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The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a
system of mountains
system of mountains
in eastern
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the
Ordovician Period The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period and system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, ...

Ordovician Period
. They once reached elevations similar to those of the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
and the
Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similari ...

Rocky Mountains
before experiencing natural erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east–west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most
highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: ...

highway
s and
railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehicles run on a prepared flat surface ...

railroad
s running east–west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians. The
United States Geological Survey The United States Geological Survey, abbreviated USGS and formerly simply known as the Geological Survey, is a scientific government agency, agency of the Federal government of the United States, United States government. The scientists of the ...
(USGS) defines the ''Appalachian Highlands'' physiographic division as consisting of thirteen provinces: the Atlantic Coast Uplands, Eastern Newfoundland Atlantic, Maritime Acadian Highlands,
Maritime PlainThe Maritime Plain is a physiographic province A physiographic province is a geographic region with a characteristic geomorphology, and often specific subsurface rock type or structural elements. The continents are subdivided into various physiograp ...
, Notre Dame and Mégantic Mountains, Western Newfoundland Mountains,
Piedmont Piedmont ( ; it, Piemonte, ; Piedmontese language, Piedmontese, Lombard language, Lombard, Occitan language, Occitan and frp, Piemont, , , french: Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the regions of Italy, 20 regions of the country. ...
, Blue Ridge, Valley and Ridge, Saint Lawrence Valley,
Appalachian Plateau The Appalachian Plateau is a series of rugged dissected plateau A dissected plateau is a plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth scie ...
s, and
New England provinceThe New England province is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division of eastern North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can al ...
. One should be careful to note that the Appalachians do not include the
Adirondack Mountains The Adirondack Mountains () form a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, movement of the cr ...
. The Adirondacks are a part of the
Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield (french: Bouclier canadien ), also called the Laurentian Plateau, is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks ( geologic shield) that forms the ancient geologic core of the North American ...

Canadian Shield
and belong to the
Grenville Orogeny The Grenville orogeny was a long-lived Mesoproterozoic mountain-building event associated with the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. Its record is a prominent Orogeny, orogenic belt which spans a significant portion of the North American co ...
; they are a distinct and growing range separate from the Appalachians.


Overview

The mountain range is mostly in the United States (U.S.) but it extends into southeastern
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
, forming a zone from wide, running from the island of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
southwestward to
Central Alabama Central Alabama is the region in the state of Alabama that stretches 170 miles (270 km) from its western border with Mississippi to the eastern border with Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia and 136 miles (219 km) from the n ...
in the United States. The range covers parts of the islands of
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon (), officially the Territorial Collectivity of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (french: link=no, Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon ), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity The France, ...

Saint Pierre and Miquelon
, which comprise an overseas territory of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
. The system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around . The highest of the group is
Mount Mitchell Mount Mitchell, known in Cherokee as Attakulla, is the highest peak of the Appalachian Mountains and the highest peak in mainland eastern North America. It is located near Burnsville, North Carolina, Burnsville in Yancey County, North Carolina, Y ...
in
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
at , which is the highest point in the United States east of the
Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and b ...

Mississippi River
. The term ''Appalachian'' refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range. Most broadly, it refers to the entire mountain range with its surrounding hills and the dissected plateau region. The term is often used more restrictively to refer to regions in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, usually including areas in the states of
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
,
Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...

Tennessee
,
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
,
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Maryland
,
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
, and
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
, as well as sometimes extending as far south as northern
Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat = Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery , LargestCity = Birmin ...

Alabama
,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
and western
South Carolina South Carolina () is a U.S. state, state in the coastal Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia ...

South Carolina
, and as far north as
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
, southern and east central
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
, Lower
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
and the Southern Tier region of New York. The
Ouachita Mountains The Ouachita Mountains (), simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges wi ...

Ouachita Mountains
in
Arkansas Arkansas () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, home to more than three million people as of 2018. Its name is from the Osage language, a Dhegihan languages, Dhegiha Siouan la ...

Arkansas
and
Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New ...
were originally part of the Appalachians as well but became disconnected through geologic history.


Origin of the name

While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
village near present-day
Tallahassee, Florida Tallahassee ( ) is the capital city of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Leon County, Florida, Leon County. Tallahassee became the capital of Florida, then the Florida Territory, in 1824. In ...

Tallahassee, Florida
whose name they transcribed as ''Apalchen'' or ''Apalachen'' . The name was soon altered by the Spanish to
Apalachee The Apalachee are a Native American people who historically lived in the Florida Panhandle The Florida Panhandle (also West Florida and Northwest Florida) is the northwestern part of the U.S. state of Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. s ...

