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Umbo Of Tympanic Membrane
In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ossicles inside the middle ear, and then to the oval window in the fluid-filled cochlea. Hence, it ultimately converts and amplifies vibration in the air to vibration in cochlear fluid. The malleus bone bridges the gap between the eardrum and the other ossicles. Rupture or perforation of the eardrum can lead to conductive hearing loss. Collapse or retraction of the eardrum can cause conductive hearing loss or cholesteatoma. Structure Orientation and relations The tympanic membrane is oriented obliquely in the anteroposterior, mediolateral, and superoinferior planes. Consequently, its superoposterior end lies lateral to its anteroinferior end. Anatomically, it relates superiorly to the middle cranial fossa, posteriorly to the o ...
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Round Window
The round window is one of the two openings from the middle ear into the inner ear. It is sealed by the secondary tympanic membrane (round window membrane), which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the inner ear through the oval window. It allows fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur. Structure The round window is situated below (inferior to) and a little behind (posterior to) the oval window, from which it is separated by a rounded elevation, the promontory. It is located at the bottom of a funnel-shaped depression (the round window niche) and, in the macerated bone, opens into the cochlea of the internal ear; in the fresh state it is closed by a membrane, the secondary tympanic membrane (Latin: ''membrana tympani secundaria'', or ''membrana fenestrae cochleae'') or round window membrane, which is a complex saddle point shape. The visible central portion is ...
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Ossicle
The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bones in either middle ear that are among the smallest bones in the human body. They serve to transmit sounds from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth (cochlea). The absence of the auditory ossicles would constitute a moderate-to-severe hearing loss. The term "ossicle" literally means "tiny bone". Though the term may refer to any small bone throughout the body, it typically refers to the malleus, incus, and stapes (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) of the middle ear. Structure The ossicles are, in order from the eardrum to the inner ear (from superficial to deep): the malleus, incus, and stapes, terms that in Latin are translated as "the hammer, anvil, and stirrup". * The malleus ( la, "hammer") articulates with the incus through the incudomalleolar joint and is attached to the tympanic membrane (eardrum), from which vibrational sound pressure motion is passed. * The incus ( la, "anvil") is connected to both the other ...
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Annulus Tympanicus
Annulus (or anulus) or annular indicates a ring- or donut-shaped area or structure. It may refer to: Human anatomy * ''Anulus fibrosus disci intervertebralis'', spinal structure * Annulus of Zinn, a.k.a. annular tendon or ''anulus tendineus communis'', around the optic nerve * Annular ligament (other) * ''Digitus anularis'', a.k.a. ring finger * ''Anulus ciliaris'', a.k.a. ciliary body * ''Anulus femoralis'', a.k.a. femoral ring * ''Anulus inguinalis superficialis'', a.k.a. superficial inguinal ring * ''Anulus inguinalis profundus'', a.k.a. deep inguinal ring * ''Anuli fibrosi cordis'', a.k.a. fibrous rings of heart * ''Anulus umbilicalis '', a.k.a. umbilical ring Other * Annulus (construction), outer gear ring in an epicyclic gearing * Annulus (botany), structure on fern and moss sporangia * Annular lake, a ring-shaped lake caused by meteor impact * Annulus (mathematics), the shape between two concentric circles * Annulus (mycology), structure on mushroom * Annulus ...
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Fibrocartilage
Fibrocartilage consists of a mixture of white fibrous tissue and cartilaginous tissue in various proportions. It owes its inflexibility and toughness to the former of these constituents, and its elasticity to the latter. It is the only type of cartilage that contains type I collagen in addition to the normal type II. Structure The extracellular matrix of fibrocartilage is mainly made from type I collagen secreted by chondroblasts. Locations of fibrocartilage in the human body * secondary cartilaginous joints: ** pubic symphysis ** annulus fibrosis of intervertebral discs ** manubriosternal joint * glenoid labrum of shoulder joint * acetabular labrum of hip joint * medial and lateral menisci of the knee joint * location where tendons and ligaments attach to bone * Ulnar Triangular Fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) Function Repair If hyaline cartilage Hyaline cartilage is the glass-like (hyaline) and translucent cartilage found on many joint surfaces. It is al ...
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Mucosa
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body of an organism and covers the surface of internal organs. It consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue. It is mostly of endodermal origin and is continuous with the skin at body openings such as the eyes, eyelids, ears, inside the nose, inside the mouth, lips, the genital areas, the urethral opening and the anus. Some mucous membranes secrete mucus, a thick protective fluid. The function of the membrane is to stop pathogens and dirt from entering the body and to prevent bodily tissues from becoming dehydrated. Structure The mucosa is composed of one or more layers of epithelial cells that secrete mucus, and an underlying lamina propria of loose connective tissue. The type of cells and type of mucus secreted vary from organ to organ and each can differ along a given tract. Mucous membranes line the digestive, respiratory and reproductive ...
