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Tracheid
A tracheid is a long and tapered lignified cell in the xylem Xylem is one of the two types of transport in s, the other being . The basic function of xylem is to transport from roots to stems and leaves, but it also transports . The word ''xylem'' is derived from the word (''xylon''), meaning "wood"; ... of vascular plants Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from the Greek ''trācheia''), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 accepted known species) that are defined as land plants with lignified tissue .... It is a type of conductive cell called a tracheary element. Angiosperms Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ... use another type of tracheary element, called vessel element 300px, SEM image ...
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Xylem
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubitata'', a species of geometer mot ... in vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 ...s, the other being phloem Phloem (, ) is the living tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa d .... The basic function of xylem is to transport water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , w ...
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Tracheid Of Oak (from Marshall Ward)
A tracheid is a long and tapered lignified cell in the xylem Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North Ame ... of vascular plants Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 .... It is a type of conductive cell called a tracheary element. Angiosperms Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ... use another type of tracheary element, called vessel element 300px, SEM image ...
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Conifer
Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single extant class (biology), class, Pinopsida. All Neontology, extant conifers are perennial plant, perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs. Examples include Cedrus, cedars, Pseudotsuga, Douglas-firs, Cupressaceae, cypresses, firs, junipers, Agathis, kauri, larches, pines, Tsuga, hemlocks, Sequoioideae, redwoods, spruces, and Taxaceae, yews.Campbell, Reece, "Phylum Coniferophyta". Biology. 7th. 2005. Print. P. 595 As of 1998, the division Pinophyta was estimated to contain eight families, 68 genera, and 629 living species. Although the total number of species is relatively small, conifers are ecology, ecologically important. They are the dominant plants over large areas of land, most no ...
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Tracheophyta
Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 accepted known species) which are land plants The Embryophyta (), or land plants, are the most familiar group of green plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into ... with lignified tissues (the xylem Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North Ame ...) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. V ...
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Vessel Element
A vessel element or vessel member (also called trachea or xylem vessel) is one of the cell types found in xylem Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North Ame ..., the water conducting tissue of plants. Vessel elements are typically found in angiosperms (flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...s) but absent from most gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pin ...
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Wood
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...s and other woody plant A woody plant is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, ca ...s. It is an organic material Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments. It is matter In classical physics and general chem ...a natural composite Composite or compositing may refer to: Materials * Composite material, a ...
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Lignin
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of most plants. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and Bark (botany), bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are polymers made by cross-linking phenols, phenolic precursors. History Lignin was first mentioned in 1813 by the Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, A. P. de Candolle, who described it as a fibrous, tasteless material, insoluble in water and alcohol but soluble in weak alkaline solutions, and which can be Precipitation (chemistry), precipitated from solution using acid. He named the substance “lignine”, which is derived from the Latin word ''wikt:lignum, lignum'', meaning wood. It is one of the most abundant organic polymers on Earth, exceeded only by cellulose. Lignin constitutes 30% of non-fossil organic carbon and 20 to 35% of the dry mass of wood. Lignin is prese ...
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Gymnosperm
The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single extant class, Pinopsida. All exta ..., cycad :''For the insect, see Cicada.'' Cycads are seed plants that typically have a stout and woody (ligneous) trunk (botany), trunk with a crown (botany), crown of large, hard, stiff, evergreen and (usually) pinnate leaves. The species are dioecious ...s, ''Ginkgo ''Ginkgo'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...'', and gnetophyte Gnetophyta () is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperm The gymnosperms, al ...
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Devonian
The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ..., spanning 60.3 million years from the end of the Silurian The Silurian ( ) is a spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Period, at million years ago (), to the beginning of the Period, Mya. The Silurian is the shortest period of the . As with other periods, the beds that define the per ..., million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ..., Mya. It is named after Devon D ...
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Fossil
A fossil (from Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestur ...: , literally 'obtained by digging') is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth sciences, Earth scientists to describe t .... Examples include bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...s, shells Shell may refer to: Architect ...
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Fern
A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 a ...s (plants with xylem Xylem is one of the two types of transport in s, the other being . The basic function of xylem is to transport from roots to stems and leaves, but it also transports . The word ''xylem'' is derived from the word (''xylon''), meaning "wood"; ... and phloem Phloem (, ) is the living tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa d ...) that reproduce via spore )'', growing on a thinning, thinned hybrid black poplar ''(populus, Populus x canade ...
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Protoplast
Protoplast, from ancient Greek (''prōtóplastos'', "first-formed"), is a biology, biological term coined by Johannes von Hanstein, Hanstein in 1880 to refer to the entire cell, excluding the cell wall. Protoplasts can be generated by stripping the cell wall from plant, bacterium, bacterial, or fungus, fungal cells by mechanical, chemical or enzymatic means. Protoplasts differ from spheroplasts in that their cell wall has been completely removed. Spheroplasts retain part of their cell wall. In the case of Gram-negative bacterial spheroplasts, for example, the peptidoglycan component of the cell wall has been removed but the bacterial outer membrane, outer membrane component has not. Enzymes for the preparation of protoplasts Cell walls are made of a variety of polysaccharides. Protoplasts can be made by degrading cell walls with a mixture of the appropriate polysaccharide-degrading enzymes: During and subsequent to digestion of the cell wall, the protoplast becomes very se ...
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