Exponentiation
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as , involving two numbers, the '' base'' and the ''exponent'' or ''power'' , and pronounced as " (raised) to the (power of) ". When is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, is the product of multiplying bases: b^n = \underbrace_. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base. In that case, is called "''b'' raised to the ''n''th power", "''b'' (raised) to the power of ''n''", "the ''n''th power of ''b''", "''b'' to the ''n''th power", or most briefly as "''b'' to the ''n''th". Starting from the basic fact stated above that, for any positive integer n, b^n is n occurrences of b all multiplied by each other, several other properties of exponentiation directly follow. In particular: \begin b^ & = \underbrace_ \\ ex& = \underbrace_ \times \underbrace_ \\ ex& = b^n \times b^m \end In other words, when multiplying a base raised to one ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multiplication
Multiplication (often denoted by the Multiplication sign, cross symbol , by the midline #Notation and terminology, dot operator , by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk ) is one of the four Elementary arithmetic, elementary Operation (mathematics), mathematical operations of arithmetic, with the other ones being addition, subtraction, and division (mathematics), division. The result of a multiplication operation is called a ''product (mathematics), product''. The multiplication of Natural number, whole numbers may be thought of as Multiplication and repeated addition, repeated addition; that is, the multiplication of two numbers is equivalent to adding as many copies of one of them, the ''multiplicand'', as the quantity of the other one, the ''multiplier''. Both numbers can be referred to as ''factors''. :a\times b = \underbrace_ For example, 4 multiplied by 3, often written as 3 \times 4 and spoken as "3 times 4", can be calculated by adding 3 copies of 4 t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Square (algebra)
In mathematics, a square is the result of multiplication, multiplying a number by itself. The verb "to square" is used to denote this operation. Squaring is the same as exponentiation, raising to the power 2 (number), 2, and is denoted by a superscript 2; for instance, the square of 3 may be written as 32, which is the number 9. In some cases when superscripts are not available, as for instance in programming languages or plain text files, the notations ''x''^2 (caret) or ''x''**2 may be used in place of ''x''2. The adjective which corresponds to squaring is ''wikt:quadratic, quadratic''. The square of an integer may also be called a square number or a perfect square. In algebra, the operation of squaring is often generalized to polynomials, other expression (mathematics), expressions, or values in systems of mathematical values other than the numbers. For instance, the square of the linear function (calculus), linear polynomial is the quadratic polynomial . One of the imp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Numbers
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hippocrates Of Chios
Hippocrates of Chios ( grcgre, Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Χῖος; c. 470 – c. 410 BC) was an ancient Greek mathematician, geometer, and astronomer. He was born on the isle of Chios, where he was originally a merchant. After some misadventures (he was robbed by either pirates or fraudulent customs officials) he went to Athens, possibly for litigation, where he became a leading mathematician. On Chios, Hippocrates may have been a pupil of the mathematician and astronomer Oenopides of Chios. In his mathematical work there probably was some Pythagorean influence too, perhaps via contacts between Chios and the neighboring island of Samos, a center of Pythagorean thinking: Hippocrates has been described as a 'paraPythagorean', a philosophical 'fellow traveler'. "Reduction" arguments such as ''reductio ad absurdum'' argument (or proof by contradiction) have been traced to him, as has the use of power to denote the square of a line. W. W. Rouse Ball, A Short Account of the H ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Expo02
An expo is a trade exposition. It may also refer to: Events and venues * World's fair, a large international public exposition * Singapore Expo, convention and exposition venue ** Expo Axis, one of the world's largest membrane roofs, constructed for the 2010 Shanghai Expo ** Expo MRT station, part of the Singapore MRT Changi Airport Extension, built to handle fluctuating passenger volumes due to events at the adjacent Singapore Expo * Expo Tel Aviv, convention and exhibition venue * Floriade Expo, an international exhibition and garden festival in the Netherlands Arts, entertainment, and media Music * ''Expo'' (album), a 2005 album by Robert Schneider/Marbles * ''Expo'' (Magnus Lindberg), a 2009 10minute musical composition by Magnus Lindberg * ''Expo'' (Stockhausen), a 1970 composition for three players by Karlheinz Stockhausen Other arts, entertainment, and media * ''Expo'' (magazine), a Swedish antifascist magazine * Expo Channel, a home shopping channel in Austr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wave
In physics, mathematics, and related fields, a wave is a propagating dynamic disturbance (change from equilibrium) of one or more quantities. Waves can be periodic, in which case those quantities oscillate repeatedly about an equilibrium (resting) value at some frequency. When the entire waveform moves in one direction, it is said to be a ''traveling wave''; by contrast, a pair of superimposed periodic waves traveling in opposite directions makes a ''standing wave''. In a standing wave, the amplitude of vibration has nulls at some positions where the wave amplitude appears smaller or even zero. Waves are often described by a ''wave equation'' (standing wave field of two opposite waves) or a oneway wave equation for single wave propagation in a defined direction. Two types of waves are most commonly studied in classical physics. In a '' mechanical wave'', stress and strain fields oscillate about a mechanical equilibrium. A mechanical wave is a local deformation (strain ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Muhammad Ibn Mūsā AlKhwārizmī