Apalachee
and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north.
Pánfilo de Narváez Pánfilo de Narváez (; 147?–1528) was a Spanish '' conquistador'' and soldier in the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America South America is ...
's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, and applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian," it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of ''Apalchen'' is on Diego Gutierrez's map of 1562; the first use for the mountain range is the map of Jacques le Moyne de Morgues in 1565. The name was not commonly used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and often more popular name was the "
Allegheny Mountains The Allegheny Mountain Range , informally the Alleghenies and also spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the Eastern United States 300px, This video was taken by the crew of ISS. The pass goes ove ...
", "Alleghenies", and even "Alleghania". In the early 19th century,
Washington Irving Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short-story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories " Rip Van Winkle" (1819) and " The Lege ...

Washington Irving
proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U.S. dialects in the southern regions of the Appalachians, the word is pronounced , with the third syllable sounding like "latch". In northern parts of the mountain range, it is pronounced or ; the third syllable is like "lay", and the fourth "chins" or "shins". There is often great debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a commonly accepted pronunciation for the adjective ''Appalachian'' is , with the last two syllables "-ian" pronounced as in the word "Romanian".


Geography


Regions

The whole system may be divided into three great sections: * ''Northern'': The northern section runs from the
Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three t ...
of
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North Am ...
to the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
. It includes the
Long Range Mountains The Long Range Mountains are a series of mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, ...
and Annieopsquotch Mountains on the island of Newfoundland,
Chic-Choc Mountains The Chic-Choc Mountains, also spelled Shick Shocks, is a mountain range in the central region of the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec, Canada. It is a part of the Notre Dame Mountains, which is a continuation of the Appalachian Mountains. History The n ...
and Notre Dame Range in Quebec and New Brunswick, scattered elevations and small ranges elsewhere in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the Longfellow Mountains in Maine, the
White MountainsWhite Mountains may refer to: Mountain ranges ;Afghanistan and Pakistan *White Mountains (Safed Koh) ;Australia *White Mountains National Park, in Queensland ;Greece *White Mountains (Lefka Ori), on the island of Crete ;United States *White Mountai ...
in New Hampshire, the
Green Mountains The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U.S. state of Vermont. The range runs primarily south to north and extends approximately from the border with Massachusetts to the border with Quebec, Canada. The part of the same range that is in ...

Green Mountains
in Vermont, and
The Berkshires The Berkshires () are a highland geologic region located in the western parts of Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United ...
in Massachusetts and Connecticut. The Metacomet Ridge Mountains in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts, although contained within the Appalachian province, is a younger system and not geologically associated with the Appalachians. The
Monteregian Hills The Monteregian Hills (french: Collines Montérégiennes) is a linear chain of isolated hills in Montreal and Montérégie, between the Laurentian mountains, Laurentians and the Appalachians. Etymology The first definition of the Monteregian Hill ...
, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are also unassociated with the Appalachians. * ''Central'': The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River (Great Kanawha) running through Virginia and West Virginia. It comprises (excluding various minor groups) the Valley Ridges between the
Allegheny Front The Allegheny Front is the major southeast- or east-facing escarpment An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as a result of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively level areas having different elevations. Usually '' ...
of the
Allegheny Plateau The Allegheny Plateau , in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. ...
and the
Great Appalachian Valley The Great Valley, also called the Great Appalachian Valley or Great Valley Region, is one of the major landform features of eastern North America. It is a gigantic trough—a chain of valley lowlands—and the central feature of the Appalachian Mou ...
, the New York–New Jersey Highlands, the
Taconic Mountains The Taconic Mountains or Taconic Range () are a range of the Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America North America is a continent entirely wi ...
in New York, and a large portion of the Blue Ridge. * ''Southern'': The southern section runs from the New River onwards. It consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, which is divided into the Western Blue Ridge (or Unaka) Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the
Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians The Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, also called the Ridge and Valley Province or the Valley and Ridge Appalachians, are a Physiographic regions of the world, physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, Appalachian division and ar ...
, and the
Cumberland Plateau 300px, Map showing the Cumberland Plateau in yellow as defined by Bailey's ecoregions. The Cumberland Plateau is the southern part of the Appalachian Plateau in the Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians ...
. The
Adirondack Mountains The Adirondack Mountains () form a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, movement of the cr ...
in New York are sometimes included with maps of the Appalachian chain but are in fact a southern extension of the
Laurentian Mountains The Laurentian Mountains (French: ''Laurentides'') are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity ...
of Canada. In addition to the true folded mountains, known as the
ridge and valley province The Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, also called the Ridge and Valley Province or the Valley and Ridge Appalachians, are a Physiographic regions of the world, physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, Appalachian division and are ...
, the area of
dissected plateau A dissected plateau is a plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of ...
to the north and west of the mountains is usually grouped with the Appalachians. This includes the
Catskill Mountains The Catskill Mountains, also known as the Catskills, are a Physiographic regions of the world, physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, located in southeastern New York (state), New York. As a cultural and geographic region, ...
of Lower New York, the
Poconos The Pocono Mountains, commonly referred to as the Poconos , are a geographical, geological, and cultural region in Northeastern Pennsylvania, United States. The Poconos are an upland of the larger Allegheny Plateau. Forming a escarpment overlookin ...
in Pennsylvania, and the
Allegheny Plateau The Allegheny Plateau , in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. ...
of New York's Southern Tier region, western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio and northern West Virginia. This same plateau is known as the
Cumberland Plateau 300px, Map showing the Cumberland Plateau in yellow as defined by Bailey's ecoregions. The Cumberland Plateau is the southern part of the Appalachian Plateau in the Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians ...
in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, western Virginia, eastern Tennessee, and northern Alabama. The dissected plateau area, while not actually made up of geological
mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at least ...

