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Arkhangelsk Oblast (russian: Арха́нгельская о́бласть, ''Arkhangelskaya oblast'') is a
federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (russian: ...
of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
(an
oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic script, Cyrillic (in most languages, including Russian language, Russian and Ukrainian language, Ukrainian): , Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzs ...
). It includes the
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar regions of Earth, polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Danish Realm, ...

Arctic
archipelagos of
Franz Josef Land Franz Josef Land, Frantz Iosef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land ( rus, Земля́ Фра́нца-Ио́сифа, r=Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa, no, Fridtjof Nansen Land) is a Russian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. It is inhabited on ...
and
Novaya Zemlya Novaya Zemlya (, also , ; rus, Но́вая Земля́, p=ˈnovəjə zʲɪmˈlʲa, ) is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea ...

Novaya Zemlya
, as well as the
Solovetsky Islands The Solovetsky Islands (russian: Солове́цкие острова́), or Solovki (), are an archipelago located in the Onega Bay of the White Sea, Russia. As an subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions, administrative division, the isl ...

Solovetsky Islands
in the
White Sea The White Sea (russian: Белое море, ''Béloye móre''; Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; yrk, Сэрако ямʼ, ''Serako yam'') is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of ...
. Arkhangelsk Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over the
Nenets Autonomous Okrug Nenets Autonomous Okrug (russian: Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг; Nenets languages, Nenets: Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, ''Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk'') is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subjec ...
(NAO). Including the NAO, Arkhangelsk Oblast has an area of 587,400 km2. Its population (including the NAO) was 1,227,626 as of the
2010 Census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
. The
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
of
Arkhangelsk Arkhangelsk (, ; rus, Арха́нгельск, p=ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: P ...
, with a population of 348,716 as of the 2010 Census, is the
administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with French as one of their administrative languages ( ...
of the oblast.Charter, Article 5 The second largest city is the nearby
Severodvinsk Severodvinsk ( rus, Северодвинск, p=sʲɪvʲɪrɐdˈvʲinsk) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city in the north of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located in the river delta, delta of the Northern Dvina River, west of Arkhang ...
, home to
Sevmash JSC PO Sevmash ( rus, ОАО «ПО „Севмаш“», Севмаш, СМПСМП, "Severodvinsk Machine Building Plant") is a Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic ...

Sevmash
, the main
shipyard A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, ...

shipyard
for the
Russian Navy )Slow – "''Гвардейский встречный марш Военно-морского флота''" () , mascot = , equipment = 1 aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a that serves as ...
. Among the oldest populated places of the oblast are Kholmogory,
Kargopol Kargopol (russian: Ка́ргополь) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Kargopolsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on both sides of the Onega River, several miles north of Lak ...
, and
Solvychegodsk Solvychegodsk (russian: Сольвычего́дск, lit. "salt on the Vychegda River") is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to dist ...
; there are a number of Russian Orthodox monasteries, including the Antoniev Siysky Monastery and the
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
of the
Solovetsky Islands The Solovetsky Islands (russian: Солове́цкие острова́), or Solovki (), are an archipelago located in the Onega Bay of the White Sea, Russia. As an subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions, administrative division, the isl ...

Solovetsky Islands
in the
White Sea The White Sea (russian: Белое море, ''Béloye móre''; Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; yrk, Сэрако ямʼ, ''Serako yam'') is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of ...
.
Plesetsk Cosmodrome Plesetsk Cosmodrome ( rus, Космодром «Плесецк», r=Kosmodrom "Plesetsk", p=kəsmɐˈdrom plʲɪˈsʲet͡sk) is a Russian spaceport A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft File:Spa ...

Plesetsk Cosmodrome
is one of three
spaceport A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation ...
s in Russia (the other two are
Kapustin Yar Kapustin Yar (russian: Капустин Яр) is a Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consisten ...
in
Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Oblast (russian: Астраха́нская о́бласть, ''Astrakhanskaya oblast''; is a federal subject of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe ...

Astrakhan Oblast
and Yasny in
Orenburg Oblast Orenburg Oblast (russian: Оренбургская область, ''Orenburgskaya oblast'') is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the types of inhabited localities in Russia, city of ...
).


Geography

Arkhangelsk Oblast, which includes the
Nenets Autonomous Okrug Nenets Autonomous Okrug (russian: Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг; Nenets languages, Nenets: Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, ''Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk'') is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subjec ...
, borders
Kirov Oblast Kirov Oblast (russian: Ки́ровская о́бласть, ''Kirovskaya oblast'') is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской ...
,
Vologda Oblast Vologda Oblast ( rus, Вологодская область, p=vəlɐˈɡotskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ, r=Vologodskaya oblast) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is Vologda. The Oblast has ...
, the
Republic of Karelia The Republic of Karelia (russian: Респу́блика Каре́лия, Respublika Kareliya, rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə; krl, Karjalan tazavaldu; fi, Karjalan tasavalta; vep, Karjalan Tazovaldkund), or Karelia (russian: Кар ...
, the
Komi Republic The Komi Republic (russian: Республика Коми; kv, Коми Республика), sometimes simply referred to as Komi, is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federat ...
, and the White, Pechora, Barents and Kara seas.
Cape Fligely Cape Fligely (; ''Mys Fligeli''), located on the northern shores of Rudolf Island and Franz Josef Land in the Russia, Russian Federation, is the northernmost point of Russia, Europe, and Eurasia as a whole. It is from the North Pole. History Thi ...
in
Franz Josef Land Franz Josef Land, Frantz Iosef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land ( rus, Земля́ Фра́нца-Ио́сифа, r=Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa, no, Fridtjof Nansen Land) is a Russian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. It is inhabited on ...
(the northernmost point of Russia, Europe and
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a ...

Eurasia
) and
Cape Zhelaniya Cape Zhelaniya (russian: Мыс Желания, ; being Russian for 'wish/desire') is a cape (geography), headland in the Russian Federation. It is an important geographical landmark. The area in the vicinity of the cape is a desolate place, expos ...
in
Novaya Zemlya Novaya Zemlya (, also , ; rus, Но́вая Земля́, p=ˈnovəjə zʲɪmˈlʲa, ) is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea ...

