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 picture info Taxicab Geometry A taxicab geometry or a Manhattan geometry is a geometry whose usual distance function or metric of Euclidean geometry is replaced by a new metric in which the distance between two points is the sum of the absolute differences of their Cartesian coordinates. The taxicab metric is also known as rectilinear distance, ''L''1 distance, ''L''1 distance or \ell_1 norm (see ''Lp'' space), snake distance, city block distance, Manhattan distance or Manhattan length. The latter names refer to the rectilinear street layout on the island of Manhattan, where the shortest path a taxi travels between two points is the sum of the absolute values of distances that it travels on avenues and on streets. The geometry has been used in regression analysis since the 18th century, and is often referred to as LASSO. The geometric interpretation dates to non-Euclidean geometry of the 19th century and is due to Hermann Minkowski. In \mathbb^2 , the taxicab distance between two points (x_1, y_1) and (x_2, ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Manhattan Distance A taxicab geometry or a Manhattan geometry is a geometry whose usual distance function or metric of Euclidean geometry is replaced by a new metric in which the distance between two points is the sum of the absolute differences of their Cartesian coordinates. The taxicab metric is also known as rectilinear distance, ''L''1 distance, ''L''1 distance or \ell_1 norm (see ''Lp'' space), snake distance, city block distance, Manhattan distance or Manhattan length. The latter names refer to the rectilinear street layout on the island of Manhattan, where the shortest path a taxi travels between two points is the sum of the absolute values of distances that it travels on avenues and on streets. The geometry has been used in regression analysis since the 18th century, and is often referred to as LASSO. The geometric interpretation dates to non-Euclidean geometry of the 19th century and is due to Hermann Minkowski. In \mathbb^2 , the taxicab distance between two points (x_1, y_1) and (x_2, y ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Line Segment In geometry, a line segment is a part of a straight line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line that is between its endpoints. The length of a line segment is given by the Euclidean distance between its endpoints. A closed line segment includes both endpoints, while an open line segment excludes both endpoints; a half-open line segment includes exactly one of the endpoints. In geometry, a line segment is often denoted using a line above the symbols for the two endpoints (such as \overline). Examples of line segments include the sides of a triangle or square. More generally, when both of the segment's end points are vertices of a polygon or polyhedron, the line segment is either an edge (of that polygon or polyhedron) if they are adjacent vertices, or a diagonal. When the end points both lie on a curve (such as a circle), a line segment is called a chord (of that curve). In real or complex vector spaces If ''V'' is a vector space o ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Radius In classical geometry, a radius (plural, : radii) of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its Centre (geometry), center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length. The name comes from the latin ''radius'', meaning ray but also the spoke of a chariot wheel.Definition of Radiusat dictionary.reference.com. Accessed on 2009-08-08. The plural of radius can be either ''radii'' (from the Latin plural) or the conventional English plural ''radiuses''. The typical abbreviation and variable (mathematics), mathematical variable name for radius is R or r. By extension, the diameter D is defined as twice the radius:Definition of radiusat mathw ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Ball (mathematics) In mathematics, a ball is the solid figure bounded by a ''sphere''; it is also called a solid sphere. It may be a closed ball (including the boundary points that constitute the sphere) or an open ball (excluding them). These concepts are defined not only in three-dimensional Euclidean space but also for lower and higher dimensions, and for metric spaces in general. A ''ball'' in dimensions is called a hyperball or -ball and is bounded by a ''hypersphere'' or ()-sphere. Thus, for example, a ball in the Euclidean plane is the same thing as a disk, the area bounded by a circle. In Euclidean 3-space, a ball is taken to be the volume bounded by a 2-dimensional sphere. In a one-dimensional space, a ball is a line segment. In other contexts, such as in Euclidean geometry and informal use, ''sphere'' is sometimes used to mean ''ball''. In the field of topology the closed n-dimensional ball is often denoted as B^n or D^n while the open n-dimensional ball is \operatorname B^n or \o ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Congruence (geometry) In geometry, two figures or objects are congruent if they have the same shape and size, or if one has the same shape and size as the mirror image of the other. More formally, two sets of points are called congruent if, and only if, one can be transformed into the other by an isometry, i.e., a combination of rigid motions, namely a translation, a rotation, and a reflection. This means that either object can be repositioned and reflected (but not resized) so as to coincide precisely with the other object. Therefore two distinct plane figures on a piece of paper are congruent if they can be cut out and then matched up completely. Turning the paper over is permitted. In elementary geometry the word ''congruent'' is often used as follows. The word ''equal'' is often used in place of ''congruent'' for these objects. *Two line segments are congruent if they have the same length. *Two angles are congruent if they have the same measure. *Two circles are congruent if they ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Hilbert's Axioms Hilbert's