mountain
s, is popularly called "mountains," especially in eastern Kentucky and West Virginia, and while the ridges are not high, the terrain is extremely rugged. In Ohio and New York, some of the plateau has been
glaciated A glacier ( or ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow under str ...
, which has rounded off the sharp ridges and filled the valleys to some extent. The glaciated regions are usually referred to as hill country rather than mountains. The Appalachian region is generally considered the geographical divide between the eastern seaboard of the United States and the
Midwest The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four Census Bureau Region, census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2"). It occupies the northern central part of ...
region of the country. The
Eastern Continental Divide Image:NorthAmerica-WaterDivides.png, upright 1.2, A map of the principal hydrological divides of North America. The Eastern Continental Divide (orange line) demarcates two watersheds of the Atlantic Ocean: the Gulf of Mexico watershed and the Atla ...
follows the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania to Georgia. The
Appalachian Trail The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply the A.T., is a marked hiking trail A trail is usually a path, track or unpaved lane or road. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, path ...

Appalachian Trail
is a hiking trail that runs all the way from
Mount Katahdin Mount Katahdin ( ) is the highest mountain in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily loc ...
in Maine to
Springer Mountain Springer Mountain is a mountain located in the Chattahoochee National Forest on the border of Fannin and Gilmer counties. Located in the Blue Ridge Mountains in northern Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ...
in Georgia, passing over or past a large part of the Appalachian system. The
International Appalachian Trail The International Appalachian Trail (IAT; french: Sentier international des Appalaches, SIA) was originally a continuous hiking Hiking is a long, vigorous walking, walk, usually on trails or footpaths in the countryside. Walking for pleasure ...
is an extension of this hiking trail into the Canadian portion of the Appalachian range in
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
and
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
.


Chief summits

The Appalachian belt includes, with the ranges enumerated above, the plateaus sloping southward to in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
, and south-eastward to the border of the
coastal plain A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast. A fall line A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent where rivers cross it, with resulting rapids or water ...
through the central and southern Atlantic states; and on the north-west, the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus declining toward the Great Lakes and the interior plains. A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys, including the
Great Appalachian Valley The Great Valley, also called the Great Appalachian Valley or Great Valley Region, is one of the major landform features of eastern North America. It is a gigantic trough—a chain of valley lowlands—and the central feature of the Appalachian Mou ...
, which in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two unequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion, the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself. None of the summits reaches the region of perpetual snow. Mountains of the Long Range in
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
reach heights of nearly . In the Chic-Choc and
Notre Dame Notre Dame, French for "Our Lady", a title of Mary, mother of Jesus, most commonly refers to: * Notre-Dame de Paris, a cathedral in Paris, France * University of Notre Dame, a university in Indiana, United States ** Notre Dame Fighting Irish, the u ...
mountain ranges in Quebec, the higher summits rise above in elevation. Isolated peaks and small ranges in
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
and
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
vary from . In
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
several peaks exceed , including
Mount Katahdin Mount Katahdin ( ) is the highest mountain in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily loc ...
at . In
New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nor ...