Novaya Zemlya
(the easternmost point of Europe) are both located within Arkhangelsk Oblast. Arkhangelsk Oblast is located on the
East European Plain The East European Plain (also called the Russian Plain, "Extending from eastern Poland through the entire European Russia to the Ural Mountaina, the ''East European Plain'' encompasses all of the Baltic states and Belarus, nearly all of Ukraine, and ...
, and most of it represents forested hilly landscape. The north-eastern part belongs to the
Timan RidgeThe Timan Ridge (russian: Тиманский кряж – ''Timansky Kryazh'') is a highland in the far north of European Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe ...
, a highland mostly situated east from the oblast. The Nenets Autonomous Okrug is essentially a flat
tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...

tundra
( Bolshezemelskaya Tundra) with several hill chains like Pay-Khoy Ridge. The Arctic islands including Novaya Zemlya and Franz Joseph Land are mountainous with glaciers and eternally snow-covered. This region has a genetically distinct population of
polar bear The polar bear (''Ursus Ursus is Latin for bear. It may also refer to: Animals *Ursus (mammal), ''Ursus'' (mammal), a genus of bears People * Ursus of Aosta, 6th-century evangelist * Ursus of Auxerre, 6th-century bishop * Ursus of Soloth ...

polar bear
s associated with the
Barents Sea The Barents Sea ( , also ; no, Barentshavet, ; russian: Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, ...
area. Almost all of the area of the Oblast belongs to the basin of the
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major s. It spans an area of approximately and is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some call it the Arctic Medit ...

Arctic Ocean
, with the major rivers being (west to east)
Onega River , image =P6140254.jpg , image_size = , image_caption =The Onega in Severoonezhsk , source1_location =Lake Lacha , mouth =White Sea , mouth_coordinates = , subdivision_type1 = Country , subdivision_name1 ...
,
Northern Dvina River The Northern Dvina (russian: Се́верная Двина́, ; kv, Вы́нва / Výnva) is a river in northern Russia flowing through the Vologda Oblast and Arkhangelsk Oblast into the Dvina Bay of the White Sea. Along with the Pechora River ...
(with the major tributaries the
Vychegda The Vychegda (, ) is a river in the European part of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
, the , and the
Pinega Pinega (russian: Пинега) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, rural locality (a settlement), formerly a town, in Pinezhsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pinega River (hence the name). It ser ...
), Kuloy River,
Mezen River The Mezen (russian: Мезень) is a river in Udorsky District of the Komi Republic and in Leshukonsky District, Leshukonsky and Mezensky Districts of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia. Its mouth is located in the Mezen Bay of the White Sea. Mezen is ...
, and
Pechora River ; Komi: Печӧра; Nenets: Санэроˮ яха , name_etymology = The Russian name of the river is a combination of two words in an old local Nenets dialect, "pe" & "chora". Literally it means "forest dweller". , image = ...
( Shapkina River being a major tributary). A minor area in the west of the Oblast, most notably the basin of the Ileksa River, drains into the
Lake Onega Lake Onega (also known as Onego, rus, Оне́жское о́зеро, r=Onezhskoe ozero, p=ɐˈnʲɛʂskəɪ ˈozʲɪrə Finnish language, Finnish: Ääninen, Veps language, Veps: Änine, Änižjärv) is a lake in northwestern Russia, on the ter ...
and eventually to the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
. A very minor area in
Kargopolsky District Kargopolsky District (russian: Каргопо́льский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the administrative divisions of Arkhangelsk Oblast, twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.Law #65-5-OZ As a subdivisions of R ...
in the south-west of the Oblast drains into the which belongs to the basin of the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
. The area in the Onega River basin containing the biggest lakes in the oblast, such as
Lake Lacha Lake Lacha (russian: Ла́ча, Ла́че) is a freshwater lake, located in the south of Kargopolsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia, south of the town of Kargopol. It is the largest lake in Arkhangelsk Oblast, with a surface area of ...
,
Lake Kenozero Lake Kenozero (russian: Кенозеро) is a freshwater lake, located in the south-west of Plesetsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia. It is one of the biggest lakes in Arkhangelsk Oblast and the biggest one in Plesetsky District. The are ...

Lake Kenozero
,
Lake Undozero Lake Undozero (russian: Ундозеро) is a freshwater lake, located in the west of Plesetsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia. It is one of the biggest lakes in Arkhangelsk Oblast and the second biggest one in Plesetsky District. The are ...
, and
Lake Kozhozero Lake Kozhozero (russian: Кожозеро) is a freshwater lake, located in the south of Onezhsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia. It is one of the biggest lakes in Arkhangelsk Oblast and biggest one in Onezhsky District. The area of the l ...
. The tundra of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug also contains a number of bigger lakes. The river basin of the Pinega is characteristic of the
karst Karst is a topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). Topography ...

karst
, with a number of caves in the region. The White Sea coast within the Oblast is split into the
Onega Bay Shore of the bay in Kiy Island. The Onega Bay (russian: Онежская губа, Онежский залив) is located in the Republic of Karelia and Arkhangelsk Oblast in Northwestern Russia, west of the city of Arkhangelsk. It is the sou ...
(where the Onega is the major tributary), the
Dvina Bay The Dvina Bay (russian: Двинская Губа) is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast in Northwestern Russia. It is one of four large bays and gulfs of the White Sea, the others being the Mezen Bay, the Onega Bay, and the Kandalaksha Gulf. The two m ...
(the Northern Dvina), and the
Mezen Bay The Mezen Bay (russian: Мезенская губа) is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Northwestern Russia. It is one of four large bays and gulfs of the White Sea, the others being the Dvina Bay, the Onega Bay, and t ...
(the Mezen and the Kuloy).
Solovetsky Islands The Solovetsky Islands (russian: Солове́цкие острова́), or Solovki (), are an archipelago located in the Onega Bay of the White Sea, Russia. As an subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions, administrative division, the isl ...

