Commutative Algebra
Commutative algebra, first known as ideal theory, is the branch of algebra that studies commutative rings, their ideals, and modules over such rings. Both algebraic geometry and algebraic number theory build on commutative algebra. Prominent examples of commutative rings include polynomial rings; rings of algebraic integers, including the ordinary integers \mathbb; and ''p''adic integers. Commutative algebra is the main technical tool in the local study of schemes. The study of rings that are not necessarily commutative is known as noncommutative algebra; it includes ring theory, representation theory, and the theory of Banach algebras. Overview Commutative algebra is essentially the study of the rings occurring in algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. In algebraic number theory, the rings of algebraic integers are Dedekind rings, which constitute therefore an important class of commutative rings. Considerations related to modular arithmetic h ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Emmy Noether Postcard 1915
The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are an extensive range of awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international television industry. A number of annual Emmy Award ceremonies are held throughout the calendar year, each with their own set of rules and award categories. The two events that receive the most media coverage are the Primetime Emmy Awards and the Daytime Emmy Awards, which recognize outstanding work in American primetime and daytime entertainment programming, respectively. Other notable U.S. national Emmy events include the Children's & Family Emmy Awards for children's and familyoriented television programming, the Sports Emmy Awards for sports programming, News & Documentary Emmy Awards for news and documentary shows, and the Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards and the Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards for technological and engineering achievements. #Regional, Regional Emmy Awards are also presented throughout the country at various times through th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dedekind Ring
In abstract algebra, a Dedekind domain or Dedekind ring, named after Richard Dedekind, is an integral domain in which every nonzero proper ideal factors into a product of prime ideals. It can be shown that such a factorization is then necessarily unique up to the order of the factors. There are at least three other characterizations of Dedekind domains that are sometimes taken as the definition: see below. A field is a commutative ring in which there are no nontrivial proper ideals, so that any field is a Dedekind domain, however in a rather vacuous way. Some authors add the requirement that a Dedekind domain not be a field. Many more authors state theorems for Dedekind domains with the implicit proviso that they may require trivial modifications for the case of fields. An immediate consequence of the definition is that every principal ideal domain (PID) is a Dedekind domain. In fact a Dedekind domain is a unique factorization domain (UFD) if and only if it is a PID. T ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zariski Topology
In algebraic geometry and commutative algebra, the Zariski topology is a topology which is primarily defined by its closed sets. It is very different from topologies which are commonly used in the real or complex analysis; in particular, it is not Hausdorff. This topology was introduced primarily by Oscar Zariski and later generalized for making the set of prime ideals of a commutative ring (called the spectrum of the ring) a topological space. The Zariski topology allows tools from topology to be used to study algebraic varieties, even when the underlying field is not a topological field. This is one of the basic ideas of scheme theory, which allows one to build general algebraic varieties by gluing together affine varieties in a way similar to that in manifold theory, where manifolds are built by gluing together charts, which are open subsets of real affine spaces. The Zariski topology of an algebraic variety is the topology whose closed sets are the algebraic subsets ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called points, along with an additional structure called a topology, which can be defined as a set of neighbourhoods for each point that satisfy some axioms formalizing the concept of closeness. There are several equivalent definitions of a topology, the most commonly used of which is the definition through open sets, which is easier than the others to manipulate. A topological space is the most general type of a mathematical space that allows for the definition of limits, continuity, and connectedness. Common types of topological spaces include Euclidean spaces, metric spaces and manifolds. Although very general, the concept of topological spaces is fundamental, and used in virtually every branch of modern mathematics. The study of topolog ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maximal Ideal
In mathematics, more specifically in ring theory, a maximal ideal is an ideal that is maximal (with respect to set inclusion) amongst all ''proper'' ideals. In other words, ''I'' is a maximal ideal of a ring ''R'' if there are no other ideals contained between ''I'' and ''R''. Maximal ideals are important because the quotients of rings by maximal ideals are simple rings, and in the special case of unital commutative rings they are also fields. In noncommutative ring theory, a maximal right ideal is defined analogously as being a maximal element in the poset of proper right ideals, and similarly, a maximal left ideal is defined to be a maximal element of the poset of proper left ideals. Since a one sided maximal ideal ''A'' is not necessarily twosided, the quotient ''R''/''A'' is not necessarily a ring, but it is a simple module over ''R''. If ''R'' has a unique maximal right ideal, then ''R'' is known as a local ring, and the maximal right ideal is also the unique maxim ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Local Ring
In abstract algebra, more specifically ring theory, local rings are certain rings that are comparatively simple, and serve to describe what is called "local behaviour", in the sense of functions defined on varieties or manifolds, or of algebraic number fields examined at a particular place, or prime. Local algebra is the branch of commutative algebra that studies commutative local rings and their modules. In practice, a commutative local ring often arises as the result of the localization of a ring at a prime ideal. The concept of local rings was introduced by Wolfgang Krull in 1938 under the name ''Stellenringe''. The English term ''local ring'' is due to Zariski. Definition and first consequences A ring ''R'' is a local ring if it has any one of the following equivalent properties: * ''R'' has a unique maximal left ideal. * ''R'' has a unique maximal right ideal. * 1 ≠ 0 and the sum of any two non units in ''R'' is a nonunit. * 1 ≠ 0 and if ''x'' is any elem ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Total Quotient Ring
