Uncertainty Principle
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the accuracy with which the values for certain pairs of physical quantities of a particle, such as position, ''x'', and momentum, ''p'', can be predicted from initial conditions. Such variable pairs are known as complementary variables or canonically conjugate variables; and, depending on interpretation, the uncertainty principle limits to what extent such conjugate properties maintain their approximate meaning, as the mathematical framework of quantum physics does not support the notion of simultaneously welldefined conjugate properties expressed by a single value. The uncertainty principle implies that it is in general not possible to predict the value of a quantity with arbitrary certainty, even if all initial conditions are specified. Introduced first in 1927 by the German physicist Werner H ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Werner Heisenberg  Canonical Commutation Rule For Position And Momentum Variables Of A Particle  Uncertainty Principle, 1927
Werner may refer to: People * Werner (name), origin of the name and people with this name as surname and given name Fictional characters * Werner (comics), a German comic book character * Werner Von Croy, a fictional character in the ''Tomb Raider'' series * Werner von Strucker, a fictional character in the Marvel Comics universe * Werner, a fictional character in '' Darwin's Soldiers'' * Werner Ziegler, a fictional character from tv show Better Call Saul Geography * Werner, West Virginia * Mount Werner, a mountain that includes the Steamboat Ski Resort, in the Park Range of Colorado * Werner (crater), a crater in the southcentral highlands of the Moon * Werner projection, an equalarea map projection preserving distances along parallels, central meridian and from the North pole Companies * CarseyWerner, an American television and film production studio * Werner Enterprises, a Nebraskabased trucking company * Werner Co., a manufacturer of ladders * Werner Motors, an early a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Observer Effect (physics)
In physics, the observer effect is the disturbance of an observed system by the act of observation. This is often the result of instruments that, by necessity, alter the state of what they measure in some manner. A common example is checking the pressure in an automobile tire; this is difficult to do without letting out some of the air, thus changing the pressure. Similarly, seeing nonluminous objects requires light hitting the object, and causing it to reflect that light. While the effects of observation are often negligible, the object still experiences a change. This effect can be found in many domains of physics, but can usually be reduced to insignificance by using different instruments or observation techniques. A notable example of the observer effect occurs in quantum mechanics, as demonstrated by the doubleslit experiment. Physicists have found that observation of quantum phenomena can change the measured results of this experiment. Despite the "observer effect" in th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Conjugate Variables
Conjugate variables are pairs of variables mathematically defined in such a way that they become Fourier transform duals, or more generally are related through Pontryagin duality. The duality relations lead naturally to an uncertainty relation—in physics called the Heisenberg uncertainty principle—between them. In mathematical terms, conjugate variables are part of a symplectic basis, and the uncertainty relation corresponds to the symplectic form. Also, conjugate variables are related by Noether's theorem, which states that if the laws of physics are invariant with respect to a change in one of the conjugate variables, then the other conjugate variable will not change with time (i.e. it will be conserved). Examples There are many types of conjugate variables, depending on the type of work a certain system is doing (or is being subjected to). Examples of canonically conjugate variables include the following: * Time and frequency: the longer a musical note is sustained, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fourier Transforms
A Fourier transform (FT) is a mathematical transform that decomposes functions into frequency components, which are represented by the output of the transform as a function of frequency. Most commonly functions of time or space are transformed, which will output a function depending on temporal frequency or spatial frequency respectively. That process is also called ''analysis''. An example application would be decomposing the waveform of a musical chord into terms of the intensity of its constituent pitches. The term ''Fourier transform'' refers to both the frequency domain representation and the mathematical operation that associates the frequency domain representation to a function of space or time. The Fourier transform of a function is a complexvalued function representing the complex sinusoids that comprise the original function. For each frequency, the magnitude (absolute value) of the complex value represents the amplitude of a constituent complex sinusoid wi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hilbert Space
In mathematics, Hilbert spaces (named after David Hilbert) allow generalizing the methods of linear algebra and calculus from (finitedimensional) Euclidean vector spaces to spaces that may be infinitedimensional. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as function spaces. Formally, a Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product that defines a distance function for which the space is a complete metric space. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point of view in the first decade of the 20th century by David Hilbert, Erhard Schmidt, and Frigyes Riesz. They are indispensable tools in the theories of partial differential equations, quantum mechanics, Fourier analysis (which includes applications to signal processing and heat transfer), and ergodic theory (which forms the mathematical underpinning of thermodynamics). John von Neumann coined the term ''Hilbert space'' for the abstract concept that u ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Basis (linear Algebra)