Solovetsky Islands
, as well as a number of smaller islands, are located in Onega Bay. Onega Bay and the Dvina Bay are separated by the
Onega Peninsula The Onega Peninsula is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It protrudes into the White Sea, with Onega Bay to the south-west, and Dvina Bay to the north-east. The length of the peninsula is about , and the width varies between and . Geograph ...
. The Mezen Bay is separated from the main body of the White Sea by Morzhovets Island. Other major islands in the oblast include Shogly Island, Zhizgin Island, Yagry Island, Lyasomin Island, Layda Island, Nikolskiy Island, and Mudyugskiy Island. Almost all of the oblast is covered by
taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (d ...

taiga
, the coniferous forest dominated by
pine A pine is any conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The div ...

pine
,
spruce A spruce is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including ...

spruce
, and
larch Larches are deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow ...

larch
. Large areas in the middle of taiga are devoid of trees and covered by
swamp A swamp is a forested wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently (for years or decades) or seasonally (for weeks or months). Flooding results in oxygen-free (Anoxic waters, anoxic) processes pre ...

swamp
s. In the
floodplains File:Flood plain 7991.JPG, Riparian vegetation on the floodplain of the Lynches River, close to Johnsonville, South Carolina. These tupelo and Taxodium, cypress trees show the ordinary high water mark, high-water mark of flooding. A floodpl ...
of the rivers, there are meadows. A number of areas in Arkhangelsk Oblast have been designated as protected natural areas. These are subdivided into
national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national park
s, nature reserves (
zapovednik Zapovednik (russian: заповедник, plural заповедники, from the Russian заповедный, "sacred, prohibited from disturbance, committed
o protect O, or o, is the fifteenth letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as re ...
committed o heritage; ) is an established term on the Post-Soviet sta ...
s), and
zakaznik Zakaznik (russian: зака́зник, зака́зники, transliterated: ''zakaznik, zakazniki''; uk, singular: заказни́к or зака́зник; plural: заказники́ or зака́зники, transliterated: ''zakaznyk'', ''zaka ...
s of the federal level. The following protected areas have been designated, *
Kenozersky National Park Kenozersky National Park (russian: Кенозерский национальный парк) is a national park in the north of Russia, located in Kargopolsky District, Kargopolsky and Plesetsky Districts of Arkhangelsk Oblast. It was established ...
; * Onezhskoye Pomorye National Park * Russkaya Arktika National Park (which included previously established Franz Joseph Land Zakaznik); * (shared with the
Republic of Karelia The Republic of Karelia (russian: Респу́блика Каре́лия, Respublika Kareliya, rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə; krl, Karjalan tazavaldu; fi, Karjalan tasavalta; vep, Karjalan Tazovaldkund), or Karelia (russian: Кар ...
); *
Pinezhsky Nature Reserve Pinega Nature Reserve (russian: Пинежский заповедник, ''Pinezhsky Zapovednik'') is a nature reserve (a ''zapovednik'') in the north of Russia, located in Pinezhsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, about 150 km due east of the cit ...
; * Siysky Zakaznik. Kenozersky and Vodlozersky National Parks have the status of
UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific program, launched in 1971 by UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation ...
. In addition, there are two protected areas in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, adjacent to each other: Nenetsky Nature Reserve and Nenetsky Zakaznik.


History

The area of Arkhangelsk Oblast has been settled by
Finno-Ugric peoples The Finno-Ugric peoples or Finno-Ugrian peoples, are the Ethnic groups in Europe, peoples of Northeast Europe, North Asia and the Carpathian Basin who speak Finno-Ugric languages – that is, speakers of languages of the Uralic languages, Uralic ...

Finno-Ugric peoples
since prehistoric times, and most of the
toponyms Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''toponyms Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''wikt: ...
in the region are in fact Finno-Ugric. It was subsequently colonized by the
Novgorod Republic The Novgorod Republic (russian: Новгородская республика, Novgorodskaya respublika, ; orv, Новгородскаѧ землѧ, Novgorodskaę zemlę, lit=Novgorodian Land; la, Novogardia or russian: Новгородская ...
.
Kargopol Kargopol (russian: Ка́ргополь) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Kargopolsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on both sides of the Onega River, several miles north of Lak ...
was first mentioned in the chronicles in 1146,
Shenkursk Shenkursk (russian: Шенку́рск) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Shenkursky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Vaga River. Population: Geography Clima ...
was mentioned in 1315, and
Solvychegodsk Solvychegodsk (russian: Сольвычего́дск, lit. "salt on the Vychegda River") is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to dist ...
was founded in the 14th century. By the 13th century the Novgorodian merchants had already reached the
White Sea The White Sea (russian: Белое море, ''Béloye móre''; Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; yrk, Сэрако ямʼ, ''Serako yam'') is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of ...
, attracted to the area for
fur trading The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characte ...
. The Novgorodians penetrated the area using the waterways, and this is why most of the ancient (as well as the modern) settlements were located into the main river valleys. The main historical areas of the Arkhangelsk region were Poonezhye () along the Onega, the Dvina Land along the
Northern Dvina , image = dvina.jpg , image_size = , image_caption = Northern Dvina starts as the confluence of Yug River , image =Yug Podosinovets.jpg , image_size = , image_caption =The Yug in Podosin ...
, Pinezhye () along the
Pinega Pinega (russian: Пинега) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, rural locality (a settlement), formerly a town, in Pinezhsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pinega River (hence the name). It ser ...
, Mezen Lands along the Mezen, and Pomorye () on the White Sea coast. The main waterway was the Northern Dvina, and Novgorod merchants used the
Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...
and its tributary, the
Sheksna The Sheksna (russian: Шексна́) is a river in Belozersky, Kirillovsky, Sheksninsky, and Cherepovetsky Districts of Vologda Oblast Vologda Oblast ( rus, Вологодская область, p=vəlɐˈɡotskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ, r=Volog ...
, along the Slavyanka River into Lake Nikolskoye, then the boats were taken by land to Lake Blagoveshchenskoye, from there downstream along the Porozovitsa River into
Lake Kubenskoye Lake Kubenskoye (russian: Кубенское озеро) is a large and shallow lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged i ...
and further to the
Sukhona , image =Suhona, Opoki.JPG , image_size = , image_caption =The Sukhona in the locality of Opoki , source1_location = , mouth = Northern Dvina , mouth_coordinates = , progression = , subdivision_ty ...
and the Northern Dvina.
Portage Portage or portaging (Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and ...

