* picture info Vertex (graph Theory) In discrete mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a vertex (plural vertices) or node is the fundamental unit of which graphs are formed: an undirected graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of edges (unordered pairs of vertices), while a directed graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of arcs (ordered pairs of vertices). In a diagram of a graph, a vertex is usually represented by a circle with a label, and an edge is represented by a line or arrow extending from one vertex to another. From the point of view of graph theory, vertices are treated as featureless and indivisible objects, although they may have additional structure depending on the application from which the graph arises; for instance, a semantic network is a graph in which the vertices represent concepts or classes of objects. The two vertices forming an edge are said to be the endpoints of this edge, and the edge is said to be incident to the vertices. A vertex ''w'' is said to be ad ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info K-vertex-connected Graph In graph theory, a connected graph is said to be -vertex-connected (or -connected) if it has more than vertices and remains connected whenever fewer than vertices are removed. The vertex-connectivity, or just connectivity, of a graph is the largest for which the graph is -vertex-connected. Definitions A graph (other than a complete graph) has connectivity ''k'' if ''k'' is the size of the smallest subset of vertices such that the graph becomes disconnected if you delete them. Complete graphs are not included in this version of the definition since they cannot be disconnected by deleting vertices. The complete graph with ''n'' vertices has connectivity ''n'' − 1, as implied by the first definition. An equivalent definition is that a graph with at least two vertices is ''k''-connected if, for every pair of its vertices, it is possible to find ''k'' vertex-independent paths connecting these vertices; see Menger's theorem . This definition produces the same ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Glossary Of Graph Theory This is a glossary of graph theory. Graph theory is the study of graphs, systems of nodes or vertices connected in pairs by lines or edges. Symbols A B C D E F G H I K L M N O ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Graph Theory In mathematics, graph theory is the study of ''graphs'', which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. A graph in this context is made up of '' vertices'' (also called ''nodes'' or ''points'') which are connected by '' edges'' (also called ''links'' or ''lines''). A distinction is made between undirected graphs, where edges link two vertices symmetrically, and directed graphs, where edges link two vertices asymmetrically. Graphs are one of the principal objects of study in discrete mathematics. Definitions Definitions in graph theory vary. The following are some of the more basic ways of defining graphs and related mathematical structures. Graph In one restricted but very common sense of the term, a graph is an ordered pair G=(V,E) comprising: * V, a set of vertices (also called nodes or points); * E \subseteq \, a set of edges (also called links or lines), which are unordered pairs of vertices (that is, an edge is associated with ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Node (computer Science) A node is a basic unit of a data structure, such as a linked list or tree data structure. Nodes contain data and also may link to other nodes. Links between nodes are often implemented by pointers. Nodes and Trees Nodes are often arranged into tree structures. A node represents the information contained in a single data structure. These nodes may contain a value or condition, or possibly serve as another independent data structure. Nodes are represented by a single parent node. The highest point on a tree structure is called a root node, which does not have a parent node, but serves as the parent or 'grandparent' of all of the nodes below it in the tree. The height of a node is determined by the total number of edges on the path from that node to the furthest leaf node, and the height of the tree is equal to the height of the root node. Node depth is determined by the distance between that particular node and the root node. The root node is said to have a depth of zero. Data can ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Vertex Figure In geometry, a vertex figure, broadly speaking, is the figure exposed when a corner of a polyhedron or polytope is sliced off. Definitions Take some corner or vertex of a polyhedron. Mark a point somewhere along each connected edge. Draw lines across the connected faces, joining adjacent points around the face. When done, these lines form a complete circuit, i.e. a polygon, around the vertex. This polygon is the vertex figure. More precise formal definitions can vary quite widely, according to circumstance. For example Coxeter (e.g. 1948, 1954) varies his definition as convenient for the current area of discussion. Most of the following definitions of a vertex figure apply equally well to infinite tilings or, by extension, to space-filling tessellation with polytope cells and other higher-dimensional polytopes. As a flat slice Make a slice through the corner of the polyhedron, cutting through all the edges connected to the vertex. The cut surface is the vertex figure. This ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Skeleton (topology) In mathematics, particularly in algebraic topology, the of a topological space presented as a simplicial complex (resp. CW complex) refers to the subspace that is the union of the simplices of (resp. cells of ) of dimensions In other words, given an inductive definition of a complex, the is obtained by stopping at the . These subspaces increase with . The is a discrete space, and the a topological graph. The skeletons of a space are used in obstruction theory, to construct spectral sequences by means of filtrations, and generally to make inductive arguments. They are particularly important when has infinite dimension, in the sense that the do not become constant as In geometry In geometry, a of P (functionally represented as skel''k''(''P'')) consists of all elements of dimension up to ''k''. For example: : skel0(cube) = 8 vertices : skel1(cube) = 8 vertices, 12 edges : skel2(cube) = 8 vertices, 12 edges, 6 square faces For simplicial sets The above d ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Vertex (geometry) In geometry, a vertex (in plural form: vertices or vertexes) is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet. As a consequence of this definition, the point where two lines meet to form an angle and the corners of polygons and polyhedra are vertices. Definition Of an angle The ''vertex'' of an angle is the point where two rays begin or meet, where two line segments join or meet, where two lines intersect (cross), or any appropriate combination of rays, segments, and lines that result in two straight "sides" meeting at one place. :(3 vols.): (vol. 1), (vol. 2), (vol. 3). Of a polytope A vertex is a corner point of a polygon, polyhedron, or other higher-dimensional polytope, formed by the intersection of edges, faces or facets of the object. In a polygon, a vertex is called "convex" if the internal angle of the polygon (i.e., the angle formed by the two edges at the vertex with the polygon inside the angle) is less than π radians (180°, two right angles); otherw ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Adjacency (graph Theory) This is a glossary of graph theory. Graph theory is the study of graphs, systems of nodes or vertices connected in pairs by lines or edges. Symbols A B C D E F G H I K L M N O ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Graph Isomorphism In graph theory, an isomorphism of graphs ''G'' and ''H'' is a bijection between the vertex sets of ''G'' and ''H'' : f \colon V(G) \to V(H) such that any two vertices ''u'' and ''v'' of ''G'' are adjacent in ''G'' if and only if f(u) and f(v) are adjacent in ''H''. This kind of bijection is commonly described as "edge-preserving bijection", in accordance with the general notion of isomorphism being a structure-preserving bijection. If an isomorphism exists between two graphs, then the graphs are called isomorphic and denoted as G\simeq H. In the case when the bijection is a mapping of a graph onto itself, i.e., when ''G'' and ''H'' are one and the same graph, the bijection is called an automorphism of ''G''. If a graph is finite, we can prove it to be bijective by showing it is one-one/onto; no need to show both. Graph isomorphism is an equivalence relation on graphs and as such it partitions the class of all graphs into equivalence classes. A set of graphs isomorphic to each ot ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Graph Enumeration In combinatorics, an area of mathematics, graph enumeration describes a class of combinatorial enumeration problems in which one must count undirected or directed graphs of certain types, typically as a function of the number of vertices of the graph. These problems may be solved either exactly (as an algebraic enumeration problem) or asymptotically. The pioneers in this area of mathematics were George Pólya, Arthur Cayley and J. Howard Redfield. Labeled vs unlabeled problems In some graphical enumeration problems, the vertices of the graph are considered to be ''labeled'' in such a way as to be distinguishable from each other, while in other problems any permutation of the vertices is considered to form the same graph, so the vertices are considered identical or ''unlabeled''. In general, labeled problems tend to be easier. As with combinatorial enumeration more generally, the Pólya enumeration theorem is an important tool for reducing unlabeled problems to labeled ones: each ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Vertex-transitive Graph In the mathematical field of graph theory, a vertex-transitive graph is a graph in which, given any two vertices and of , there is some automorphism :f : G \to G\ such that :f(v_1) = v_2.\ In other words, a graph is vertex-transitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on its vertices.. A graph is vertex-transitive if and only if its graph complement is, since the group actions are identical. Every symmetric graph without isolated vertices is vertex-transitive, and every vertex-transitive graph is regular. However, not all vertex-transitive graphs are symmetric (for example, the edges of the truncated tetrahedron), and not all regular graphs are vertex-transitive (for example, the Frucht graph and Tietze's graph). Finite examples Finite vertex-transitive graphs include the symmetric graphs (such as the Petersen graph, the Heawood graph and the vertices and edges of the Platonic solids). The finite Cayley graphs (such as cube-connected cycles) are also ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]