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Compact Space
In mathematics, specifically general topology, compactness is a property that seeks to generalize the notion of a closed and bounded subset of Euclidean space by making precise the idea of a space having no "punctures" or "missing endpoints", i.e. that the space not exclude any ''limiting values'' of points. For example, the open interval (0,1) would not be compact because it excludes the limiting values of 0 and 1, whereas the closed interval ,1would be compact. Similarly, the space of rational numbers \mathbb is not compact, because it has infinitely many "punctures" corresponding to the irrational numbers, and the space of real numbers \mathbb is not compact either, because it excludes the two limiting values +\infty and -\infty. However, the ''extended'' real number line ''would'' be compact, since it contains both infinities. There are many ways to make this heuristic notion precise. These ways usually agree in a metric space, but may not be equivalent in other top ...
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Compact
Compact as used in politics may refer broadly to a pact or treaty; in more specific cases it may refer to: * Interstate compact * Blood compact, an ancient ritual of the Philippines * Compact government, a type of colonial rule utilized in British North America * Compact of Free Association whereby the sovereign states of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Republic of Palau have entered into as associated states with the United States. * Mayflower Compact, the first governing document of Plymouth Colony * United Nations Global Compact * Global Compact for Migration, a UN non-binding intergovernmental agreement Mathematics * Compact element, those elements of a partially ordered set that cannot be subsumed by a supremum of any directed set that does not already contain them * Compact operator, a linear operator that takes bounded subsets to relatively compact subsets, in functional analysis * Compact space, a topological space such ...
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Infinite Sequence
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order matters. Like a set, it contains members (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is called the ''length'' of the sequence. Unlike a set, the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in a sequence, and unlike a set, the order does matter. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function from natural numbers (the positions of elements in the sequence) to the elements at each position. The notion of a sequence can be generalized to an indexed family, defined as a function from an ''arbitrary'' index set. For example, (M, A, R, Y) is a sequence of letters with the letter 'M' first and 'Y' last. This sequence differs from (A, R, M, Y). Also, the sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be '' finite'', as in these examples, or '' inf ...
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Pavel Urysohn
Pavel Samuilovich Urysohn () (February 3, 1898 – August 17, 1924) was a Soviet mathematician who is best known for his contributions in dimension theory, and for developing Urysohn's metrization theorem and Urysohn's lemma, both of which are fundamental results in topology. His name is also commemorated in the terms Urysohn universal space, Fréchet–Urysohn space, Menger–Urysohn dimension and Urysohn integral equation. He and Pavel Alexandrov formulated the modern definition of compactness in 1923. Biography Born in 1898 in Odessa, Urysohn studied at Moscow University from 1915 to 1921. His advisor was Nikolai Luzin. He then became an assistant professor there. He drowned in 1924 while swimming off the coast of Brittany, France, near Batz-sur-Mer, and is buried there. Urysohn's sister, Lina Neiman, wrote a memoir about his life and childhood. Not being a mathematician, she included in the book memorial articles about his mathematical works by Pavel Alexandro ...
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Pavel Alexandrov
Pavel Sergeyevich Alexandrov (russian: Па́вел Серге́евич Алекса́ндров), sometimes romanized ''Paul Alexandroff'' (7 May 1896 – 16 November 1982), was a Soviet mathematician. He wrote about three hundred papers, making important contributions to set theory and topology. In topology, the Alexandroff compactification and the Alexandrov topology are named after him. Biography Alexandrov attended Moscow State University where he was a student of Dmitri Egorov and Nikolai Luzin. Together with Pavel Urysohn, he visited the University of Göttingen in 1923 and 1924. After getting his Ph.D. in 1927, he continued to work at Moscow State University and also joined the Steklov Institute of Mathematics. He was made a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1953. Personal life Luzin challenged Alexandrov to determine if the continuum hypothesis is true. This still unsolved problem was too much for Alexandrov and he had a creative crisis at the end of ...
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Cover (topology)
In mathematics, and more particularly in set theory, a cover (or covering) of a set X is a collection of subsets of X whose union is all of X. More formally, if C = \lbrace U_\alpha : \alpha \in A \rbrace is an indexed family of subsets U_\alpha\subset X, then C is a cover of X if \bigcup_U_ = X. Thus the collection \lbrace U_\alpha : \alpha \in A \rbrace is a cover of X if each element of X belongs to at least one of the subsets U_. Cover in topology Covers are commonly used in the context of topology. If the set X is a topological space, then a ''cover'' C of X is a collection of subsets \_ of X whose union is the whole space X. In this case we say that C ''covers'' X, or that the sets U_\alpha ''cover'' X. Also, if Y is a (topological) subspace of X, then a ''cover'' of Y is a collection of subsets C=\_ of X whose union contains Y, i.e., C is a cover of Y if :Y \subseteq \bigcup_U_. That is, we may cover Y with either open sets in Y itself, or cover Y by open sets in the ...
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Open Set
In mathematics, open sets are a generalization of open intervals in the real line. In a metric space (a set along with a distance defined between any two points), open sets are the sets that, with every point , contain all points that are sufficiently near to (that is, all points whose distance to is less than some value depending on ). More generally, one defines open sets as the members of a given collection of subsets of a given set, a collection that has the property of containing every union of its members, every finite intersection of its members, the empty set, and the whole set itself. A set in which such a collection is given is called a topological space, and the collection is called a topology. These conditions are very loose, and allow enormous flexibility in the choice of open sets. For example, ''every'' subset can be open (the discrete topology), or no set can be open except the space itself and the empty set (the indiscrete topology). In practice, howe ...