Portage
s from the Northern Dvina Basin led further to the Mezen and the
Pechora Pechora (russian: Печо́ра; kv, Печӧра, ''Pečöra'') is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them var ...
. After the fall of Novgorod in 1478, all these lands became a part of the
Great Duchy of Moscow The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow (russian: Великое Княжество Московское, ''Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye'', also known in English language, English simply as ...
. Until 1703, the Northern Dvina served as the main export trading route of
Muscovy Muscovy is an alternative name for the Grand Duchy of Moscow The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow (russian: Великое княжество Московское, Velikoye knyazhestvo Mosk ...
. The local centers were
Veliky Ustyug Veliky Ustyug (russian: Вели́кий У́стюг) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in dif ...
and Kholmogory; however, during the 17th century, Kholmogory lost its significance, and its role was gradually replaced by
Arkhangelsk Arkhangelsk (, ; rus, Арха́нгельск, p=ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: P ...
. In 1708, when the governorates were established by Tsar
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
, Arkhangelsk became the seat of one of the seven governorates of the Russian Empire. At the same time, Arkhangelsk lands were one of the most remote areas in Russia. This fact was attractive for monks fleeing the crowds. In 1436,
Solovetsky Monastery The Solovetsky Monastery ( rus, Солове́цкий монасты́рь, p=səlɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪj mənɐˈstɨrʲ) is a fortified monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of ...

Solovetsky Monastery
was founded, and it quickly became one of the richest and most influential Russian monasteries. Other monasteries followed. For instance,
Kozheozersky Monastery The Kozheozersky Monastery (russian: Кожеозерский монастырь) is a Russian Orthodox monastery founded by Niphont of Kozheozero and Serapion of Kozheozero in the 1550s. The monastery is located on a peninsula in Lake Kozhozero, in ...
, founded in 1552, still remains one of the most remote
Russian Orthodox , native_name_lang = ru , image = Moscow July 2011-7a.jpg , imagewidth = , alt = , caption = Cathedral of Christ the Saviour The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour ( rus, Храм Хр ...

Russian Orthodox
monasteries. After the
great schism Great Schism may refer to: * East–West Schism, between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church, beginning in 1054 * Western Schism, a split within the Roman Catholic Church that lasted from 1378 to 1417 See also

* Schism, a divis ...
in the Russian Orthodox Church in 1653, the area attracted many
Old Believers Old Believers or Old Ritualists, ''starovery'' or ''staroobryadtsy'' are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the Liturgy, liturgical and ritual practices of the Russian Orthodox Church as they were before the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of M ...
, who were persecuted by the state. Most would later flee to even more remote locations such as
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
. In 1703, with the construction of St. Petersburg, Arkhangelsk, which lacked St. Petersburg's geographical proximity to Europe and the non-freezing harbour of
Murmansk Murmansk ( rus, Му́рманск, p=ˈmurmənsk) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far Far North (Russia), northwest part of Russia. It sits on both slopes and banks of a modest ria or fjord, Kola Bay, an e ...

Murmansk
, lost its significance as the main trading harbour of the Russian Empire. However, in the early 20th century Arkhangelsk was an important starting point for Russian Arctic expeditions. For instance, in the 1830s Pyotr Pakhtusov sailed twice from Arkhangelsk to investigate and map
Novaya Zemlya Novaya Zemlya (, also , ; rus, Но́вая Земля́, p=ˈnovəjə zʲɪmˈlʲa, ) is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea ...

Novaya Zemlya
. In 1932 the icebreaker '' Sibiryakov'' under the command of
Vladimir Voronin Vladimir Voronin (; born 25 May 1941) is a Moldovan politician. He was the third president of Moldova from 2001 until 2009 and has been the General Secretary, First Secretary of the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) since 19 ...
, sailing from Arkhangelsk, crossed the
Northern Sea Route The Northern Sea Route (russian: Се́верный морско́й путь, ''Severnyy morskoy put'', shortened to Севморпуть, ''Sevmorput'') is a shipping route A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used navigable ...
in a single navigation. In 1918 and 1919, Arkhangelsk Governorate became one of the most active battlegrounds of the
Civil War in Russia Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue Civic virtue is the harvesting of habit (psychology), habits important for the success of a society. Closely linked to the concept of citizenship, civic virtue is often conceived as the dedication of citizens ...
. On August 2, 1918, Arkhangelsk was occupied by British and American troops, allied with the
White movement The White movement ( rus, Бѣлое движеніе/Белое движение, r= Beloye dvizheniye, p= ˈbʲɛləɪ dvʲɪˈʐenʲɪɪ) also known as the Whites (Бѣлые/Белые, ''Beliye''), was a loose confederation of anti-communist ...
. Administratively, they established the Northern Oblast with the center in Arkhangelsk. This episode of the Civil War is known as the North Russia Intervention. The troops advanced to the south, occupied the station of Obozerskaya in September 1918, and moving along the Northern Dvina and the
Vaga River , image =Vaga River.jpg , image_size = , image_caption =The Vaga at Rovdino , source1_location = , mouth = Northern Dvina , image = dvina.jpg , image_size = , image_caption ...

Vaga River
s. The southernmost points occupied by the allies were
Shenkursk Shenkursk (russian: Шенку́рск) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Shenkursky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Vaga River. Population: Geography Clima ...
and Verkhnyaya Toyma. The allies were hoping that the
Aleksandr Kolchak Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (russian: link=no, Александр Васильевич Колчак; – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer This list is for recognised pioneering explorers o ...

Aleksandr Kolchak
's forces would move in the direction of
Kotlas Kotlas (russian: Ко́тлас) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Northern Dvina River, Northern Dvina and Vychegda Rivers. Population: Kotlas is the third larg ...

