Spectrum Of A Ring
In commutative algebra, the prime spectrum (or simply the spectrum) of a ring ''R'' is the set of all prime ideals of ''R'', and is usually denoted by \operatorname; in algebraic geometry it is simultaneously a topological space equipped with the sheaf of rings \mathcal. Zariski topology For any ideal ''I'' of ''R'', define V_I to be the set of prime ideals containing ''I''. We can put a topology on \operatorname(R) by defining the collection of closed sets to be :\. This topology is called the Zariski topology. A basis for the Zariski topology can be constructed as follows. For ''f'' ∈ ''R'', define ''D''''f'' to be the set of prime ideals of ''R'' not containing ''f''. Then each ''D''''f'' is an open subset of \operatorname(R), and \ is a basis for the Zariski topology. \operatorname(R) is a compact space, but almost never Hausdorff: in fact, the maximal ideals in ''R'' are precisely the closed points in this topology. By the same reasoning, it is not, in general, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Commutative Algebra
Commutative algebra, first known as ideal theory, is the branch of algebra that studies commutative rings, their ideals, and modules over such rings. Both algebraic geometry and algebraic number theory build on commutative algebra. Prominent examples of commutative rings include polynomial rings; rings of algebraic integers, including the ordinary integers \mathbb; and ''p''adic integers. Commutative algebra is the main technical tool in the local study of schemes. The study of rings that are not necessarily commutative is known as noncommutative algebra; it includes ring theory, representation theory, and the theory of Banach algebras. Overview Commutative algebra is essentially the study of the rings occurring in algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. In algebraic number theory, the rings of algebraic integers are Dedekind rings, which constitute therefore an important class of commutative rings. Considerations related to modular arithmetic h ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bsheaf
In mathematics, the gluing axiom is introduced to define what a sheaf (mathematics), sheaf \mathcal F on a topological space X must satisfy, given that it is a presheaf, which is by definition a contravariant functor ::(X) \rightarrow C to a category C which initially one takes to be the category of sets. Here (X) is the partial order of open sets of X ordered by inclusion maps; and considered as a category in the standard way, with a unique morphism :U \rightarrow V if U is a subset of V, and none otherwise. As phrased in the Sheaf (mathematics), sheaf article, there is a certain axiom that F must satisfy, for any open cover of an open set of X. For example, given open sets U and V with union (set theory), union X and intersection (set theory), intersection W, the required condition is that :(X) is the subset of (U) \times (V) With equal image in (W) In less formal language, a Section (category theory), section s of F over X is equally well given by a pair of sections :(s', s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Commutative Rings
In mathematics, the category of rings, denoted by Ring, is the category whose objects are rings (with identity) and whose morphisms are ring homomorphisms (that preserve the identity). Like many categories in mathematics, the category of rings is large, meaning that the class of all rings is proper. As a concrete category The category Ring is a concrete category meaning that the objects are sets with additional structure (addition and multiplication) and the morphisms are functions that preserve this structure. There is a natural forgetful functor :''U'' : Ring → Set for the category of rings to the category of sets which sends each ring to its underlying set (thus "forgetting" the operations of addition and multiplication). This functor has a left adjoint :''F'' : Set → Ring which assigns to each set ''X'' the free ring generated by ''X''. One can also view the category of rings as a concrete category over Ab (the category of abelian groups) or over Mon (the category of mo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Function (topology)
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring Homomorphism
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a ring homomorphism is a structurepreserving function between two rings. More explicitly, if ''R'' and ''S'' are rings, then a ring homomorphism is a function such that ''f'' is: :addition preserving: ::f(a+b)=f(a)+f(b) for all ''a'' and ''b'' in ''R'', :multiplication preserving: ::f(ab)=f(a)f(b) for all ''a'' and ''b'' in ''R'', :and unit (multiplicative identity) preserving: ::f(1_R)=1_S. Additive inverses and the additive identity are part of the structure too, but it is not necessary to require explicitly that they too are respected, because these conditions are consequences of the three conditions above. If in addition ''f'' is a bijection, then its inverse ''f''−1 is also a ring homomorphism. In this case, ''f'' is called a ring isomorphism, and the rings ''R'' and ''S'' are called ''isomorphic''. From the standpoint of ring theory, isomorphic rings cannot be distinguished. If ''R'' and ''S'' are rngs, then the cor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Functor
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a functor is a mapping between categories. Functors were first considered in algebraic topology, where algebraic objects (such as the fundamental group) are associated to topological spaces, and maps between these algebraic objects are associated to continuous maps between spaces. Nowadays, functors are used throughout modern mathematics to relate various categories. Thus, functors are important in all areas within mathematics to which category theory is applied. The words ''category'' and ''functor'' were borrowed by mathematicians from the philosophers Aristotle and Rudolf Carnap, respectively. The latter used ''functor'' in a linguistic context; see function word. Definition Let ''C'' and ''D'' be categories. A functor ''F'' from ''C'' to ''D'' is a mapping that * associates each object X in ''C'' to an object F(X) in ''D'', * associates each morphism f \colon X \to Y in ''C'' to a morphism F(f) \colon F(X) \to F(Y) in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Theory
