he is said to have been "adopted" on 18 May 1691 (that is, accepted as a sort of honorary member or patron, rather than an operative). Their 18th-century maul with its 1827 inscription claiming that it was used by Wren for the foundation stone of St. Paul's, belonging to the Lodge and on display in the Library and Museum of Freemasonry in London, corroborates the story. James Anderson (Freemason), James Anderson made the claims in his widely circulated ''Constitutions'' while many of Wren's friends were still alive, but he made many highly creative claims as to the history or legends of Freemasonry. There is also a clear possibility of confusion between the operative workmen's lodges which might naturally have welcomed the boss, and the "speculative" or gentlemen's lodges which became highly fashionable just after Wren's death. By the standards of his time a gentleman like Wren would not generally join an artisan body; however the workmen of St Paul's cathedral would naturally have sought the patronage or "interest" of their employer, and within Wren's lifetime there was a predominantly gentlemen's Lodge at the ''Rummer and Grapes'', a mile upriver at Westminster (where Wren had been to School). In 1788, the Lodge of Antiquity thought they were buying a portrait of Wren which now dominates Lodge Room 10, in the same building as the Museum; but it is now identified with William Talman (architect), William Talman, not Wren. Nevertheless, this recorded event and many old records attest the fact that Antiquity thought that Wren had been its Master, at a time when it still held its minute books for the relevant years (which were lost by Preston at some date after 1778). The evidence whether Wren was a speculative freemason is the subject of the Prestonian Lecture of 2011, which concludes on the evidence of two obituaries and Aubrey's memoirs, with supporting materials, that he did indeed attend the closed meeting in 1691, probably of the Lodge of Antiquity, but that there is nothing to suggest that he was ever a Grand Officer as claimed by Anderson.


Achievement and legacy

At his death, Wren was 90. Even the men he had trained and who owed much of their success to Wren's original and leadership were no longer young. Newer generations of architects were beginning to look past Wren's style. The Baroque school his apprentices had created was already under fire from a new generation that brushed Wren's reputation aside and looked back beyond him to Inigo Jones. Architects of the 18th century could not forget Wren, but they could not forgive some elements in his work they deemed unconventional. The churches left the strongest mark on subsequent architecture. In France, where English architecture rarely made much impression, the influence of St Paul's Cathedral can be seen in the church of Sainte-Geneviève (now the Panthéon); begun in 1757, it rises to a drum and dome similar to St Paul's, and there are other versions inspired by Wren's dome, from Saint Isaac's Cathedral, St Isaac's (1840–42) in Saint Petersburg to the United States Capitol, US Capitol at Washington, D.C. (1855–65). In the 20th century, the potency of the influence of Wren's work on English architecture was reduced. The last major architect who admitted to being dependent on him was Sir Edwin Lutyens, who died in 1944. With the purposeful elimination of historic influences from International Style (architecture), international architecture in the early 20th century, Wren's work gradually stopped being perceived as a mine of examples applicable to contemporary design. Christopher Wren appeared on the reverse of the first British Banknotes of the pound sterling, £50 banknote (Series D) issued in modern times. The notes were printed between 1981 and 1994, and were in circulation until 1996. In 1997, UNESCO inscribed Wren's Greenwich Hospital, London, Greenwich Hospital on the World Heritage Site, World Heritage list, citing the complex's "outstanding architectural and artistic achievements."


Bibliography

*


See also

* List of works by Christopher Wren * List of Christopher Wren churches in London * Thomas Gilbert (architect), Thomas Gilbert, one of Wren's apprentices and adaptant of his architectural style * Gresham Professor of Astronomy Wren appears, or is mentioned in several Restoration era novels or movies. * The novel ''Hawksmoor (novel), Hawksmoor'' by Peter Ackroyd, which features a fictionalised Christopher Wren * He also features as an important secondary character in Rosalind Laker's (Barbara Ovstedal) novel ''Circle of Pearls''. * He is mentioned in the 2004 film ''The Libertine (2004 film), The Libertine'', starring Johnny Depp, Rosamund Pike and John Malkovich. * For the character created by Agatha Christie, see the play ''The Mousetrap''


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * Hart, Vaughan (2020) ''Christopher Wren: In Search of Eastern Antiquity''. Yale University Press. ISBN 9781913107079 * Hart, Vaughan, ‘London’s Standard: Christopher Wren and the Heraldry of the Monument’, in ''RES: Journal of Anthropology and Aesthetics'', vol.73/74, Autumn 2020, pp. 325–39 * paperback * *


External links

* *
'Scientists and Craftsmen in Sir Christopher Wren's London'
lecture by Professor Allan Chapman,
Gresham College Gresham College is an institution of higher learning located at Barnard's Inn Barnard's Inn is a former Inns of Chancery, Inn of Chancery in Holborn, London. It is now the home of Gresham College, an institution of higher learning establish ...
, 23 April 2008 (available in text, audio and video formats).
Life and times of Sir Christopher Wren
on a Freemasonry website
View interiors of Wren Churches in 360 degrees
{{DEFAULTSORT:Wren, Christopher 1632 births 1723 deaths People educated at Westminster School, London Alumni of Wadham College, Oxford Christopher Wren buildings, * 17th-century English architects English ecclesiastical architects English scientists English physicists 17th-century English astronomers English Christians Presidents of the Royal Society Fellows of All Souls College, Oxford Founder Fellows of the Royal Society Professors of Gresham College Savilian Professors of Astronomy 17th-century English mathematicians Knights Bachelor Burials at St Paul's Cathedral English Baroque architects British scientific instrument makers Architects of cathedrals 18th-century English architects English MPs 1685–1687 English MPs 1689–1690 English MPs 1690–1695 English MPs 1701–1702 Architects from Wiltshire Members of the Parliament of England for Plympton Erle