Kotlas
, however, the White Army was unable to advance in this direction. In January 1919, after the Battle of Shenkursk, the allied forces were driven out of the Shenkursk area. Battles around the station of Plesetskaya followed. On February 20, 1920, the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
entered Arkhangelsk. By that time, all allied troops were already evacuated. In the 1930s, the Soviets carried out the same experiments in economics as elsewhere in Soviet Union. The peasants and fishermen were forcibly organized into
collective farms Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise". There are two broad types of communal farms: Agricultural cooperatives, in which member-own ...
. These were heavily subsidized, which eventually brought the agriculture to the collapse in the 1990s, when the subsidies stopped. Arkhangelsk Oblast was and remains attractive as an area for exile, forcible resettlement, and prison camps. Actually, the first prison camp, Solovki Prison Camp, was created in 1920 on the premises of the former Solovetsky Monastery.
Novaya Zemlya Novaya Zemlya (, also , ; rus, Но́вая Земля́, p=ˈnovəjə zʲɪmˈlʲa, ) is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea ...

Novaya Zemlya
from the 1950s, when its population (mostly the Nenets) was strongly recommended to leave, became the military ground for nuclear bomb testing. Arkhangelsk Oblast proper was established in 1937. Before 1991, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: the first secretary of the Arkhangelsk Oblast
CPSU The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Abbreviated in Russian as КПСС or ''KPSS''. was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the One-party state, sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 19 ...
Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
(legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). In 1991 the
CPSU The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Abbreviated in Russian as КПСС or ''KPSS''. was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the One-party state, sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 19 ...
lost all power. The head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor, came to be elected or appointed. The economic crisis of 1990s, after the
fall of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, e ...
, struck Arkhangelsk Oblast very badly. Although there remains a strong demand for timber, the basis of the oblast's economy, the population of Arkhangelsk Oblast has steadily declined, especially in rural areas. Many villages either have been deserted, or are on the verge of disappearing.


Politics

During the
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Arkhangelsk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the highest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Arkhangelsk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Arkhangelsk Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the
Constitution of Russia The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on . Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the ea ...
.


First secretaries of the Arkhangelsk Oblast CPSU Committee

In the period when they were the most important authority in the oblast (1937 to 1991), the following first secretaries were appointed *1937 Dmitry Alexeyevich Kontorin, executed during the
Great Purge The Great Purge or the Great Terror (russian: Большой террор), also known as the Year of '37 (russian: 37-ой год, translit=Tridtsat sedmoi god, label=none) and the Yezhovshchina ('period of Nikolay Yezhov, Yezhov'), was Gene ...
; *1937–1939 Alexander Filippovich Nikanorov, executed during the Great Purge; *1939–1945 Georgy Petrovich Ogorodnikov; *1945–1948 Boris Fyodorovich Nikolayev; *1948–1955 Ivan Sergeyevich Latunov; *1955–1960 Savely Prokhorovich Loginov; *1960–1967 Konstantin Alexandrovich Novikov; *1967–1983 Boris Veniaminovich Popov; *1983–1989 Pyotr Maksimovich Telepnyov; *1989–1990 Yuriy Alexandrovich Guskov; *1990–1991 Anatoly Ivanovich Gromoglasov.


Governors

Since 1991, governors were sometimes appointed, and sometimes elected, *1991–1996 Pavel Nikolayevich Balakshin, head of the administration, appointed; *1996 Valentin Stepanovich Vlasov, acting head of the administration; *1996–2004 , elected; *2004–2008 Nikolay Kiselyov, elected; *2008–2012 Ilya Mikhalchuk, appointed; *2012– Igor Anatolyevich Orlov, acting governor, subsequently appointed.


Administrative divisions

The oblast is administratively divided into six city of federal subject significance, cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction (
Arkhangelsk Arkhangelsk (, ; rus, Арха́нгельск, p=ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: P ...
, Koryazhma,
Kotlas Kotlas (russian: Ко́тлас) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Northern Dvina River, Northern Dvina and Vychegda Rivers. Population: Kotlas is the third larg ...

Kotlas
, Novodvinsk, Onega, Russia, Onega, and
Severodvinsk Severodvinsk ( rus, Северодвинск, p=sʲɪvʲɪrɐdˈvʲinsk) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city in the north of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located in the river delta, delta of the Northern Dvina River, west of Arkhang ...
), one closed city, city under the federal jurisdiction (Mirny, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Mirny), twenty-one districts (one of which is
Novaya Zemlya Novaya Zemlya (, also , ; rus, Но́вая Земля́, p=ˈnovəjə zʲɪmˈlʲa, ) is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea ...

Novaya Zemlya
), and two island territories (
Franz Josef Land Franz Josef Land, Frantz Iosef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land ( rus, Земля́ Фра́нца-Ио́сифа, r=Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa, no, Fridtjof Nansen Land) is a Russian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. It is inhabited on ...
and Victoria Island (Russian Arctic), Victoria Island). Another six towns (
Kargopol Kargopol (russian: Ка́ргополь) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Kargopolsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on both sides of the Onega River, several miles north of Lak ...
, Mezen, Mezensky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Mezen, Nyandoma,
Shenkursk Shenkursk (russian: Шенку́рск) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Shenkursky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Vaga River. Population: Geography Clima ...
,
Solvychegodsk Solvychegodsk (russian: Сольвычего́дск, lit. "salt on the Vychegda River") is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to dist ...
, and Velsk) have the status of the towns of district significance.
Nenets Autonomous Okrug Nenets Autonomous Okrug (russian: Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг; Nenets languages, Nenets: Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, ''Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk'') is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subjec ...
, which is administratively subordinated to the oblast, is administratively divided into one district (Zapolyarny District) and one town of okrug significance (Naryan-Mar).


Restricted access

Huge areas within the limits of the oblast are included in the Border Security Zone of Russia, border security zone, intended to protect the Borders of Russia, borders of the Russian Federation from unwanted activity. These restricted areas include all islands in the
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major s. It spans an area of approximately and is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some call it the Arctic Medit ...

Arctic Ocean
and in
Barents Sea The Barents Sea ( , also ; no, Barentshavet, ; russian: Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, ...
, Morzhovets Island, and most of the White Sea coast in Mezensky District. In particular, the area includes the town of Mezen, Mezensky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Mezen and the urban type settlement of Kamenka, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Kamenka. In order to visit the zone, a permit issued by the local Federal Security Service (Russia), FSB department is required.