axioms are a set of 20 assumptions proposed by David Hilbert in 1899 in his book ''Grundlagen der Geometrie'' (tr. ''The Foundations of Geometry'') as the foundation for a modern treatment of Euclidean geometry. Other well-known modern axiomatizations of Euclidean geometry are those of Alfred Tarski and of George Birkhoff. The axioms Hilbert's axiom system is constructed with six primitive notions: three primitive terms: * point; * line; * plane; and three primitive relations: * ''Betweenness'', a ternary relation linking points; * ''Lies on (Containment)'', three binary relations, one linking points and straight lines, one linking points and planes, and one linking straight lines and planes; * ''Congruence'', two binary relations, one linking line segments and one linking angles, each denoted by an infix ≅. Line segments, angles, and triangles may each be defined in terms of points and straight lines, using the relations of betweenness and containment. All poin ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Translation (geometry) In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure, shape or space by the same distance in a given direction. A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system. In a Euclidean space, any translation is an isometry. As a function If \mathbf is a fixed vector, known as the ''translation vector'', and \mathbf is the initial position of some object, then the translation function T_ will work as T_(\mathbf)=\mathbf+\mathbf. If T is a translation, then the image of a subset A under the function T is the translate of A by T . The translate of A by T_ is often written A+\mathbf . Horizontal and vertical translations In geometry, a vertical translation (also known as vertical shift) is a translation of a geometric object in a direction parallel to the vertical axis of the Cartesian coordinate system. Often, vertical tran ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Reflection (mathematics) In mathematics, a reflection (also spelled reflexion) is a mapping from a Euclidean space to itself that is an isometry with a hyperplane as a set of fixed points; this set is called the axis (in dimension 2) or plane (in dimension 3) of reflection. The image of a figure by a reflection is its mirror image in the axis or plane of reflection. For example the mirror image of the small Latin letter p for a reflection with respect to a vertical axis would look like q. Its image by reflection in a horizontal axis would look like b. A reflection is an involution: when applied twice in succession, every point returns to its original location, and every geometrical object is restored to its original state. The term ''reflection'' is sometimes used for a larger class of mappings from a Euclidean space to itself, namely the non-identity isometries that are involutions. Such isometries have a set of fixed points (the "mirror") that is an affine subspace, but is possibly smaller th ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Rotation Rotation, or spin, is the circular movement of an object around a '' central axis''. A two-dimensional rotating object has only one possible central axis and can rotate in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. A three-dimensional object has an infinite number of possible central axes and rotational directions. If the rotation axis passes internally through the body's own center of mass, then the body is said to be ''autorotating'' or '' spinning'', and the surface intersection of the axis can be called a '' pole''. A rotation around a completely external axis, e.g. the planet Earth around the Sun, is called ''revolving'' or ''orbiting'', typically when it is produced by gravity, and the ends of the rotation axis can be called the '' orbital poles''. Mathematics Mathematically, a rotation is a rigid body movement which, unlike a translation, keeps a point fixed. This definition applies to rotations within both two and three dimensions (in a plane and in spa ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Geometry Of Numbers Geometry of numbers is the part of number theory which uses geometry for the study of algebraic numbers. Typically, a ring of algebraic integers is viewed as a lattice in \mathbb R^n, and the study of these lattices provides fundamental information on algebraic numbers. The geometry of numbers was initiated by . The geometry of numbers has a close relationship with other fields of mathematics, especially functional analysis and Diophantine approximation, the problem of finding rational numbers that approximate an irrational quantity. Minkowski's results Suppose that \Gamma is a lattice in n-dimensional Euclidean space \mathbb^n and K is a convex centrally symmetric body. Minkowski's theorem, sometimes called Minkowski's first theorem, states that if \operatorname (K)>2^n \operatorname(\mathbb^n/\Gamma), then K contains a nonzero vector in \Gamma. The successive minimum \lambda_k is defined to be the inf of the numbers \lambda such that \lambda K contains k linearl ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Minkowski Inequality In mathematical analysis, the Minkowski inequality establishes that the L''p'' spaces are normed vector spaces. Let ''S'' be a measure space, let and let ''f'' and ''g'' be elements of L''p''(''S''). Then is in L''p''(''S''), and we have the triangle inequality :\, f+g\, _p \le \, f\, _p + \, g\, _p with equality for if and only if ''f'' and ''g'' are positively linearly dependent, i.e., for some or . Here, the norm is given by: :\, f\, _p = \left( \int , f, ^p d\mu \right)^ if ''p'' q, then \, f\, _\leq\, f\, _. Reverse inequality When p< 1 the reverse inequality holds: :$\, f+g\, _p \ge \, f\, _p + \, g\, _p$ We further need the restriction that both $f$ and $g$ are non-negative, as we can see from the example $f=-1, g=1$ and $p=1$: $\, f+g\, _1 = 0 < 2 = \, f\, _1 + \, g\, _1$. The reverse inequality follows from the same argument as the standard Minkowski, but uses that Holder's inequality ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]