Plane (geometry)
In mathematics, a plane is a Euclidean ( flat), twodimensional surface that extends indefinitely. A plane is the twodimensional analogue of a point (zero dimensions), a line (one dimension) and threedimensional space. Planes can arise as subspaces of some higherdimensional space, as with one of a room's walls, infinitely extended, or they may enjoy an independent existence in their own right, as in the setting of twodimensional Euclidean geometry. Sometimes the word ''plane'' is used more generally to describe a twodimensional surface, for example the hyperbolic plane and elliptic plane. When working exclusively in twodimensional Euclidean space, the definite article is used, so ''the'' plane refers to the whole space. Many fundamental tasks in mathematics, geometry, trigonometry, graph theory, and graphing are performed in a twodimensional space, often in the plane. Euclidean geometry Euclid set forth the first great landmark of mathematical thought, an axio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Plane Equation Qtl3
Plane(s) most often refers to: * Aero or airplane, a powered, fixedwing aircraft * Plane (geometry), a flat, 2dimensional surface Plane or planes may also refer to: Biology * Plane (tree) or ''Platanus'', wetland native plant * ''Planes'' (genus), marsh crabs in Grapsidae * '' Bindahara phocides'', the plane butterfly of Asia Maritime transport * Planing (boat), where weight is predominantly supported by hydrodynamic lift * ''Plane'' (wherry), a Norfolk canal boat, in use 1931–1949 Music *"Planes", a 1976 song by Colin Blunstone *"Planes (Experimental Aircraft)", a 1989 song by Jefferson Airplane from '' Jefferson Airplane'' *"Planez", originally "Planes", a 2015 song by Jeremih *"The Plane", a 1987 song on the '' Empire of the Sun'' soundtrack *"The Plane", a 1997 song by Kinito Méndez Other entertainment * Plane (''Dungeons & Dragons''), any fictional realm of the D&D roleplaying game's multiverse * ''Planes'' (film), a 2013 animation **'' Planes: Fire & Resc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclid
Euclid (; grcgre, Εὐκλείδης; BC) was an ancient Greek mathematician active as a geometer and logician. Considered the "father of geometry", he is chiefly known for the '' Elements'' treatise, which established the foundations of geometry that largely dominated the field until the early 19th century. His system, now referred to as Euclidean geometry, involved new innovations in combination with a synthesis of theories from earlier Greek mathematicians, including Eudoxus of Cnidus, Hippocrates of Chios, Thales and Theaetetus. With Archimedes and Apollonius of Perga, Euclid is generally considered among the greatest mathematicians of antiquity, and one of the most influential in the history of mathematics. Very little is known of Euclid's life, and most information comes from the philosophers Proclus and Pappus of Alexandria many centuries later. Until the early Renaissance he was often mistaken for the earlier philosopher Euclid of Megara, causing his biogra ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Collinear
In geometry, collinearity of a set of points is the property of their lying on a single line. A set of points with this property is said to be collinear (sometimes spelled as colinear). In greater generality, the term has been used for aligned objects, that is, things being "in a line" or "in a row". Points on a line In any geometry, the set of points on a line are said to be collinear. In Euclidean geometry this relation is intuitively visualized by points lying in a row on a "straight line". However, in most geometries (including Euclidean) a line is typically a primitive (undefined) object type, so such visualizations will not necessarily be appropriate. A model for the geometry offers an interpretation of how the points, lines and other object types relate to one another and a notion such as collinearity must be interpreted within the context of that model. For instance, in spherical geometry, where lines are represented in the standard model by great circles of a sphere, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cartesian Product
In mathematics, specifically set theory, the Cartesian product of two sets ''A'' and ''B'', denoted ''A''×''B'', is the set of all ordered pairs where ''a'' is in ''A'' and ''b'' is in ''B''. In terms of setbuilder notation, that is : A\times B = \. A table can be created by taking the Cartesian product of a set of rows and a set of columns. If the Cartesian product is taken, the cells of the table contain ordered pairs of the form . One can similarly define the Cartesian product of ''n'' sets, also known as an ''n''fold Cartesian product, which can be represented by an ''n''dimensional array, where each element is an ''n'' tuple. An ordered pair is a 2tuple or couple. More generally still, one can define the Cartesian product of an indexed family of sets. The Cartesian product is named after René Descartes, whose formulation of analytic geometry gave rise to the concept, which is further generalized in terms of direct product. Examples A deck of cards A ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ruled Surface
In geometry, a surface is ruled (also called a scroll) if through every point of there is a straight line that lies on . Examples include the plane, the lateral surface of a cylinder or cone, a conical surface with elliptical directrix, the right conoid, the helicoid, and the tangent developable of a smooth curve in space. A ruled surface can be described as the set of points swept by a moving straight line. For example, a cone is formed by keeping one point of a line fixed whilst moving another point along a circle. A surface is ''doubly ruled'' if through every one of its points there are two distinct lines that lie on the surface. The hyperbolic paraboloid and the hyperboloid of one sheet are doubly ruled surfaces. The plane is the only surface which contains at least three distinct lines through each of its points . The properties of being ruled or doubly ruled are preserved by projective maps, and therefore are concepts of projective geometry. In algebraic geom ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Perpendicular