Economy


Industry

Arkhangelsk Oblast is one of the industrial regions of Russia. The region has a developed fishery, forestry, woodworking, cellulose, and paper industry. There are large reserves of natural resources: Lumber, oil, bauxite, titanium, gold, manganese, and basalt. In 2011, the paper production and related industries were responsible for 55% of all industrial production of the Oblast, food production – 11%, timber processing (excluding paper production) and furniture production – 12%. The principal industrial enterprises in Arkhangelsk Oblast are shipyards in Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk (including
Sevmash JSC PO Sevmash ( rus, ОАО «ПО „Севмаш“», Севмаш, СМПСМП, "Severodvinsk Machine Building Plant") is a Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic ...

Sevmash
), pulp and paper mills in Koryazhma and Novodvinsk, and bauxite extraction plant in Severoonezhsk. Almost any town has some timber works.


Agriculture

Fishery traditionally was the main means of subsistence in the Pomor villages at the White Sea coast. During the
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
times, the fishermen were organized into Collective farming, collective and state farms (Sovkhoz's) and the fishery was heavily subsidized. In the 1990s the subsidies were stopped, and the fishery went into a serious crisis, some of the villages were deserted. In the valleys of the main rivers, there is some cattle breeding and crop and potato growing, which is, however, difficult because of the cold climate. Ustyansky District is notable for bee-keeping. Two notable breeds originate from Arkhangelsk Oblast. The Kholmogory cattle, from Kholmogory and Arkhangelsk countryside, mostly black and white, was particularly stable against cold climate in Northern Russia and eventually spread well beyond the Arkhangelsk Region. The Mezen horses, bred in the Mezen River valley, are rather small but suitable for difficult work and easily survive cold winters.


Transportation

The area of current Arkhangelsk Oblast has always been located on the trading routes connecting central Russia to the White Sea, and, in fact, in the 17th century the White Sea was the main sea export route for Russia. The whole course of the Northern Dvina is navigable, as well as the lower course of some of its tributaries, most notably the Vychegda, the Vaga, and the Pinega. The Mezen is also navigable in the lower course. The Onega is not navigable except for the two relatively short stretches because of the rapids. However, except for the lower course of the Vychegda and some parts of the Northern Dvina, there is currently very little or no regular passenger navigation on these rivers. They are used for cargo traffic though. In 1765, a road was built between Saint-Petersburg and Arkhangelsk, mainly for postal service. The road still exists and passes
Kargopol Kargopol (russian: Ка́ргополь) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Kargopolsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on both sides of the Onega River, several miles north of Lak ...
and Plesetsk, and it has been paved in 2011. One of the principal highways in Russia, M8 highway (Russia), M8, connects Moscow and Arkhangelsk, and passes Velsk. This highway is paved and heavily used. In general, the road network is grossly underdeveloped. Only several all-season highways, in addition to M8, cross the oblast boundaries: the one (partially unpaved) connecting Kotlas with Syktyvkar; the one (paved) connecting Kotlas to
Veliky Ustyug Veliky Ustyug (russian: Вели́кий У́стюг) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in dif ...
and eventually with Vologda and Nikolsk, Vologda Oblast, Nikolsk, the one (paved) from Konosha southwards, and two (unpaved) from Kargopol to Pudozh and to Solza and Belozersk. Most of the local roads are unpaved. Until 2008, there were no all-season roads connecting the main road network with the north-east of the oblast, including the town of Mezen and the selo of Leshukonskoye, and there are still no roads into the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, on the left bank of the Onega downstream from Severoonezhsk, and very few roads on the right bank of the Northern Dvina. Many rivers can only be crossed by ferry boats, which means they cannot be crossed during the ice melting period. There is regular bus service on the main roads. The principal railway line in the oblast is the railroad connecting Moscow and Arkhangelsk. The piece between Vologda and Arkhangelsk was constructed in 1890s and passed through previously uninhabited areas between the valleys of the Northern Dvina and the Onega. The railroad construction gave the momentum to the population and exploitation of these areas. A branch from Konosha eastwards to
Kotlas Kotlas (russian: Ко́тлас) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Northern Dvina River, Northern Dvina and Vychegda Rivers. Population: Kotlas is the third larg ...

Kotlas
and further to Vorkuta was constructed in the 1940s to facilitate the transport of coal from the
Komi Republic The Komi Republic (russian: Республика Коми; kv, Коми Республика), sometimes simply referred to as Komi, is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federat ...
. From Kotlas, another branch continues south to Kirov, Kirov Oblast, Kirov. A branch from Obozersky to the west, to Onega, Russia, Onega and further to Belomorsk, was built during World War II to secure the transport of goods from the harbour of
Murmansk Murmansk ( rus, Му́рманск, p=ˈmurmənsk) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far Far North (Russia), northwest part of Russia. It sits on both slopes and banks of a modest ria or fjord, Kola Bay, an e ...

Murmansk
to central Russia. A piece of railroad between Arkhangelsk and Karpogory was also built in the 1970s and is expected to become part of the Belkomur project — a railway line connecting Arkhangelsk via the
Komi Republic The Komi Republic (russian: Республика Коми; kv, Коми Республика), sometimes simply referred to as Komi, is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federat ...
with the Perm Krai and the Ural mountains. Almost the entire rail network belongs to the Northern Railway (Russia), Northern Railway, which west of Onega, Russia, Onega connects to the Oktyabrskaya Railway. There is also a railway line from Severoonezhsk west to Yangory (an extension of the line from Puksa to Navolok), which belongs to the Department of Corrections. A big number of narrow gauge railways have been built in the 1950s and 1960s to facilitate the transport of timber, but since then most of these became unprofitable and have been destroyed. In the 1970s and 1980s the aviation was active, with all district centers connected to Arkhangelsk with regular flights,
Kotlas Kotlas (russian: Ко́тлас) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Northern Dvina River, Northern Dvina and Vychegda Rivers. Population: Kotlas is the third larg ...

Kotlas
being the second important hub. Currently, it has almost disappeared. There are two airports in Arkhangelsk, but regular local flights are only carried out to the destinations which do not have rail or road connections, such as
Novaya Zemlya Novaya Zemlya (, also , ; rus, Но́вая Земля́, p=ˈnovəjə zʲɪmˈlʲa, ) is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea ...