New Hampshire
, many summits rise above , including Mount Washington in the
White MountainsWhite Mountains may refer to: Mountain ranges ;Afghanistan and Pakistan *White Mountains (Safed Koh) ;Australia *White Mountains National Park, in Queensland ;Greece *White Mountains (Lefka Ori), on the island of Crete ;United States *White Mountai ...
at , Adams at , Jefferson at , Monroe at , Mount Madison, Madison at , Mount Lafayette, Lafayette at , and Mount Lincoln (New Hampshire), Lincoln at . In the
Green Mountains The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U.S. state of Vermont. The range runs primarily south to north and extends approximately from the border with Massachusetts to the border with Quebec, Canada. The part of the same range that is in ...

Green Mountains
the highest point, Mount Mansfield, Mt. Mansfield, is in elevation; others include Killington Peak at , Camel's Hump (Vermont), Camel's Hump at , Mount Abraham (Vermont), Mt. Abraham at , and a number of other heights exceeding . In Pennsylvania, there are over sixty summits that rise over ; the summits of Mount Davis (Pennsylvania), Mount Davis and Blue Knob rise over . In Maryland, Eagle Rock and Dans Mountain are conspicuous points reaching and respectively. On the same side of the Great Valley, south of the Potomac, are the Pinnacle and Pidgeon Roost . In
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
, more than 150 peaks rise above , including Spruce Knob , the highest point in the
Allegheny Mountains The Allegheny Mountain Range , informally the Alleghenies and also spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the Eastern United States 300px, This video was taken by the crew of ISS. The pass goes ove ...
. A number of other points in the state rise above . Cheat Mountain (Snowshoe Mountain) at Thorny Flat and Bald Knob are among the more notable peaks in West Virginia. The Blue Ridge Mountains, rising in southern
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
and there known as South Mountain (Maryland and Pennsylvania), South Mountain, attain elevations of about in that state. South Mountain achieves its highest point just below the Mason-Dixon line in Maryland at Quirauk Mountain and then diminishes in height southward to the Potomac River. Once in Virginia the Blue Ridge again reaches and higher. In the
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
Blue Ridge, the following are some of the highest peaks north of the Roanoke River: Stony Man , Hawksbill Mountain , Apple Orchard Mountain and Peaks of Otter . South of the Roanoke River, along the Blue Ridge, are Virginia's highest peaks including Whitetop Mountain and Mount Rogers (Virginia), Mount Rogers , the highest point in the Commonwealth. Chief summits in the southern section of the Blue Ridge are located along two main crests—the Western or Unaka Front along the Tennessee-North Carolina border and the Eastern Front in North Carolina—or one of several "cross ridges" between the two main crests. Major subranges of the Eastern Front include the Black Mountains (North Carolina), Black Mountains, Great Craggy Mountains, and Great Balsam Mountains, and its chief summits include Grandfather Mountain near the Tennessee-North Carolina border, Mount Mitchell in the Blacks, and Black Balsam Knob and Cold Mountain (North Carolina), Cold Mountain in the Great Balsams. The Western Blue Ridge Front is subdivided into the Unaka Range, the Bald Mountains, the Great Smoky Mountains, and the Unicoi Mountains, and its major peaks include Roan Mountain (Roan Highlands), Roan Mountain in the Unakas, Big Bald and Max Patch in the Bald Mountains, Clingmans Dome , Mount Le Conte (Tennessee), Mount Le Conte , and Mount Guyot (Great Smoky Mountains), Mount Guyot in the Great Smokies, and Big Frog Mountain near the Tennessee-Georgia-North Carolina border. Prominent summits in the cross ridges include Waterrock Knob () in the Plott Balsams. Across northern Georgia, numerous peaks exceed , including Brasstown Bald, the state's highest, at and Rabun Bald.


Drainage

There are many geological issues concerning the rivers and streams of the Appalachians. In spite of the existence of the Great Appalachian Valley, many of the main rivers are transverse to the mountain system axis. The drainage divide of the Appalachians follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of the New River in Virginia. South of the New River, rivers head into the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges (water gaps), escape by way of the Cumberland River and the Tennessee River rivers to the Ohio River and the
Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and b ...

Mississippi River
, and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. In the central section, north of the New River, the rivers, rising in or just beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges to the Great Valley, and then across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain via the Roanoke River, James River (Virginia), James River, Potomac River, and Susquehanna River. In the northern section the height of land lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, and thus the main lines of drainage run from north to south, exemplified by the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
. However, the valley through which the Hudson River flows was cut by the gigantic glaciers of the Ice Ages—the same glaciers that deposited their terminal moraines in southern New York and formed the east–west Long Island.


