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Labyrinthodont
Labyrinthodontia (Greek language, Greek, 'maze-toothed') is an Extinction, extinct amphibian subclass, which constituted some of the dominant animals of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras (about 390 to 150 million years ago). The group evolved from Sarcopterygii, lobe-finned fishes in the Devonian and is ancestral to all Extant taxon, extant tetrapod, landliving vertebrates. As such it constitutes an evolutionary grade (a paraphyletic group) rather than a natural group (clade). The name describes the pattern of infolding of the dentin and Tooth enamel, enamel of the teeth, which are often the only part of the creatures that fossilize. They are also distinguished by a heavily armoured skull roof (hence the older name "Stegocephalia"), and complex vertebrae, the structure of which were used in Labyrinthodontia#Vertebral classification, older classifications of the group. Because labyrinthodonts do not form a monophyletic group, many modern researchers have abandoned the term. Ho ...
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Temnospondyli
Temnospondyli (from Greek language, Greek τέμνειν, ''temnein'' 'to cut' and σπόνδυλος, ''spondylos'' 'vertebra') is a diverse order (biology), order of small to giant tetrapods—often considered Labyrinthodontia, primitive amphibians—that flourished worldwide during the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods. A few species continued into the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Fossils have been found on every continent. During about 210 million years of evolutionary history, they adapted to a wide range of habitats, including fresh water, terrestrial, and even coastal marine environments. Their life history is well understood, with fossils known from the larval stage, metamorphosis, and maturity. Most temnospondyls were list of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic, although some were almost fully terrestrial, returning to the water only to breed. These temnospondyls were some of the first vertebrates fully adapted to life on land. Although temnospondyls are con ...
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Skull Roof
The skull roof, or the roofing bones of the skull The skull is a bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North A ..., are a set of bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...s covering the brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tis ..., eye Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide living organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as ...
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Reptiliomorpha
Reptiliomorpha is a clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell ... containing the amniotes Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον ''amnion'', "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός ''amnos'', "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising reptiles (c ... and those tetrapod Tetrapods (; ) are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda (). It includes extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a sp ...s that share a more recent common ancestor with amniotes than with living amphibian Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the Class (biology), c ...
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Tetrapod
Tetrapods (; ) are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda (). It includes extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the endling, last individual o ... and extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biol ... amphibian Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the Class (biology), class Amphibia. All living amphibians belong to the group Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial animal, ter ...s, reptile Reptiles, as most commonly defined, are the animals in the class Class or The Class may refer ...
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Lissamphibia
The Lissamphibia is a group of tetrapod Tetrapods (; ) are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda (). It includes extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a sp ...s that includes all modern amphibian Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the Class (biology), class Amphibia. All living amphibians belong to the group Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial animal, ter ...s. Lissamphibians consist of three living groups: the Salientia The Salientia (Latin ''salere'' (''salio''), "to jump") are a Crown group#Pan-group, total group of amphibians that includes the Order (biology), order Frog, Anura, the frogs and toads, and various Extinction, extinct proto-frogs that are more clo ... (frog A frog is any member of a diverse and largely Carnivore, carnivorous group of short- ...
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Lissamphibia
The Lissamphibia is a group of tetrapod Tetrapods (; ) are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda (). It includes extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a sp ...s that includes all modern amphibian Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the Class (biology), class Amphibia. All living amphibians belong to the group Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial animal, ter ...s. Lissamphibians consist of three living groups: the Salientia The Salientia (Latin ''salere'' (''salio''), "to jump") are a Crown group#Pan-group, total group of amphibians that includes the Order (biology), order Frog, Anura, the frogs and toads, and various Extinction, extinct proto-frogs that are more clo ... (frog A frog is any member of a diverse and largely Carnivore, carnivorous group of short- ...
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Evolutionary Grade
In , a grade is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ... complexity. The term was coined by British biologist Julian Huxley Sir Julian Sorell Huxley (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was an English evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reprodu ..., to contrast with clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ..., a strictly phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natur ...
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Lepospondyli
Lepospondyli is a diverse taxon of early tetrapods. With the exception of one late-surviving lepospondyl from the Late Permian of Morocco (''Diplocaulus minumus''), lepospondyls lived from the Early Carboniferous (Mississippian age, Mississippian) to the Early Permian and were geographically restricted to what is now Europe and North America. Five major groups of lepospondyls are known: Adelospondyli; Aïstopoda; Lysorophia; Microsauria; and Nectridea. Lepospondyls have a diverse range of body forms and include species with newt-like, eel- or snake-like, and lizard-like forms. Various species were aquatic, semiaquatic, or terrestrial. None were large (the biggest genus, the diplocaulid ''Diplocaulus'', reached a meter in length, but most were much smaller), and they are assumed to have lived in specialized ecological niches not taken by the more numerous temnospondyl amphibians that coexisted with them in the Paleozoic. Lepospondyli was named in 1888 by Karl Alfred von Zittel, who ...
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Sarcopterygii
Sarcopterygii (; ) — sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii () — is a taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ... (traditionally a class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ... or subclass) of the bony fishes Osteichthyes (), popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. They form a siste ... whose members are known as lobe-finned fishes. The group Tetrapoda, a superclass inc ...
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Mesozoic
The Mesozoic Era ( ), also called the Age of Reptiles and the Age of Conifers, is the second-to-last era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the history of Earth. Compar ... of Earth's geological history, lasting from about and comprising the Triassic The Triassic ( ) is a geologic period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions int ..., Jurassic The Jurassic ( ) is a Geological period, geologic period and System (stratigraphy), stratigraphic system that spanned from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period, approximately Mya. The J ... and Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a ...
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Evolutionary Grade
In , a grade is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ... complexity. The term was coined by British biologist Julian Huxley Sir Julian Sorell Huxley (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was an English evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reprodu ..., to contrast with clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ..., a strictly phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natur ...
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Ichthyostegalia
Ichthyostegalia is an order (biology), order of extinct amphibians, representing the earliest tetrapod, landliving vertebrates. The group is thus an evolutionary grade rather than a clade. While the group are recognized as having feet rather than fins, most, if not all, had internal gills in adulthood and lived primarily as shallow water fish and spent minimal time on land. The group evolved from elpistostegalian fish in the early or middle Devonian. They continued to thrive as denizens of swampland and tidal channels throughout the period. They gave rise to the Temnospondyli and then disappeared during the transition to the Carboniferous. Classification *Ichthyostegalia **Acanthostegidae ***''Acanthostega'' **Crassigyrinidae ***''Crassigyrinus'' **Densignathidae ***''Densignathus'' **Elginerpetontidae ***''Elginerpeton'' ***''Obruchevichthys'' **Ichthyostegidae ***''Hynerpeton'' ***''Ichthyostega'' **Jakubsonidae ***''Jakubsonia'' **Metaxygnathidae ***''Metaxygnathus'' **Sinost ...
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