In elementary geometry, two geometric objects are perpendicular if they intersect at a right angle (90 degrees or π/2 radians). The condition of perpendicularity may be represented graphically using the '' perpendicular symbol'', ⟂. It can be defined between two lines (or two line segments), between a line and a plane, and between two planes. Perpendicularity is one particular instance of the more general mathematical concept of '' orthogonality''; perpendicularity is the orthogonality of classical geometric objects. Thus, in advanced mathematics, the word "perpendicular" is sometimes used to describe much more complicated geometric orthogonality conditions, such as that between a surface and its '' normal vector''. Definitions A line is said to be perpendicular to another line if the two lines intersect at a right angle. Explicitly, a first line is perpendicular to a second line if (1) the two lines meet; and (2) at the point of intersection the straight angle on one s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Skew Lines
In threedimensional geometry, skew lines are two lines that do not intersect and are not parallel. A simple example of a pair of skew lines is the pair of lines through opposite edges of a regular tetrahedron. Two lines that both lie in the same plane must either cross each other or be parallel, so skew lines can exist only in three or more dimensions. Two lines are skew if and only if they are not coplanar. General position If four points are chosen at random uniformly within a unit cube, they will almost surely define a pair of skew lines. After the first three points have been chosen, the fourth point will define a nonskew line if, and only if, it is coplanar with the first three points. However, the plane through the first three points forms a subset of measure zero of the cube, and the probability that the fourth point lies on this plane is zero. If it does not, the lines defined by the points will be skew. Similarly, in threedimensional space a very small perturbat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Parallel (geometry)
In geometry, parallel lines are coplanar straight lines that do not intersect at any point. Parallel planes are planes in the same threedimensional space that never meet. ''Parallel curves'' are curves that do not touch each other or intersect and keep a fixed minimum distance. In threedimensional Euclidean space, a line and a plane that do not share a point are also said to be parallel. However, two noncoplanar lines are called '' skew lines''. Parallel lines are the subject of Euclid's parallel postulate. Parallelism is primarily a property of affine geometries and Euclidean geometry is a special instance of this type of geometry. In some other geometries, such as hyperbolic geometry, lines can have analogous properties that are referred to as parallelism. Symbol The parallel symbol is \parallel. For example, AB \parallel CD indicates that line ''AB'' is parallel to line ''CD''. In the Unicode character set, the "parallel" and "not parallel" signs have co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Planes Parallel
Plane(s) most often refers to: * Aero or airplane, a powered, fixedwing aircraft * Plane (geometry), a flat, 2dimensional surface Plane or planes may also refer to: Biology * Plane (tree) or ''Platanus'', wetland native plant * ''Planes'' (genus), marsh crabs in Grapsidae * '' Bindahara phocides'', the plane butterfly of Asia Maritime transport * Planing (boat), where weight is predominantly supported by hydrodynamic lift * ''Plane'' (wherry), a Norfolk canal boat, in use 1931–1949 Music *"Planes", a 1976 song by Colin Blunstone *"Planes (Experimental Aircraft)", a 1989 song by Jefferson Airplane from '' Jefferson Airplane'' *"Planez", originally "Planes", a 2015 song by Jeremih *"The Plane", a 1987 song on the '' Empire of the Sun'' soundtrack *"The Plane", a 1997 song by Kinito Méndez Other entertainment * Plane (''Dungeons & Dragons''), any fictional realm of the D&D roleplaying game's multiverse * ''Planes'' (film), a 2013 animation **'' Planes: Fire & Resc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Line (mathematics)
In geometry, a line is an infinitely long object with no width, depth, or curvature. Thus, lines are onedimensional objects, though they may exist in two, three, or higher dimension spaces. The word ''line'' may also refer to a line segment in everyday life, which has two points to denote its ends. Lines can be referred by two points that lay on it (e.g., \overleftrightarrow) or by a single letter (e.g., \ell). Euclid described a line as "breadthless length" which "lies evenly with respect to the points on itself"; he introduced several postulates as basic unprovable properties from which he constructed all of geometry, which is now called Euclidean geometry to avoid confusion with other geometries which have been introduced since the end of the 19th century (such as nonEuclidean, projective and affine geometry). In modern mathematics, given the multitude of geometries, the concept of a line is closely tied to the way the geometry is described. For instance, in analyt ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Noncollinear Points
In geometry, a line is an infinitely long object with no width, depth, or curvature. Thus, lines are onedimensional objects, though they may exist in two, three, or higher dimension spaces. The word ''line'' may also refer to a line segment in everyday life, which has two points to denote its ends. Lines can be referred by two points that lay on it (e.g., \overleftrightarrow) or by a single letter (e.g., \ell). Euclid described a line as "breadthless length" which "lies evenly with respect to the points on itself"; he introduced several postulates as basic unprovable properties from which he constructed all of geometry, which is now called Euclidean geometry to avoid confusion with other geometries which have been introduced since the end of the 19th century (such as nonEuclidean, projective and affine geometry). In modern mathematics, given the multitude of geometries, the concept of a line is closely tied to the way the geometry is described. For instance, in anal ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polar Coordinate System
In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a twodimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction. The reference point (analogous to the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system) is called the ''pole'', and the ray from the pole in the reference direction is the ''polar axis''. The distance from the pole is called the ''radial coordinate'', ''radial distance'' or simply ''radius'', and the angle is called the ''angular coordinate'', ''polar angle'', or ''azimuth''. Angles in polar notation are generally expressed in either degrees or radians (2 rad being equal to 360°). Grégoire de SaintVincent and Bonaventura Cavalieri independently introduced the concepts in the mid17th century, though the actual term "polar coordinates" has been attributed to Gregorio Fontana in the 18th century. The initial motivation for the introduction of the polar system was the study of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 