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Arabic Afrikaans (, ) was a form of
Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 5 ...
written in
Arabic script
Arabic script
. It began in the 1830s in the
madrasa Madrasa (, also , ; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental count ...

madrasa
in
Cape Town Cape Town (: Kaapstad ; : ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in , after , and also the legislative of . Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the of the province and forms part of the . The is situated in Cape Town. The othe ...

Cape Town
. Beside a 16th century manuscript of the
German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultu ...

German language
written with Arabic script, it is the only known Germanic language to have been written in an
Arabic script
Arabic script
.


Texts

Seventy-four Arabic Afrikaans texts are extant. The earliest, the "Hidyat al-Islam", is dated 1845, though its source manuscript no longer exists. The oldest surviving manuscript, which describes the basic Islamic learning, was written by the
imam Imam (; ar, إمام '; plural: ') is an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah ...
Abdul-Kahhar ibn Abdul-Malik in 1868. The most professional version was written in 1869 by
Abu Bakr Effendi Sheikh Sheikh ( , ; ar, شيخ ' , mostly pronounced , plural ' )—also transliteration of Arabic, transliterated sheekh, sheik, sheyikh, shaykh, shayk, shekh, shaik and shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language. It commonly des ...

Abu Bakr Effendi
, who came from
Istanbul Istanbul ( , ; tr, İstanbul ), formerly known as Constantinople, is the List of largest cities and towns in Turkey, largest city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. The city straddles the Bosporus strait, and lie ...

Istanbul
to the Cape in 1862.


''Uiteensetting van die Godsdiens''

One of the best examples of this literature was ''Uiteensetting van die Godsdiens'' ("Exposition of the Religion"), a book laying out
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
ic traditions according to the
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
religious law. Written by
Abu Bakr Effendi Sheikh Sheikh ( , ; ar, شيخ ' , mostly pronounced , plural ' )—also transliteration of Arabic, transliterated sheekh, sheik, sheyikh, shaykh, shayk, shekh, shaik and shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language. It commonly des ...

Abu Bakr Effendi
, it was printed using Arabic script throughout, but contained transcriptions of Afrikaans. According to one of the three experts in this field, the German Hans Kähler, about 20 people were responsible for the text, but the most important contributors to Arabic Afrikaans opinion were: *Abdul Kahhar ibn Hajji Abdul Malik (early 19th century) *Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Baha ud-Din (mid-19th century) *Ismail ibn Muhammad Hanif (mid-19th century) *Abd ur-Rahman ibn Muhammad Al-Iraqi (late 19th century), and *Abu Bakr Effendi (late 19th century). This is a paragraph of the book ''Uiteensetting van die godsdiens'': *Transcription of the Arabic-alphabet text. The italics mark Arabic-language words: *:Iek bagent diesie ''kitab'' met Allah (''ta'ala'') sain naam. Allah (''ta'ala'') es ''rizq'' giefar ien ''dunya'' fer al wat liefandag ies. Allah (''ta'ala'') es beriengar ien die ''gannat'' ien dag ''ahirat'' fer al die miesie an djinns wat oewhap ''iman'' gadoet het. Al die dank an parais es rieg fer Allah (''ta'ala'') alien. Allah (''ta'ala'') het gagief fer oewhans Islam sain ''agama''. Islam sain ''agama'' oek waas gawies fantefoewhar Ibrahim sain ''agama''... An Allah (''ta'ala'') het gamaak die Qur'an ''rasulullah'' sain hadit fer seker ''dalil'' fer oewhans... An Allah (''ta'ala'') het galaat oewhans wiet die riegtie wieg fan die ''ilm''s an gahelp fer oewhans oewham ta lier ander miesie oewhap die riegtie manierie. *Translation into modern standard Afrikaans: *:Ek begin hierdie boek met Allah (hy is verhewe) se naam. Allah (h.i.v.) is onderhouer in die wêreld vir al wat lewendig is. Allah (h.i.v.) is bringer in die paradys in die laaste dag vir al die mense en djinns wat oop iman gedoen het (m.a.w. in die geloof gesterwe het). Al die dank en prys is reg vir Allah (h.i.v.) alleen. Allah het gegee vir ons Islam se godsdiens. Islam se godsdiens ook was gewees vantevore Abraham se godsdiens...En Allah (h.i.v.) het gemaak die Koran en die profeet se hadit vir seker bewys vir ons...En Allah (h.i.v.) het gelaat ons weet die regte weg van die godsdienswetenskappe en gehelp vir ons om te leer ander mense op die regte manier. The Arabic-alphabet version uses an Arabic word in several places where modern Afrikaans uses a Germanic word, e.g. ''dunya'' دنيا for ''wêreld,'' meaning "world". The Arabic words are entirely unknown in Afrikaans. Without the above ''Translation into modern standard Afrikaans'' (which is in itself not standard Afrikaans although much closer to it), it is nearly impossible for an Afrikaans-speaking person to understand the above ''Transcription of the Arabic-alphabet text''. Some words do however appear to resemble phonetic transliterations between Arabic script and the version of Afrikaans spoken by Cape Coloured people, mixed with Dutch. Islam arrived among the Malays during the early 15th century and these works were most likely teaching tools; a way for Muslim teachers to instruct Malay slaves in the Cape while not necessarily being able to speak Dutch very well or at all.