Geology

A look at rocks that are exposed in today's Appalachian mountains reveals elongated belts of folded and thrust Fault (geology), faulted marine sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks and slivers of ancient ocean floor, which provides strong evidence that these rocks were deformed during plate collision. The birth of the Appalachian ranges, some 480 million years ago, marks the first of several mountain-building plate collisions that culminated in the construction of the supercontinent Pangaea with the Appalachians near the center. Because North America and Africa were connected, the Appalachians formed part of the same mountain chain as the Little Atlas in Morocco. This mountain range, known as the Central Pangean Mountains, extended into Scotland, before the Mesozoic Era opening of the Iapetus Ocean, from the North America/Europe collision (See Caledonian orogeny). During the middle Ordovician Period (about 496–440 million years ago), a change in plate motions set the stage for the first Paleozoic mountain-building event (Taconic orogeny) in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. The once-quiet Appalachian passive margin changed to a very active plate boundary when a neighboring oceanic plate, the Iapetus Ocean, Iapetus, collided with and began sinking beneath the North American craton. With the birth of this new subduction zone, the early Appalachians were born. Along the continental margin, volcanoes grew, coincident with the initiation of subduction. Thrust faulting uplifted and warped older sedimentary rock laid down on the passive margin. As the mountains rose, erosion began to wear them down over time. Streams carried rock debris downslope to be deposited in nearby lowlands. The Taconic Orogeny was just the first of a series of mountain building plate collisions that contributed to the formation of the Appalachians, culminating in the collision of North America and Africa (see Alleghanian orogeny). By the end of the Mesozoic Era, the Appalachian Mountains had been eroded to an almost flat plain. It was not until the region was uplifted during the Cenozoic Era that the distinctive topography of the present formed. Uplift rejuvenation (river), rejuvenated the streams, which rapidly responded by cutting downward into the ancient bedrock. Some streams flowed along weak layers that define the folds and faults created many millions of years earlier. Other streams downcutting, downcut so rapidly that they cut right across the resistant folded rocks of the mountain core, carving canyons across rock layers and geologic structures.


Mineral resources

The Appalachian Mountains contain major deposits of anthracite coal as well as bituminous coal. In the folded mountains the coal is in metamorphosed form as anthracite, represented by the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The bituminous coal fields of western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, southeastern Ohio, eastern Kentucky, Southwest Virginia, southwestern Virginia, and West Virginia contain the sedimentary form of coal. The mountain top removal method of coal mining, in which entire mountain tops are removed, is currently threatening vast areas and ecosystems of the Appalachian Mountain region. The surface coal mining that starting in the 1940s, significantly impact the central Appalachian Mountains in
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
,
Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...

Tennessee
,
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
and
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
. Early mining methods were unregulated and mined land reclamation research, including acid base reaction, was led by the West Virginia University in the 1960s and 1970s. West Virginia developed rigorous mine reclamation standards for state cola mines in the late 1960s. Regulations were introduced by most federal states to protect the Appalachian Mountains by the late 1960s. Social and political activism brought about the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The Drake Well, 1859 discovery of commercial quantities of petroleum in the Appalachian Mountains of western Pennsylvania started the modern United States petroleum industry. Recent discoveries of commercial natural gas deposits in the Marcellus Shale formation and Utica Shale formations have once again focused oil industry attention on the Appalachian Basin. Some plateaus of the Appalachian Mountains contain metallic minerals such as iron and zinc.


Ecology

The Appalachians, particularly the Central and Southern regions, is one of the most biodiverse places in North America. The north-south orientation of the long ridges and valleys contributes to the high number of plant and animal species. Species were able to migrate through these from either direction during alternating periods of warming and cooling, settling in the microclimates that best suited them.


Flora

The floras of the Appalachians are diverse and vary primarily in response to geology, latitude, elevation and moisture availability. Geobotanically, they constitute a floristic province of the North American Atlantic Region. The Appalachians consist primarily of deciduous broad-leaf trees and evergreen needle-leaf conifers, but also contain the evergreen broad-leaf American holly ('), and the deciduous needle-leaf conifer, the Tamarack larch, tamarack, or eastern larch ('). The dominant northern and high elevation conifer is the red spruce ('), which grows from near sea level to above Above mean sea level, above sea level (asl) in northern
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
and southeastern Canada. It also grows southward along the Appalachian crest to the highest elevations of the southern Appalachians, as in
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
and
Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...