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Fibrous Tissue
Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural or artificial substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. Synthetic fibers can often be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but for clothing natural fibers can give some benefits, such as comfort, over their synthetic counterparts. Natural fibers Natural fibers develop or occur in the fiber shape, and include those produced by plants, animals, and geological processes. They can be classified according to their origin: * Vegetable fibers are generally based on arrangements of cellulose, often with lignin: examples include cotton, hemp, jute, flax, abaca, piña, ramie, sisal, bagasse, and banana. Plant fibers are employed in the manufacture of paper and textile (cloth), and diet ...
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Skin
Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition. The adjective cutaneous means "of the skin" (from Latin ''cutis'' 'skin'). In mammals, the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments, and internal organs. Skin of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. Skin (including cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues) plays crucial roles in formation, structure, and function of extraskeletal apparatus such as horns of bovids (e.g., cattle) and rhinos, cervids' antlers, giraffids' ossicones, armadillos' osteoderm, and os penis/ os clitoris. All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals like whales, ...
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Eustachian Tube
In anatomy, the Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear, of which it is also a part. In adult humans, the Eustachian tube is approximately long and in diameter. It is named after the sixteenth-century Italian anatomist Bartolomeo Eustachi. In humans and other tetrapods, both the middle ear and the ear canal are normally filled with air. Unlike the air of the ear canal, however, the air of the middle ear is not in direct contact with the atmosphere outside the body; thus, a pressure difference can develop between the atmospheric pressure of the ear canal and the middle ear. Normally, the Eustachian tube is collapsed, but it gapes open with swallowing and with positive pressure, allowing the middle ear's pressure to adjust to the atmospheric pressure. When taking off in an aircraft, the ambient air pressure goes from higher (on the ground) to lower (in the sky). The air in the middle ear Bo ...
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Notch Of Rivinus
{{Technical, date=November 2013 The Notch of Rivinus is a small defect in the posterior edge of the bony annular tympanic ring. The defect is located just superior to the tympano-mastoid suture line in the posterior ear canal The ear canal (external acoustic meatus, external auditory meatus, EAM) is a pathway running from the outer ear to the middle ear. The adult human ear canal extends from the pinna (anatomy), pinna to the eardrum and is about in length and in di .... Following identification of the spine of Henle it is possible to follow the tympano-mastoid suture line medially towards the annular ring. At this location the Chorda Tympani Nerve is often identified. Just superior to this the Notch of Rivinus can be seen and the neck of the malleus occupies the notch and often is the superior limit of a tympanomeatal flap. Etymology: Augustus Q. Rivinus, German anatomist, 1652–1723 a deficiency in the tympanic sulcus of the ear that forms an attachment for the flaccid p ...
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Process (anatomy)
In anatomy, a process ( la, processus) is a projection or outgrowth of tissue from a larger body. For instance, in a vertebra, a process may serve for muscle attachment and leverage (as in the case of the transverse and spinous processes), or to fit (forming a synovial joint), with another vertebra (as in the case of the articular processes).Moore, Keith L. et al. (2010) ''Clinically Oriented Anatomy'', 6th Ed, p.442 fig. 4.2 The word is used even at the microanatomic level, where cells can have processes such as cilia or pedicels. Depending on the tissue, processes may also be called by other terms, such as ''apophysis'', ''tubercle'', or ''protuberance''. Examples Examples of processes include: *The many processes of the human skull: ** The mastoid and styloid processes of the temporal bone ** The zygomatic process of the temporal bone ** The zygomatic process of the frontal bone ** The orbital, temporal, lateral, frontal, and maxillary processes of the zygomatic bo ...
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Pars Tensa Of Tympanic Membrane
Pars may refer to: * Fars Province of Iran, also known as Pars Province * Pars (Sasanian province), a province roughly corresponding to the present-day Fars, 224–651 * ''Pars'', for ''Persia'' or ''Iran'', in the Persian language * Pars News Agency, former name of Iranian news agency * Pars-e Jonubi (other), villages in Iran * FNSS Pars, a Turkish wheeled armoured vehicle * Pars (surname) * Pars interarticularis, in spinal anatomy * ''The Pars'', nickname for Dunfermline Athletic Football Club PARS may refer to: * Point-a-rally scoring in the game of squash * Pakistan Amateur Radio Society * Programmed Airline Reservations System * Russian Mission Airport. Alaska, US, ICAO location indicator * Pre-arrival Review System for import into Canada * PARS 3 LR, a German anti-tank missile See also * Parsa (other) *Fars (other) *Persia (other) Persia, or Iran, is a country in Western Asia. Persia may also refer to: Places * The Achaemenid E ...
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Pars Flaccida Of Tympanic Membrane
In human anatomy, the pars flaccida of tympanic membrane or Shrapnell's membrane (also known as Rivinus' ligament) is the small, triangular, flaccid portion of the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. It lies above the malleolar folds attached directly to the petrous bone at the notch of Rivinus. On the inner surface of the tympanic membrane, the chorda tympani crosses this area. The name ''Shrapnell's membrane'' refers to Henry Jones Shrapnell, and the name ''Rivinus' ligament'' to Augustus Quirinus Rivinus Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (9 December 1652 – 20 December 1723), also known as August Bachmann or A. Q. Bachmann, was a German physician and botanist who helped to develop better ways of classifying plants. Life and work Rivinus was born in .... References Auditory system {{anatomy-stub ...
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