Qur'an

An example that used Arabic vowels was a handwritten Arabic–Afrikaans bilingual
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
(perhaps written in the 1880s). In it, for example,
Sura A ''surah'' (; ar, سورة, sūrah) is the equivalent of "chapter" in the Quran, Qur'an. There are 114 ''surahs'' in the Quran, each divided into ''ayah, ayats'' (verses). The chapters or ''surahs'' are of unequal length; the shortest surah (' ...

Sura
h
67
67
,
Ayah
Ayah
1 says:Michael Cook, ''The Koran, A Very Short Introduction'', Oxford:
Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for fre ...

Oxford University Press
, 2000, , p. 93
(° = vowel sign missing, ň = /ŋ/ as in "king", ʿ =
ayn
ayn
, underlined = in Arabic.) Here in the Afrikaans text: * ''ň'' is written as
ayn
ayn
but with three dots above * ''v'' is written as * ''f'' in "fir" has both an vowel and an vowel. * The letter of prolongation in ' and ' has
sukūn The Arabic script has numerous diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assem ...
. * The Afrikaans
preposition Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark various (''of'', ''for''). A pre ...
''by'' is written as part of the next word, likely by copying Arabic language usage with some prepositions. * The Afrikaans word ''al'' = "
all All or ALL may refer to: Language * All, an indefinite pronoun An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun which does not have a specific familiar referent. Indefinite pronouns are in contrast to definiteness, definite pronouns. Indefinite pronouns can ...
" is written as part of the next word, likely by copying Arabic language usage with ''-'' = "
the ''The'' () is a grammatical article in English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers, or speakers. It is the definite article in English. ''The'' is the m ...

the
".


References

* "Abu Bakr se 'Uiteensetting van die Godsdiens'", A. van Selms, 1979, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Oxford/New York. (online versio


See also

*
Islam in South Africa Islam in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . Sout ...
*
Aljamiado ''Aljamiado'' (; ; ar, عَجَمِيَة trans. ''ʿajamiyah'' ) or ''Aljamía'' texts are manuscripts that use the Arabic script for transcribing European languages, especially Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin ...

Aljamiado
*
Cape Malays Cape Malays () also known as Cape Muslims or Malays, are a Muslim community or ethnic group in South Africa. They are the descendants of enslaved and free Muslims from different parts of the world who lived at the Cape during Dutch Cape Colony, D ...
{{Arabic alphabets Afrikaans Arabic alphabets Islam in South Africa