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Oval Window
The oval window (or ''fenestra vestibuli'' or ''fenestra ovalis'') is a membrane-covered opening from the middle ear to the cochlea The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing. It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth, in humans making 2.75 turns around its axis, the modiolus (cochlea), modiolus. A core component of the cochlea is the Organ of Cort ... of the inner ear. Vibrations that contact the tympanic membrane In the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of concerned with the study of the structure of s and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living thing ... travel through the three ossicles The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a spe ... and ...
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Middle Ear
The middle ear is the portion of the ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is the external part of the ear, which consists ... internal to the eardrum In the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, ..., and external to the oval window The oval window (or ''fenestra vestibuli'' or ''fenestra ovalis'') is a membrane-covered opening from the middle ear to the cochlea The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing. It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth, ... of the inner ear Inner Ear (established in 2007 in Bodø, Norway) is a Norwegian record label initiated and led by the brothers and ja ...
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Cochlea
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear Inner Ear (established in 2007 in Bodø, Norway) is a Norwegian record label initiated and led by the brothers and jazz musicians Tore Johansen and Roger Johansen (musician), Roger Johansen. They opened Inner Ear to release their music when their ... involved in hearing Schematic diagram of the human ear Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive Sound, sounds through an organ, such as an ear, by detecting Vibration, vibrations as periodic changes in the pressure of a surrounding medium. Th .... It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth The bony labyrinth (also osseous labyrinth or otic capsule) is the rigid, bony outer wall of the inner ear in the temporal bone. It consists of three parts: the vestibule of the ear, vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea. These are cavities ho ..., in humans making 2.75 turns around its axis, the modiolus. A core component of the cochlea is the Organ of Corti The ...
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Tympanic Membrane
In the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It ... of humans and various other tetrapod Tetrapods (; ) are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda (). It includes extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a sp ...s, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that all ... that separates the external ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa ...
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Ossicles
The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...s in either middle ear The middle ear is the portion of the ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is th ... that are among the smallest bones in the human body. They serve to transmit sound In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ...s from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth In Greek mythology ...
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Stapes
The ''stapes'' or stirrup is a bone in the middle ear of humans and other animals which is involved in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear. This bone is connected to the oval window by its Annular ligament of stapes, annular ligament, which allows the footplate to transmit sound energy through the oval window into the inner ear. The ''stapes'' is the smallest and lightest bone in the human body, and is so-called because of its resemblance to a stirrup ( la, Stapes). Structure The ''stapes'' is the third bone of the three ossicles in the middle ear and the smallest in the human body. It measures roughly , greater along the head-base span. It rests on the oval window, to which it is connected by an annular ligament of stapes, annular ligament and articulates with the ''incus'', or anvil through the incudostapedial joint. They are connected by anterior and posterior limbs ( la, crura). Development The ''stapes'' develops from the second pharyngeal arch during th ...
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Foramina Of The Skull
This article lists Foramen, foramina that occur in the human body. __TOC__ Skull The human skull has numerous openings (foramen, foramina), through which cranial nerves, arteries, veins, and other structures pass. These foramina vary in size and number, with age. Gray193.png , Base of skull, Base of the skull, upper surface Gray187.png , Base of the skull, inferior surface, attachment of muscles marked in red Spine Within the vertebral column (spine) of vertebrates, including the Human vertebral column, human spine, each bone has an opening at both its top and bottom to allow nerves, arteries, veins, etc. to pass through. Other * Apical foramen, the opening at the tip of the root of a tooth * Foramen ovale (heart), an opening between the venous and arterial sides of the fetal heart * Foramen transversarium, one of a pair of openings in each cervical vertebra, in which the vertebral artery travels * Greater sciatic foramen, a major foramen of the pelvis * Interv ...
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Eardrum
In the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, ... of humans and various other tetrapod Tetrapods (; ) are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda (). It includes extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a sp ...s, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that all ... that separates the external ear from the middle ear The middle ear is the portion of ...
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Round Window
The round window is one of the two openings from the middle ear into the inner ear. It is sealed by the secondary tympanic membrane (round window membrane), which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the inner ear through the oval window. It allows fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur. Structure The round window is situated below (inferior to) and a little behind (posterior to) the oval window, from which it is separated by a rounded elevation, the Promontory of tympanic cavity, promontory. It is located at the bottom of a funnel-shaped depression (the round window niche) and, in the macerated bone, opens into the cochlea of the internal ear; in the fresh state it is closed by a membrane, the secondary tympanic membrane (Latin: ''membrana tympani secundaria'', or ''membrana fenestrae cochleae'') or round window membrane, which is a complex saddle point shape. The ...
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Washington University
Washington University in St. Louis (WashU, or WUSTL) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades from the charts. Both "In Pri ... research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ... in Greater St. Louis Greater St. Louis is a bi-state metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical a ... with its main campus ( Danforth) mostly in unincorporated St. Louis County, Missouri St. Louis County is located in the ...
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Auditory System
The auditory system is the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular bio ... for the sense of hearing Schematic diagram of the human ear Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive Sound, sounds through an organ, such as an ear, by detecting Vibration, vibrations as periodic changes in the pressure of a surrounding medium. Th .... It includes both the sensory organs (the ears) and the auditory parts of the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular bio .... System overview The outer ear The outer ear, external ear, o ...
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