Tennessee
. In the central Appalachians it is usually confined above asl, except for a few cold valleys in which it reaches lower elevations. In the southern Appalachians, it is restricted to higher elevations. Another species is the black spruce ('), which extends farthest north of any conifer in North America, is found at high elevations in the northern Appalachians, and in bogs as far south as Pennsylvania. The Appalachians are also home to two species of fir, the boreal balsam fir ('), and the southern high elevation endemic, Fraser fir ('). Fraser fir is confined to the highest parts of the southern Appalachian Mountains, where along with red spruce it forms a fragile ecosystem known as the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest. Fraser fir rarely occurs below , and becomes the dominant tree type at . By contrast, balsam fir is found from near sea level to the tree line in the northern Appalachians, but ranges only as far south as Virginia and West Virginia in the central Appalachians, where it is usually confined above asl, except in cold valleys. Curiously, it is associated with oaks in Virginia. The balsam fir of Virginia and West Virginia is thought by some to be a natural hybrid between the more northern variety and Fraser fir. While red spruce is common in both upland and bog habitats, balsam fir, as well as black spruce and tamarack, are more characteristic of the latter. However balsam fir also does well in soils with a pH as high as 6. Eastern hemlock, Eastern or Canada hemlock (') is another important evergreen needle-leaf conifer that grows along the Appalachian chain from north to south but is confined to lower elevations than red spruce and the firs. It generally occupies richer and less acidic soils than the spruce and firs and is characteristic of deep, shaded and moist mountain valleys and cove (Appalachian Mountains), coves. It is, unfortunately, subject to the hemlock woolly adelgid ('), an introduced insect, that is rapidly extirpating it as a forest tree. Less abundant, and restricted to the southern Appalachians, is Carolina hemlock ('). Like Canada hemlock, this tree suffers severely from the hemlock woolly adelgid. Several species of pines characteristic of the Appalachians are eastern white pine ('), Virginia pine ('), pitch pine ('), Table Mountain pine (') and shortleaf pine ('). Red pine (') is a boreal species that forms a few high elevation outliers as far south as West Virginia. All of these species except white pine tend to occupy sandy, rocky, poor soil sites, which are mostly acidic in character. White pine, a large species valued for its timber, tends to do best in rich, moist soil, either acidic or alkaline in character. Pitch pine is also at home in acidic, boggy soil, and Table Mountain pine may occasionally be found in this habitat as well. Shortleaf pine is generally found in warmer habitats and at lower elevations than the other species. All the species listed do best in open or lightly shaded habitats, although white pine also thrives in shady coves, valleys, and on floodplains. The Appalachians are characterized by a wealth of large, beautiful deciduous broadleaf (hardwood) trees. Their occurrences are best summarized and described in Emma Lucy Braun, E. Lucy Braun's 1950 classic, ''Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America'' (Macmillan, New York). The most diverse and richest forests are the mixed mesophytic or medium moisture types, which are largely confined to rich, moist montane soils of the southern and central Appalachians, particularly in the Cumberland and Allegheny Mountains, but also thrive in the southern Appalachian coves. Characteristic canopy species are Tilia heterophylla, white basswood ('), yellow buckeye ('), sugar maple ('), American beech ('), tuliptree ('), Fraxinus americana, white ash (') and yellow birch ('). Other common trees are red maple ('), Shagbark hickory, shagbark and Bitternut hickory, bitternut hickories (') and Sweet birch, black or sweet birch ('). Small understory trees and shrubs include flowering dogwood ('), hophornbeam ('), witch-hazel (') and Lindera, spicebush ('). There are also hundreds of perennial and annual herbs, among them such herbal and medicinal plants as American ginseng ('), goldenseal ('), bloodroot (') and black cohosh ('). The foregoing trees, shrubs, and herbs are also more widely distributed in less rich mesic habitat, mesic forests that generally occupy coves, stream valleys and flood plains throughout the southern and central Appalachians at low and intermediate elevations. In the northern Appalachians and at higher elevations of the central and southern Appalachians these diverse mesic forests give way to less diverse "northern hardwoods" with canopies dominated only by American beech, sugar maple, American basswood (') and yellow birch and with far fewer species of shrubs and herbs. Dryer and rockier uplands and ridges are occupied by oak-chestnut type forests dominated by a variety of oaks (' spp.), hickory, hickories (' spp.) and, in the past, by the American chestnut ('). The American chestnut was virtually eliminated as a canopy species by the introduced fungal chestnut blight ('), but lives on as sapling-sized sprouts that originate from roots, which are not killed by the fungus. In present-day forest canopies, chestnut has been largely replaced by oaks. The oak forests of the southern and central Appalachians consist largely of Quercus velutina, black, Northern red oak, northern red, White oak, white, Chestnut oak, chestnut and scarlet oaks ('' and '') and hickories, such as the pignut (') in particular. The richest forests, which grade into mesic types, usually in coves and on gentle slopes, have dominantly white and northern red oaks, while the driest sites are dominated by chestnut oak, or sometimes by scarlet or northern red oaks. In the northern Appalachians the oaks, except for white and northern red, drop out, while the latter extends farthest north. The oak forests generally lack the diverse small tree, shrub and herb layers of mesic forests. Shrubs are generally ericaceous, and include the evergreen Kalmia latifolia, mountain laurel ('), various species of blueberry, blueberries (' spp.), Gaylussacia baccata, black huckleberry ('), a number of deciduous rhododendrons (azaleas), and smaller heaths such as teaberry (') and trailing arbutus ('). The evergreen great rhododendron (') is characteristic of moist stream valleys. These occurrences are in line with the prevailing acidic character of most oak forest soils. In contrast, the much rarer chinquapin oak (') demands alkaline soils and generally grows where limestone rock is near the surface. Hence no ericaceous shrubs are associated with it. The Appalachian floras also include a diverse assemblage of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts), as well as fungi. Some species are rare and/or endemic. As with vascular plants, these tend to be closely related to the character of the soils and thermal environment in which they are found. Eastern deciduous forests are subject to a number of serious insect and disease outbreaks. Among the most conspicuous is that of the introduced gypsy moth ('), which infests primarily oaks, causing severe defoliation and tree mortality. But it also has the benefit of eliminating weak individuals, and thus improving the genetic stock, as well as creating rich habitat of a type through accumulation of dead wood. Because hardwoods sprout so readily, this moth is not as harmful as the hemlock woolly adelgid. Perhaps more serious is the introduced beech bark disease complex, which includes both a scale insect (') and fungal components. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Appalachian forests were subject to severe and destructive logging and land clearing, which resulted in the designation of the national forests and parks as well many state protected areas. However, these and a variety of other destructive activities continue, albeit in diminished forms; and thus far only a few ecologically based management practices have taken hold. Appalachian bogs are boreal ecosystems, which occur in many places in the Appalachians, particularly the Allegheny Mountains, Allegheny and Blue Ridge subranges. Though popularly called bogs, many of them are technically fens.