Category theory is a general theory of mathematical structures and their relations that was introduced by Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane in the middle of the 20th century in their foundational work on algebraic topology. Nowadays, category theory is used in almost all areas of mathematics, and in some areas of computer science. In particular, many constructions of new mathematical objects from previous ones, that appear similarly in several contexts are conveniently expressed and unified in terms of categories. Examples include quotient spaces, direct products, completion, and duality. A category is formed by two sorts of objects: the objects of the category, and the morphisms, which relate two objects called the ''source'' and the ''target'' of the morphism. One often says that a morphism is an ''arrow'' that ''maps'' its source to its target. Morphisms can be ''composed'' if the target of the first morphism equals the source of the second one, and morphism com ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regular Function
In algebraic geometry, a morphism between algebraic varieties is a function between the varieties that is given locally by polynomials. It is also called a regular map. A morphism from an algebraic variety to the affine line is also called a regular function. A regular map whose inverse is also regular is called biregular, and they are isomorphisms in the category of algebraic varieties. Because regular and biregular are very restrictive conditions – there are no nonconstant regular functions on projective varieties – the weaker condition of a rational map and birational maps are frequently used as well. Definition If ''X'' and ''Y'' are closed subvarieties of \mathbb^n and \mathbb^m (so they are affine varieties), then a regular map f\colon X\to Y is the restriction of a polynomial map \mathbb^n\to \mathbb^m. Explicitly, it has the form: :f = (f_1, \dots, f_m) where the f_is are in the coordinate ring of ''X'': :k = k _1, \dots, x_nI, where ''I'' is the ideal defining '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Locally Ringed Space
In mathematics, a ringed space is a family of ( commutative) rings parametrized by open subsets of a topological space together with ring homomorphisms that play roles of restrictions. Precisely, it is a topological space equipped with a sheaf of rings called a structure sheaf. It is an abstraction of the concept of the rings of continuous (scalarvalued) functions on open subsets. Among ringed spaces, especially important and prominent is a locally ringed space: a ringed space in which the analogy between the stalk at a point and the ring of germs of functions at a point is valid. Ringed spaces appear in analysis as well as complex algebraic geometry and the scheme theory of algebraic geometry. Note: In the definition of a ringed space, most expositions tend to restrict the rings to be commutative rings, including Hartshorne and Wikipedia. " Éléments de géométrie algébrique", on the other hand, does not impose the commutativity assumption, although the book mostly co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Local Ring
In abstract algebra, more specifically ring theory, local rings are certain rings that are comparatively simple, and serve to describe what is called "local behaviour", in the sense of functions defined on varieties or manifolds, or of algebraic number fields examined at a particular place, or prime. Local algebra is the branch of commutative algebra that studies commutative local rings and their modules. In practice, a commutative local ring often arises as the result of the localization of a ring at a prime ideal. The concept of local rings was introduced by Wolfgang Krull in 1938 under the name ''Stellenringe''. The English term ''local ring'' is due to Zariski. Definition and first consequences A ring ''R'' is a local ring if it has any one of the following equivalent properties: * ''R'' has a unique maximal left ideal. * ''R'' has a unique maximal right ideal. * 1 ≠ 0 and the sum of any two non units in ''R'' is a nonunit. * 1 ≠ 0 and if ''x'' is any elem ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quasicoherent Sheaf
In mathematics, especially in algebraic geometry and the theory of complex manifolds, coherent sheaves are a class of sheaves closely linked to the geometric properties of the underlying space. The definition of coherent sheaves is made with reference to a sheaf of rings that codifies this geometric information. Coherent sheaves can be seen as a generalization of vector bundles. Unlike vector bundles, they form an abelian category, and so they are closed under operations such as taking kernels, images, and cokernels. The quasicoherent sheaves are a generalization of coherent sheaves and include the locally free sheaves of infinite rank. Coherent sheaf cohomology is a powerful technique, in particular for studying the sections of a given coherent sheaf. Definitions A quasicoherent sheaf on a ringed space (X, \mathcal O_X) is a sheaf \mathcal F of \mathcal O_Xmodules which has a local presentation, that is, every point in X has an open neighborhood U in which there is an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Localization Of A Module
In commutative algebra and algebraic geometry, localization is a formal way to introduce the "denominators" to a given ring or module. That is, it introduces a new ring/module out of an existing ring/module ''R'', so that it consists of fractions \frac, such that the denominator ''s'' belongs to a given subset ''S'' of ''R''. If ''S'' is the set of the nonzero elements of an integral domain, then the localization is the field of fractions: this case generalizes the construction of the field \Q of rational numbers from the ring \Z of integers. The technique has become fundamental, particularly in algebraic geometry, as it provides a natural link to sheaf theory. In fact, the term ''localization'' originated in algebraic geometry: if ''R'' is a ring of functions defined on some geometric object (algebraic variety) ''V'', and one wants to study this variety "locally" near a point ''p'', then one considers the set ''S'' of all functions that are not zero at ''p'' and localizes ''R'' w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 