Novaya Zemlya
, Solovetsky Islands, the
Nenets Autonomous Okrug Nenets Autonomous Okrug (russian: Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг; Nenets languages, Nenets: Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, ''Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk'') is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subjec ...
, the
Onega Peninsula The Onega Peninsula is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It protrudes into the White Sea, with Onega Bay to the south-west, and Dvina Bay to the north-east. The length of the peninsula is about , and the width varies between and . Geograph ...
, and the north of the oblast. The exceptions with functioning airports are Mezen Airport, Mezen, Leshukonskoye Airport, Leshukonskoye, and Onega Airport, Onega. The oil transport system, Baltic Pipeline System, runs through the oblast, with two oil-pumping station located at Urdoma and Privodino. The Kudemskaya narrow-gauge railway in 2010 has appeared in Forbes ranking, of 10 most beautiful railway routes of the world. *The Konetsgorskaya narrow gauge railway for hauling felled logs operates in the Vinogradovsky District. *The Loyginskaya narrow gauge railway for hauling felled logs operates in the Ustyansky District. *The Nyubskaya narrow gauge railway for hauling felled logs operates in the Kotlassky District. *The Udimskaya narrow gauge railway for hauling felled logs operates in the Kotlassky District. *The Zelennikovskaya narrow gauge railway for hauling felled logs operates in the Verkhnetoyemsky District.


Demographics

Population: Ethnic composition (2010): *Russians: 95.6% *Ukrainians: 1.4% * Nenets: 0.6% *Belarusians: 0.5% *Komi people, Komi: 0.4% *Tatars: 0.2% *Others: 1.3% *25,682 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. Vital statistics for 2007 (see Total fertility rates by federal subjects of Russia#Natural Growth by Federal Subjects in 2007): *Birth rate: 11.77 per 1000 (Average for Russia is 11.30) *Death rate: 14.67 per 1000 *Net immigration: -3.7 per 1000 *NGR: -0.29% per Year *PGR: -0.66% per Year *Births (2008): 15,404 *Deaths (2008): 18,653 ;2012 *Births: 15 470 (12.8 per 1000) *Deaths: 16 415 (13.5 per 1000) *Total fertility rate: 1.76 A notable subgroup of Russian population are the Pomors, who reside along the White Sea coast and in the valleys of major rivers, speak Pomor dialects and are in fact the descendants of the Novgorod population who colonized the Russian North in 12th–13th centuries. In 2002 Census, approximately 6,500 residents of Arkhangelsk Oblast indicated their ethnicity as Pomors.


Settlements


Religion

According to a 2012 survey 29.1% of the population of Arkhangelsk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% are nondenominational Christianity, unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of other Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox churches, 1% adheres to the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery). In addition, 32% of the population declared to be "spiritual but not religious", 16% is atheism, atheist, and 17.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.


Arts and culture


Architecture

Arkhangelsk Oblast is famous for its wooden buildings which include churches, chapels, peasant houses and farms, and city houses. The choice of wood as the construction material is natural for a region almost exclusively covered by
taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (d ...

taiga
and still being one of the biggest timber producers. Some of these buildings date from the 17th century. Churches and chapels are considered particularly fine, and almost all of these constructed prior to 1920s have been declared the cultural heritage at the federal or local levels. More than 600 buildings (both of timber and stone) are protected on the federal level. An open-air ethnographic museum was open in the village of Malye Korely close to Arkhangelsk, with the purpose of preserving this heritage. The most notable wooden churches are triple church ensembles, which consist of two churches (a bigger, not heated, church used in the summer, a smaller, heated church used in the winter, and a bell-tower). Not more than a dozen of these triple wooden ensembles survived, the best known being the one located in the Kizhi Pogost in the
Republic of Karelia The Republic of Karelia (russian: Респу́блика Каре́лия, Respublika Kareliya, rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə; krl, Karjalan tazavaldu; fi, Karjalan tasavalta; vep, Karjalan Tazovaldkund), or Karelia (russian: Кар ...
and is classified as World Heritage. Most of these ensembles are located in the Arkhangelsk Oblast, in particular, in the villages of Varzogory and Abramovskaya, Onezhsky District, Abramovskaya (Onezhsky District). Other notable wooden churches are located in Kargopolsky (Oshevenskoye, Krasnaya Lyaga, Saunino and others), Verkhnetoyemsky District, Verkhnetoyemsky (Soyezerskaya Pustyn), Onezhsky, Primorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Primorsky, and Plesetsky District, Plesetsky (Porzhensky Pogost) districts. Despite being listed as cultural heritage, most of these buildings are neglected and regularly burn down. As a matter of fact, the majority of the churches considered as masterpieces has been lost. For instance, Verkhnemudyugsky Pogost in Onezhsky District, a triple church ensemble, burned down in 1997. A church and the bell-tower of the triple ensemble in Lyadiny (
Kargopolsky District Kargopolsky District (russian: Каргопо́льский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the administrative divisions of Arkhangelsk Oblast, twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.Law #65-5-OZ As a subdivisions of R ...
) burned down on May 6, 2013. The oblast preserves some of the best stone architectural ensembles in Russia. The ensemble of the
Solovetsky Monastery The Solovetsky Monastery ( rus, Солове́цкий монасты́рь, p=səlɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪj mənɐˈstɨrʲ) is a fortified monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of ...

Solovetsky Monastery
(founded 1436, the earliest surviving buildings stem from the 16th century) has been designated as the World Heritage. The town of
Kargopol Kargopol (russian: Ка́ргополь) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Kargopolsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on both sides of the Onega River, several miles north of Lak ...
contains a number of white-stone churches, the earliest of which, the Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ (Kargopol), Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ, originates from 1552. The Presentation Church (Solvychegodsk), Presentation Church (1688–1712) in
Solvychegodsk Solvychegodsk (russian: Сольвычего́дск, lit. "salt on the Vychegda River") is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to dist ...
is an acclaimed baroque masterpiece and one of the five surviving Stroganovs#Origins, Stroganov baroque churches. Two of the towns in the oblast – Kargopol and Solvychegodsk – are classified as historical towns by the Ministry of Culture of Russian Federation, which implies certain restrictions on construction in their historical centers.