Fauna

Animals that characterize the Appalachian forests include five species of tree squirrels. The most commonly seen is the low to moderate elevation eastern gray squirrel ('). Occupying similar habitat is the slightly larger fox squirrel (') and the much smaller southern flying squirrel ('). More characteristic of cooler northern and high elevation habitat is the American red squirrel, red squirrel ('), whereas the Appalachian northern flying squirrel ('), which closely resembles the southern flying squirrel, is confined to northern hardwood and spruce-fir forests. As familiar as squirrels are the eastern cottontail rabbit (') and the white-tailed deer ('). The latter in particular has greatly increased in abundance as a result of the extirpation of the eastern wolf (') and the North American cougar, cougar. This has led to the overgrazing and browsing of many plants of the Appalachian forests, as well as destruction of agricultural crops. Other deer include the eastern moose, moose ('), found only in the north, and the elk ('), which, although once Eastern elk, extirpated, is now making a comeback, through transplantation, in the southern and central Appalachians. In
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Quebec
, the Chic-Chocs host the only population of caribou (') south of the St. Lawrence River. An additional species that is common in the north but extends its range southward at high elevations to Virginia and West Virginia is the varying of snowshoe hare ('). However, these central Appalachian populations are scattered and very small. Another species of great interest is the North American beaver, beaver ('), which is showing a great resurgence in numbers after its near extirpation for its pelt. This resurgence is bringing about a drastic alteration in habitat through the construction of dams and other structures throughout the mountains. Other common forest animals are the American black bear, black bear ('), striped skunk ('), raccoon ('), groundhog, woodchuck ('), bobcat ('), gray fox ('), red fox (') and in recent years, the coyote ('), another species favored by the advent of Europeans and the extirpation of eastern and red wolf, red wolves ('). European boars (') were introduced in the early 20th century. Characteristic birds of the forest are wild turkey ('), ruffed grouse ('), mourning dove ('), common raven ('), wood duck ('), great horned owl ('), barred owl ('), Scops owl, screech owl ('), red-tailed hawk ('), red-shouldered hawk ('), and northern goshawk ('), as well as a great variety of "songbirds" (Passeriformes), like the warblers in particular. Of great importance are the many species of salamanders and, in particular, the lungless salamander, lungless species (Family ') that live in great abundance concealed by leaves and debris, on the forest floor. Most frequently seen, however, is the Eastern newt, eastern or red-spotted newt ('), whose terrestrial eft form is often encountered on the open, dry forest floor. It has been estimated that salamanders represent the largest class of animal biomass in the Appalachian forests. Frogs and toads are of lesser diversity and abundance, but the wood frog (') is, like the eft, commonly encountered on the dry forest floor, while a number of species of small frogs, such as spring peepers ('), enliven the forest with their calls. Salamanders and other amphibians contribute greatly to nutrient cycling through their consumption of small life forms on the forest floor and in aquatic habitats. Although reptiles are less abundant and diverse than amphibians, a number of snakes are conspicuous members of the fauna. One of the largest is the non-venomous black rat snake ('), while the common garter snake (') is among the smallest but most abundant. The American copperhead (') and the timber rattler (') are venomous pit vipers. There are few lizards, but the broad-headed skink ('), at up to in length, and an excellent climber and swimmer, is one of the largest and most spectacular in appearance and action. The most common turtle is the eastern box turtle ('), which is found in both upland and lowland forests in the central and southern Appalachians. Prominent among aquatic species is the large common snapping turtle ('), which occurs throughout the Appalachians. Appalachian streams are notable for their highly diverse freshwater fish life. Among the most abundant and diverse are those of the minnow family (family Cyprinidae), while species of the colorful Darter (fish), darters (' spp.) are also abundant.Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr 1991, ''A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes, North America, North of Mexico'', Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston A characteristic fish of shaded, cool Appalachian forest streams is the Brook trout, wild brook or speckled trout ('), which is much sought after as a game fish.