In mathematics, a set of vectors in a vector space is called a basis if every element of may be written in a unique way as a finite linear combination of elements of . The coefficients of this linear combination are referred to as components or coordinates of the vector with respect to . The elements of a basis are called . Equivalently, a set is a basis if its elements are linearly independent and every element of is a linear combination of elements of . In other words, a basis is a linearly independent spanning set. A vector space can have several bases; however all the bases have the same number of elements, called the ''dimension'' of the vector space. This article deals mainly with finitedimensional vector spaces. However, many of the principles are also valid for infinitedimensional vector spaces. Definition A basis of a vector space over a field (such as the real numbers or the complex numbers ) is a linearly independent subset of that spans . Th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Orthonormal
In linear algebra, two vectors in an inner product space are orthonormal if they are orthogonal (or perpendicular along a line) unit vectors. A set of vectors form an orthonormal set if all vectors in the set are mutually orthogonal and all of unit length. An orthonormal set which forms a basis is called an orthonormal basis. Intuitive overview The construction of orthogonality of vectors is motivated by a desire to extend the intuitive notion of perpendicular vectors to higherdimensional spaces. In the Cartesian plane, two vectors are said to be ''perpendicular'' if the angle between them is 90° (i.e. if they form a right angle). This definition can be formalized in Cartesian space by defining the dot product and specifying that two vectors in the plane are orthogonal if their dot product is zero. Similarly, the construction of the norm of a vector is motivated by a desire to extend the intuitive notion of the length of a vector to higherdimensional spaces. In Cartes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix Mechanics
Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925. It was the first conceptually autonomous and logically consistent formulation of quantum mechanics. Its account of quantum jumps supplanted the Bohr model's electron orbits. It did so by interpreting the physical properties of particles as matrices that evolve in time. It is equivalent to the Schrödinger wave formulation of quantum mechanics, as manifest in Dirac's bra–ket notation. In some contrast to the wave formulation, it produces spectra of (mostly energy) operators by purely algebraic, ladder operator methods. Relying on these methods, Wolfgang Pauli derived the hydrogen atom spectrum in 1926, before the development of wave mechanics. Development of matrix mechanics In 1925, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. Epiphany at Helgoland In 1925 Werner Heisenberg was ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Schrödinger Equation
The Schrödinger equation is a linear partial differential equation that governs the wave function of a quantummechanical system. It is a key result in quantum mechanics, and its discovery was a significant landmark in the development of the subject. The equation is named after Erwin Schrödinger, who postulated the equation in 1925, and published it in 1926, forming the basis for the work that resulted in his Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933. Conceptually, the Schrödinger equation is the quantum counterpart of Newton's second law in classical mechanics. Given a set of known initial conditions, Newton's second law makes a mathematical prediction as to what path a given physical system will take over time. The Schrödinger equation gives the evolution over time of a wave function, the quantummechanical characterization of an isolated physical system. The equation can be derived from the fact that the timeevolution operator must be unitary, and must therefore be generated ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sequential Superposition Of Plane Waves
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order matters. Like a set, it contains members (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is called the ''length'' of the sequence. Unlike a set, the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in a sequence, and unlike a set, the order does matter. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function from natural numbers (the positions of elements in the sequence) to the elements at each position. The notion of a sequence can be generalized to an indexed family, defined as a function from an ''arbitrary'' index set. For example, (M, A, R, Y) is a sequence of letters with the letter 'M' first and 'Y' last. This sequence differs from (A, R, M, Y). Also, the sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be ''finite'', as in these examples, or ''infinite ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gravitationalwave Interferometer
A gravitationalwave detector (used in a gravitationalwave observatory) is any device designed to measure tiny distortions of spacetime called gravitational waves. Since the 1960s, various kinds of gravitationalwave detectors have been built and constantly improved. The presentday generation of laser interferometers has reached the necessary sensitivity to detect gravitational waves from astronomical sources, thus forming the primary tool of gravitationalwave astronomy. The first direct detection of gravitational waves made in 2015 by the Advanced LIGO observatories, a feat which was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics. Challenge The direct detection of gravitational waves is complicated by the extraordinarily small effect the waves produce on a detector. The amplitude of a spherical wave falls off as the inverse of the distance from the source. Thus, even waves from extreme systems such as merging binary black holes die out to a very small amplitude by the time they ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quantum Optics
Quantum optics is a branch of atomic, molecular, and optical physics dealing with how individual quanta of light, known as photons, interact with atoms and molecules. It includes the study of the particlelike properties of photons. Photons have been used to test many of the counterintuitive predictions of quantum mechanics, such as entanglement and teleportation, and are a useful resource for quantum information processing. History Light propagating in a restricted volume of space has its energy and momentum quantized according to an integer number of particles known as photons. Quantum optics studies the nature and effects of light as quantized photons. The first major development leading to that understanding was the correct modeling of the blackbody radiation spectrum by Max Planck in 1899 under the hypothesis of light being emitted in discrete units of energy. The photoelectric effect was further evidence of this quantization as explained by Albert Einstein in a 1905 pa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 