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī ( ar, محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي, Muḥammad ibn Musā alKhwārazmi; ), or alKhwarizmi, was a Persians, Persian polymath from Khwarazm, who produced vastly influential works in Mathematics in medieval Islam, mathematics, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, astronomy, and Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, geography. Around 820 CE, he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.Maher, P. (1998), "From AlJabr to Algebra", ''Mathematics in School'', 27(4), 14–15. AlKhwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (''The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing'', c. 813–833 CEOaks, J. (2009), "Polynomials and Equations in Arabic Algebra", ''Archive for History of Exact Sciences'', 63(2), 169–203.) presented the first systematic solution of linear equation, linear and quadratic equations. One of his principal achievements in algebra was his demon ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Archimedes
Archimedes of Syracuse (;; ) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and inventor from the ancient city of Syracuse in Sicily. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time,* * * * * * * * * * Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying the concept of the infinitely small and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems. These include the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, the area of an ellipse, the area under a parabola, the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution, the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution, and the area of a spiral. Heath, Thomas L. 1897. ''Works of Archimedes''. Archimedes' other mathematical achievements include deriving an approximation of pi, defining ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

The Sand Reckoner
''The Sand Reckoner'' ( el, Ψαμμίτης, ''Psammites'') is a work by Archimedes, an Ancient Greek mathematician of the 3rd century BC, in which he set out to determine an upper bound for the number of grains of sand that fit into the universe. In order to do this, he had to estimate the size of the universe according to the contemporary model, and invent a way to talk about extremely large numbers. The work, also known in Latin as ''Archimedis Syracusani Arenarius & Dimensio Circuli'', which is about eight pages long in translation, is addressed to the Syracusan king Gelo II (son of Hiero II), and is probably the most accessible work of Archimedes; in some sense, it is the first researchexpository paper.Archimedes, The Sand Reckoner 511 R U, by Ilan Vardi accessed 28II2007. [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Macmillan Publishers
Macmillan Publishers (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group; formally Macmillan Publishers Ltd and Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC) is a British publishing company traditionally considered to be one of the 'Big Five' English language publishers. Founded in London in 1843 by Scottish brothers Daniel and Alexander MacMillan, the firm would soon establish itself as a leading publisher in Britain. It published two of the bestknown works of Victorian era children’s literature, Lewis Carroll's '' Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'' (1865) and Rudyard Kipling's '' The Jungle Book'' (1894). Former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Harold Macmillan, grandson of cofounder Daniel, was chairman of the company from 1964 until his death in December 1986. Since 1999, Macmillan has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Holtzbrinck Publishing Group with offices in 41 countries worldwide and operations in more than thirty others. History Macmillan was founded in London in 1843 by ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclid
Euclid (; grcgre, Εὐκλείδης; BC) was an ancient Greek mathematician active as a geometer and logician. Considered the "father of geometry", he is chiefly known for the '' Elements'' treatise, which established the foundations of geometry that largely dominated the field until the early 19th century. His system, now referred to as Euclidean geometry, involved new innovations in combination with a synthesis of theories from earlier Greek mathematicians, including Eudoxus of Cnidus, Hippocrates of Chios, Thales and Theaetetus. With Archimedes and Apollonius of Perga, Euclid is generally considered among the greatest mathematicians of antiquity, and one of the most influential in the history of mathematics. Very little is known of Euclid's life, and most information comes from the philosophers Proclus and Pappus of Alexandria many centuries later. Until the early Renaissance he was often mistaken for the earlier philosopher Euclid of Megara, causing his biogra ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Greek Mathematics
Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts and ideas stemming from the Archaic through the Hellenistic and Roman periods, mostly extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean. Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranean from Italy to North Africa but were united by Greek culture and the Greek language. The word "mathematics" itself derives from the grc, , máthēma , meaning "subject of instruction". The study of mathematics for its own sake and the use of generalized mathematical theories and proofs is an important difference between Greek mathematics and those of preceding civilizations. Origins of Greek mathematics The origin of Greek mathematics is not well documented. The earliest advanced civilizations in Greece and in Europe were the Minoan and later Mycenaean civilizations, both of which flourished during the 2nd millennium BCE. While these civilizations possessed writing a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 