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Corrosion Engineering
Corrosion engineering is an engineering specialty that applies scientific, technical, engineering skills, and knowledge of natural laws and physical resources to design and implement materials, structures, devices, systems, and procedures to manage corrosion. From a holistic perspective, corrosion is the phenomenon of metals returning to the state they are found in nature. The driving force that causes metals to corrode is a consequence of their temporary existence in metallic form. To produce metals starting from naturally occurring minerals and ores, it is necessary to provide a certain amount of energy, e.g. Iron ore in a blast furnace. It is therefore thermodynamically inevitable that these metals when exposed to various environments would revert to their state found in nature. Corrosion and corrosion engineering thus involves a study of chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, electrochemistry and materials science. General background Generally related to metallurgy or materi ...
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Corrosion
Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable oxide. It is the gradual deterioration of materials (usually a metal) by chemical or electrochemical reaction with their environment. Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated to controlling and preventing corrosion. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen, hydrogen or hydroxide. Rusting, the formation of iron oxides, is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. This type of damage typically produces oxide(s) or salt(s) of the original metal and results in a distinctive orange colouration. Corrosion can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or polymers, although in this context, the term "degradation" is more common. Corrosion degrades the useful properties of materials and structures including strength, appearance and permeability to liquids and gases. Many str ...
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Cathodic Protection
Cathodic protection (CP; ) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell. A simple method of protection connects the metal to be protected to a more easily corroded "sacrificial metal" to act as the anode. The sacrificial metal then corrodes instead of the protected metal. For structures such as long pipelines, where passive galvanic cathodic protection is not adequate, an external DC electrical power source is used to provide sufficient current. Cathodic protection systems protect a wide range of metallic structures in various environments. Common applications are: steel water or fuel pipelines and steel storage tanks such as home water heaters; steel pier piles; ship and boat hulls; offshore oil platforms and onshore oil well casings; offshore wind farm foundations and metal reinforcement bars in concrete buildings and structures. Another common application is in galvanized steel, in which a sa ...
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Ammonia
Ammonia is an inorganic compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula . A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a distinct pungent smell. Biologically, it is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to 45% of the world's food and fertilizers. Around 70% of ammonia is used to make fertilisers in various forms and composition, such as urea and Diammonium phosphate. Ammonia in pure form is also applied directly into the soil. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products. It is mainly collected by downward displacement of both air and water. Although common in nature—both terrestrially and in the outer planets of the Solar System—and in wide use, ammonia is bot ...
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Aluminum
Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a great affinity towards oxygen, and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air. Aluminium visually resembles silver, both in its color and in its great ability to reflect light. It is soft, non-magnetic and ductile. It has one stable isotope, 27Al; this isotope is very common, making aluminium the twelfth most common element in the Universe. The radioactivity of 26Al is used in radiodating. Chemically, aluminium is a post-transition metal in the boron group; as is common for the group, aluminium forms compounds primarily in the +3 oxidation state. The aluminium cation Al3+ is small and highly charged; as such, it is polarizing, and bonds aluminium forms tend towards covalency. The strong affinity towa ...
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Melvin Romanoff
Melvin Romanoff was a physical chemist and corrosion engineer who specialized and wrote books about underground and soil corrosion. He worked for many years at the National Bureau of standards. His tenure at The National Bureau of Standards later renamed the National Institute of Standards and Technology was from 1937 to 1970. He was inducted into the hall of fame in 1995. For many years, NACE, the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, now NACE International presented a Melvin Romanoff award in his honor. Work at the National Bureau of Standards The Underground Corrosion of Steel Piling was originally written as a collection of papers as Monograph 58, for the National Bureau of standards. One of the two authors was Melvin Romanoff. After his death in October 1970 it was superseded by Monograph 158 and dedicated in his honor. It was published March 1972. The citation honoring him in this publication is in the form of a eulogy and reads in part "he was the guiding light and mot ...
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Mars Guy Fontana
Mars Guy Fontana was a corrosion engineer, professor of Metallurgical Engineering at Ohio State University. He was born April 6, 1910 in Iron Mountain, Michigan and died February 29, 1988. Education and other work Mars Guy Fontana graduated with a Bachelor of Science followed by a Master of Science and then awarded a Doctor of Philosophy in the field of metallurgical engineering from the University of Michigan. He was known as a researcher/engineer who added to the field of knowledge in the fairly specialized area of corrosion and its various applications in engineering – corrosion engineering. As well as writing numerous papers he wrote the textbook ''Corrosion Engineering'' which was first published in 1967 ; there have been a number of updated editions since then. This book has been used as the primary textbook and recommended reading for at least one highly ranked University masters degree course. In his lifetime he wrote many papers in various scientific and engineering ...