In abstract algebra, the total quotient ring, or total ring of fractions, is a construction that generalizes the notion of the field of fractions of an integral domain to commutative rings ''R'' that may have zero divisors. The construction embeds ''R'' in a larger ring, giving every nonzerodivisor of ''R'' an inverse in the larger ring. If the homomorphism from ''R'' to the new ring is to be injective, no further elements can be given an inverse. Definition Let R be a commutative ring and let S be the set of elements which are not zero divisors in R; then S is a multiplicatively closed set. Hence we may localize the ring R at the set S to obtain the total quotient ring S^R=Q(R). If R is a domain, then S=R\ and the total quotient ring is the same as the field of fractions. This justifies the notation Q(R), which is sometimes used for the field of fractions as well, since there is no ambiguity in the case of a domain. Since S in the construction contains no zero divisors ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Prime Ideal
In algebra, a prime ideal is a subset of a ring that shares many important properties of a prime number in the ring of integers. The prime ideals for the integers are the sets that contain all the multiples of a given prime number, together with the zero ideal. Primitive ideals are prime, and prime ideals are both primary and semiprime. Prime ideals for commutative rings An ideal of a commutative ring is prime if it has the following two properties: * If and are two elements of such that their product is an element of , then is in or is in , * is not the whole ring . This generalizes the following property of prime numbers, known as Euclid's lemma: if is a prime number and if divides a product of two integers, then divides or divides . We can therefore say :A positive integer is a prime number if and only if n\Z is a prime ideal in \Z. Examples * A simple example: In the ring R=\Z, the subset of even numbers is a prime ideal. * Given an integral do ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Localization Of A Ring
In commutative algebra and algebraic geometry, localization is a formal way to introduce the "denominators" to a given ring or module. That is, it introduces a new ring/module out of an existing ring/module ''R'', so that it consists of fractions \frac, such that the denominator ''s'' belongs to a given subset ''S'' of ''R''. If ''S'' is the set of the nonzero elements of an integral domain, then the localization is the field of fractions: this case generalizes the construction of the field \Q of rational numbers from the ring \Z of integers. The technique has become fundamental, particularly in algebraic geometry, as it provides a natural link to sheaf theory. In fact, the term ''localization'' originated in algebraic geometry: if ''R'' is a ring of functions defined on some geometric object ( algebraic variety) ''V'', and one wants to study this variety "locally" near a point ''p'', then one considers the set ''S'' of all functions that are not zero at ''p'' and loca ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ramification (mathematics)
In geometry, ramification is 'branching out', in the way that the square root function, for complex numbers, can be seen to have two ''branches'' differing in sign. The term is also used from the opposite perspective (branches coming together) as when a covering map degenerates at a point of a space, with some collapsing of the fibers of the mapping. In complex analysis In complex analysis, the basic model can be taken as the ''z'' → ''z''''n'' mapping in the complex plane, near ''z'' = 0. This is the standard local picture in Riemann surface theory, of ramification of order ''n''. It occurs for example in the Riemann–Hurwitz formula for the effect of mappings on the genus. See also branch point. In algebraic topology In a covering map the Euler–Poincaré characteristic should multiply by the number of sheets; ramification can therefore be detected by some dropping from that. The ''z'' → ''z''''n'' mapping shows this as a local ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integrally Closed Domain
In commutative algebra, an integrally closed domain ''A'' is an integral domain whose integral closure in its field of fractions is ''A'' itself. Spelled out, this means that if ''x'' is an element of the field of fractions of ''A'' which is a root of a monic polynomial with coefficients in ''A,'' then ''x'' is itself an element of ''A.'' Many wellstudied domains are integrally closed: fields, the ring of integers Z, unique factorization domains and regular local rings are all integrally closed. Note that integrally closed domains appear in the following chain of class inclusions: Basic properties Let ''A'' be an integrally closed domain with field of fractions ''K'' and let ''L'' be a field extension of ''K''. Then ''x''∈''L'' is integral over ''A'' if and only if it is algebraic over ''K'' and its minimal polynomial over ''K'' has coefficients in ''A''. In particular, this means that any element of ''L'' integral over ''A'' is root of a monic polynomial in ''A'' 'X'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral Extension
In commutative algebra, an element ''b'' of a commutative ring ''B'' is said to be integral over ''A'', a subring of ''B'', if there are ''n'' ≥ 1 and ''a''''j'' in ''A'' such that :b^n + a_ b^ + \cdots + a_1 b + a_0 = 0. That is to say, ''b'' is a root of a monic polynomial over ''A''. The set of elements of ''B'' that are integral over ''A'' is called the integral closure of ''A'' in ''B''. It is a subring of ''B'' containing ''A''. If every element of ''B'' is integral over ''A'', then we say that ''B'' is integral over ''A'', or equivalently ''B'' is an integral extension of ''A''. If ''A'', ''B'' are fields, then the notions of "integral over" and of an "integral extension" are precisely "algebraic over" and " algebraic extensions" in field theory (since the root of any polynomial is the root of a monic polynomial). The case of greatest interest in number theory is that of complex numbers integral over Z (e.g., \sqrt or 1+i); in this context, the integral elements are us ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 