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Limit Point Compact
In mathematics, a topological space ''X'' is said to be limit point compact or weakly countably compact if every infinite subset of ''X'' has a limit point in ''X''. This property generalizes a property of compact spaces. In a metric space, limit point compactness, compactness, and sequential compactness are all equivalent. For general topological spaces, however, these three notions of compactness are not equivalent. Properties and examples * In a topological space, subsets without limit point are exactly those that are closed and discrete in the subspace topology. So a space is limit point compact if and only if all its closed discrete subsets are finite. * A space ''X'' is ''not'' limit point compact if and only if it has an infinite closed discrete subspace. Since any subset of a closed discrete subset of ''X'' is itself closed in ''X'' and discrete, this is equivalent to require that ''X'' has a countably infinite closed discrete subspace. * Some examples of spaces that a ...
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Sequentially Compact Space
In mathematics, a topological space ''X'' is sequentially compact if every sequence of points in ''X'' has a convergent subsequence converging to a point in X. Every metric space is naturally a topological space, and for metric spaces, the notions of compactness and sequential compactness are equivalent (if one assumes countable choice). However, there exist sequentially compact topological spaces that are not compact, and compact topological spaces that are not sequentially compact. Examples and properties The space of all real numbers with the standard topology is not sequentially compact; the sequence (s_n) given by s_n = n for all natural numbers ''n'' is a sequence that has no convergent subsequence. If a space is a metric space, then it is sequentially compact if and only if it is compact. The first uncountable ordinal with the order topology is an example of a sequentially compact topological space that is not compact. The product of 2^=\mathfrak c copies of the clo ...
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Peano Existence Theorem
In mathematics, specifically in the study of ordinary differential equations, the Peano existence theorem, Peano theorem or Cauchy–Peano theorem, named after Giuseppe Peano and Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a fundamental theorem which guarantees the existence of solutions to certain initial value problems. History Peano first published the theorem in 1886 with an incorrect proof. In 1890 he published a new correct proof using successive approximations. Theorem Let D be an open subset of \mathbb\times\mathbb with f\colon D \to \mathbb a continuous function and y'(x) = f\left(x,y(x)\right) a continuous, explicit first-order differential equation defined on ''D'', then every initial value problem y\left(x_0\right) = y_0 for ''f'' with (x_0, y_0) \in D has a local solution z\colon I \to \mathbb where I is a neighbourhood of x_0 in \mathbb, such that z'(x) = f\left(x,z(x)\right) for all x \in I . The solution need not be unique: one and the same initial value (x_0,y_0) may give ris ...
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Arzelà–Ascoli Theorem
The Arzelà–Ascoli theorem is a fundamental result of mathematical analysis giving necessary and sufficient conditions to decide whether every sequence of a given family of real-valued continuous functions defined on a closed and bounded interval has a uniformly convergent subsequence. The main condition is the equicontinuity of the family of functions. The theorem is the basis of many proofs in mathematics, including that of the Peano existence theorem in the theory of ordinary differential equations, Montel's theorem in complex analysis, and the Peter–Weyl theorem in harmonic analysis and various results concerning compactness of integral operators. The notion of equicontinuity was introduced in the late 19th century by the Italian mathematicians Cesare Arzelà and Giulio Ascoli. A weak form of the theorem was proven by , who established the sufficient condition for compactness, and by , who established the necessary condition and gave the first clear presentation of the ...
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Function Space
In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets. Often, the domain and/or codomain will have additional structure which is inherited by the function space. For example, the set of functions from any set into a vector space has a natural vector space structure given by pointwise addition and scalar multiplication. In other scenarios, the function space might inherit a topological or metric structure, hence the name function ''space''. In linear algebra Let be a vector space over a field and let be any set. The functions → can be given the structure of a vector space over where the operations are defined pointwise, that is, for any , : → , any in , and any in , define \begin (f+g)(x) &= f(x)+g(x) \\ (c\cdot f)(x) &= c\cdot f(x) \end When the domain has additional structure, one might consider instead the subset (or subspace) of all such functions which respect that structure. For example, if is also a vector space over , th ...
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Maurice Fréchet
Maurice may refer to: People *Saint Maurice (died 287), Roman legionary and Christian martyr *Maurice (emperor) or Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus (539–602), Byzantine emperor *Maurice (bishop of London) (died 1107), Lord Chancellor and Lord Keeper of England *Maurice of Carnoet (1117–1191), Breton abbot and saint *Maurice, Count of Oldenburg (fl. 1169–1211) * Maurice of Inchaffray (14th century), Scottish cleric who became a bishop *Maurice, Elector of Saxony (1521–1553), German Saxon nobleman *Maurice, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1551–1612) *Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1567–1625), stadtholder of the Netherlands *Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel or Maurice the Learned (1572–1632) *Maurice of Savoy (1593–1657), prince of Savoy and a cardinal *Maurice, Duke of Saxe-Zeitz (1619–1681) *Maurice of the Palatinate (1620–1652), Count Palatine of the Rhine *Maurice of the Netherlands (1843–1850), prince of Orange-Nassau *Maurice Chevalier (1888–1972), Fr ...
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