See also

* * Appalachia * Appalachian League * Appalachian Mountain Club *
Appalachian Trail The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply the A.T., is a marked hiking trail A trail is usually a path, track or unpaved lane or road. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, path ...

Appalachian Trail


Notes


References


Sources

* Topographic maps and Geologic Folios of the United States Geological Survey


Further reading

* Maurice Brooks, Brooks, Maurice (1965), ''The Appalachians: The Naturalist's America''; illustrated by Lois Darling and Lo Brooks. Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company. * Harry M. Caudill, Caudill, Harry M. (1963), ''Night Comes to the Cumberlands''. . * Constantz, George (2004), ''Hollows, Peepers, and Highlanders: an Appalachian Mountain Ecology'' (2nd edition). West Virginia University Press; Morgantown, West Virginia, Morgantown. 359 p. * Olson, Ted (1998), ''Blue Ridge Folklife''. University Press of Mississippi, 211 pages, . * Rehder, John (2013) "Appalachian Folkways," Koxville: University of Tennessee Press. * Chapters iii., iv. and v. of Miss E. C. Semple's ''American History and its Geographic Conditions'' (Boston, 1903). * Weidensaul, Scott (2000), ''Mountains of the Heart: A Natural History of the Appalachians''. Fulcrum Publishing, 288 pages, . * Bailey Willis, ''The Northern Appalachians'', and C. W. Hayes, ''The Southern Appalachians'', both in ''National Geographic Monographs'', vol. 9. ;Appalachian flora and fauna-related journals * ''Castanea'', the journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society. * ''Banisteria'', a journal devoted to the natural history of Virginia. * ''The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society''.


External links


Appalachian/Blue Ridge Forests images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu


([http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ecoregions/50402.htm slow modem version])
University of Kentucky Appalachian Center

Forests of the Central Appalachians Project
Detailed inventories of forest species at dozens of sites. {{Authority control Appalachian Mountains, Appalachia Appalachian culture Eastern Canada Eastern United States Geography of Appalachia Great Smoky Mountains National Park Mountain ranges of Alabama Mountain ranges of Canada Mountain ranges of Georgia (U.S. state) Mountain ranges of Kentucky Mountain ranges of Maine Mountain ranges of Maryland Mountain ranges of Massachusetts Mountain ranges of New Brunswick Mountain ranges of New Hampshire Mountain ranges of New Jersey Mountain ranges of Newfoundland and Labrador Mountain ranges of North Carolina Mountain ranges of Nova Scotia Mountain ranges of Pennsylvania Mountain ranges of Quebec Mountain ranges of South Carolina Mountain ranges of Tennessee Mountain ranges of the United States Mountain ranges of Vermont Mountain ranges of Virginia Mountain ranges of West Virginia Physiographic divisions Physiographic regions of Canada Physiographic regions of the United States