Arts

The monasteries facilitated the development of icon painting which existed in the area well until the 19th century. No single unified icon style arose, and icons produced in current Arkhangelsk and Vologda Oblasts are commonly known as Northern icon painting (''Северные письма''). Icons were produced in Solovetsky Monastery, Solovetsky, Antoniev Siysky Monastery, Antoniev Siysky, Kozheozersky Monastery, Kozheozersky and other monasteries, as well as in the towns of Kholmogory and Solvychegodsk. Solvychegodsk icon painting was sponsored by Stroganovs and generated the Stroganov icon painting school, which in the end of the 17th century was principally active in Moscow. The icon-painting techniques were transferred to the traditional wood painting known since the 17th century in the valleys of the Northern Dvina (Nizhnetoyemsky Selsoviet, Nizhnyaya Toyma, Borok, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Borok, Puchuga, Permogorye), the Pinega, and the Mezen. It was used to decorate various wooden surfaces such as, for example, spinning distaffs or Chest (furniture), chests, and employed geometrical figures as well as images of plants, animals, and humans. The Arkhangelsk traditional wooden painting is special since the surface was prepared in a particular way before the painting started, similar to icons. Despite the fact that several notable Russian artists including Vasily Vereshchagin traveled into the region in the 19th century, professional (non-icon) painting did not develop in Arkhangelsk until the 1890s. Aleksandr Borisov (painter), Aleksandr Borisov, Stepan Pisakhov, and Tyko Vylka, all of them landscape painters interested in Northern and Arctic landscapes, are considered as the founders of Arkhangelsk painting. Various handicrafts were developed in the area. The most notable ones are the Kholmogory bone carving, existing since the 17th century, and Kargopol toys, moulded painted clay figures of people and animals.


Literature

Like other areas of Northern Russia, Arkhangelsk Oblast is notable for its folklore. Until the mid-20th century, fairy tales and bylinas were still performed on a daily basis by professional performers, some of whom, like Mariya Krivopolenova, achieved prominence in Moscow and St. Petersburg. One of the first Arkhangelsk folklore collectors was Alexander Hilferding, who actually died in
Kargopol Kargopol (russian: Ка́ргополь) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Kargopolsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on both sides of the Onega River, several miles north of Lak ...
during his journey. Starting from the 1890s, folkloric expeditions were organized to the White Sea area, and later to other areas of the Arkhangelsk Governorate, in order to write down the tales and the bylinas, in particular, in Pomor dialects. In the 1920s, mostly due to the efforts of Anna Astakhova, these expeditions became systematic. The results have been published. By the 1960s, the performing art was basically extinct. However, these folkloric motives and fairy tales inspired the literary works of Stepan Pisakhov and Boris Shergin, who were both natives of Arkhangelsk. Protopope Avvakum, a 17th-century monk, who led the opposition (''raskol'') against the reforms of the Russian Orthodox Church, was exiled to Mézens, Mezen for two years in 1664, and in 1667 was imprisoned in Pustozyorsk, currently in Nenets Autonomous Okrug, for 14 years before being burned alive. Avvakum is an author of about sixty literary works, including the ''Life of Avvakum'', most of which were written in Pustozyorsk and are considered among the most notable Russian literary pieces of the 17th century. Mikhail Lomonosov, a polymath and poet who created the basis of the modern Russian language, Russian literary language, was born in 1711 in the village of Denisovka, close to Kholmogory, though he left the area to pursue his studies at the age of 18 and spent most of his career in Moscow and Saint-Petersburg. Denisovka was later renamed into Lomonosovo in his honour. Aleksey Chapygin, a historical novelist, was born in what is now Kargopol District. His first novels describe the peasant life of the Arkhangelsk Governorate. In the 20th century, two of the authors of the Village prose movement in Soviet literature, which predominantly described rural life, were tightly connected with Arkhangelsk Region: Fyodor Abramov was born in the peasant family in the village of Verkola in Pinezhsky Uyezd, and Aleksander Yashin lived in Arkhangelsk for some time. In their literary works, as well as in the works of Yury Kazakov, a short story writer who traveled extensively in the Russian North, the life of Arkhangelsk peasants features prominently. The name of one of the Kazakov's books of short stories is ''Poedemte v Lopshengu'' — Let us go to Lopshenga; Lopshenga is a selo on the White Sea coast. Some of the Nenets Literature, Nenets authors lived in Nenets Autonomous Okrug. In particular, Tyko Vylka was born in Novaya Zemlya and was even the chairman of the Novaya Zemlya Island
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
. Vasily Ledkov lived in Naryan Mar.


Sports

One sport in which the oblast achieved prominence is bandy. The Vodnik Arkhangelsk, Vodnik Bandy Club from Arkhangelsk has become the Russian champion nine times (1996–2000 and 2002–2005) and won the Bandy World Cup in 2003 and 2004. Arkhangelsk hosted the 1999 Bandy World Championship and the same in 2003 Bandy World Championship, 2003.


Emergency handling

In 1998, the Arkhangelsk Regional Rescue Service was established by the governor. The responsibility of the Rescue Service is to handle emergency situations, such as forest fires. Polar bears are entering into human-occupied areas more frequently than in the past due to climate change effects. Global warming reduces sea-ice, forcing bears to come in to land to find food. An 2019 mass invasion of Russian polar bears, invasion of polar bears took place in February 2019 in northeastern
Novaya Zemlya Novaya Zemlya (, also , ; rus, Но́вая Земля́, p=ˈnovəjə zʲɪmˈlʲa, ) is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea ...

Novaya Zemlya
, with dozens of
polar bear The polar bear (''Ursus Ursus is Latin for bear. It may also refer to: Animals *Ursus (mammal), ''Ursus'' (mammal), a genus of bears People * Ursus of Aosta, 6th-century evangelist * Ursus of Auxerre, 6th-century bishop * Ursus of Soloth ...

polar bear
s seen entering homes, public buildings, and inhabited areas. Arkhangelsk regional authorities declared a state of emergency.


References


Notes


Sources

* *


External links


Official website of Arkhangelsk Oblast
* * {{Use mdy dates, date=June 2012 Arkhangelsk Oblast, Northwestern Federal District States and territories established in 1937 1937 establishments in Russia