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Ulick Richardson Evans
Ulick Richardson Evans (31 March 1889 – 3 April 1980) was a British chemist who specialised in metal corrosion. Life He was born in Wimbledon, London and educated at Marlborough College (1902–1907) and King's College, Cambridge (1907–1911). He carried out research on electrochemistry at Wiesbaden and London until interrupted by the First World War, during which he served in the Army. After the war he returned to Cambridge, where he carried out research on metal corrosion and oxidation for the rest of his working life, helping to develop quantitative and scientific laws of corrosion and writing over 200 scientific papers in the process, as well as several books. Elected to the Royal Society in 1949, his citation stated that he was "one of the leading authorities on metallic corrosion. He has published a number of papers on this subject as well as books which have been translated into several foreign languages. In experimental technique he was the first to separate oxide film ...
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Herbert H
Herbert may refer to: People Individuals * Herbert (musician), a pseudonym of Matthew Herbert Name * Herbert (given name) * Herbert (surname) Places Antarctica * Herbert Mountains, Coats Land * Herbert Sound, Graham Land Australia * Herbert, Northern Territory, a rural locality * Herbert, South Australia. former government town * Division of Herbert, an electoral district in Queensland * Herbert River, a river in Queensland * County of Herbert, a cadastral unit in South Australia Canada * Herbert, Saskatchewan, Canada, a town * Herbert Road, St. Albert, Canada New Zealand * Herbert, New Zealand, a town * Mount Herbert (New Zealand) United States * Herbert, Illinois, an unincorporated community * Herbert, Michigan, a former settlement * Herbert Creek, a stream in South Dakota * Herbert Island, Alaska Arts, entertainment, and media Fictional entities * Herbert (Disney character) * Herbert Pocket (''Great Expectations'' character), Pip's close friend and roommate in the ...
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Marcel Pourbaix
Marcel Pourbaix (16 September 1904 – 28 September 1998) was a Belgian chemist and pianist. He performed his most well known research at the University of Brussels, studying corrosion. His biggest achievement is the derivation of potential-pH, better known as “ Pourbaix Diagrams”. Pourbaix Diagrams are thermodynamic charts constructed using the Nernst equation and visualize the relationship between possible phases of a system, bounded by lines representing the reactions that transport between them. They can be read much like a phase diagram. In 1963, Pourbaix produced "Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria", which contains potential-pH diagrams for all elements known at the time. Pourbaix and his collaborators began preparing the work in the early 1950s. Early life He was born in Myshega ( Aleksin District, Tula Governorate, Russian Empire), where his father was a consultant on an engineering project. He studied in Brussels and graduated from the Faculty of Applied S ...
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Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday (; 22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis. Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.. the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts t ...
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Australasian Corrosion Association
The Australasian Corrosion Association (ACA) is a non-profit membership association, headquartered in the state of Victoria, Australia and active in the Australasian region (mainly Australia and New Zealand), which disseminates information on corrosion and its prevention or control, by providing training, seminars, conferences, publications and other activities. The ACA has branches and committees in main centers around Australia and New Zealand. The ACA has strategic partnerships with NACE International and the Society for Protective Coatings SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC) is a professional association for the industrial protective and marine coatings industry. It was founded in 1950 as the Steel Structures Painting Council, a non-profit association concerned with ..., offering these organizations' training courses in Australasia and Southeast Asia. The Association proactively promotes corrosion awareness in Australia and New Zealand, and holds annual co ...
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National Association Of Corrosion Engineers
The Association for Materials Protection and Performance (AMPP), is a professional association focused on the protection of assets and performance of materials. AMPP was created when NACE International and SSPC the Society for Protective Coatings merged in 2021. AMPP is active in more than 130 countries and has more than 40,000 members. AMPP is headquartered in the U.S. with offices in Houston, Texas and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Additional offices are located in the U.K., China, Malaysia, Brazil, and Saudi Arabia with a training center in Dubai. Publications *Materials Performance magazine *CoatingsPro magazine *CORROSION journal *technical and reference books *podcasts and webcasts Standards Both the legacy NACE and SSPC organizations were ANSI-accredited standards developers, which AMPP plans to continue. The merged standards program includes 25 standing standards committees that develop technical standards for industries including cathodic protection, coatings, defense, hig ...
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