Quotient Group
A quotient group or factor group is a mathematical group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation that preserves some of the group structure (the rest of the structure is "factored" out). For example, the cyclic group of addition modulo ''n'' can be obtained from the group of integers under addition by identifying elements that differ by a multiple of n and defining a group structure that operates on each such class (known as a congruence class) as a single entity. It is part of the mathematical field known as group theory. For a congruence relation on a group, the equivalence class of the identity element is always a normal subgroup of the original group, and the other equivalence classes are precisely the cosets of that normal subgroup. The resulting quotient is written G\,/\,N, where G is the original group and N is the normal subgroup. (This is pronounced G\bmod N, where \mbox is short for modulo.) Much of the importa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Math
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kernel (algebra)
In algebra, the kernel of a homomorphism (function that preserves the structure) is generally the inverse image of 0 (except for groups whose operation is denoted multiplicatively, where the kernel is the inverse image of 1). An important special case is the kernel of a linear map. The kernel of a matrix, also called the ''null space'', is the kernel of the linear map defined by the matrix. The kernel of a homomorphism is reduced to 0 (or 1) if and only if the homomorphism is injective, that is if the inverse image of every element consists of a single element. This means that the kernel can be viewed as a measure of the degree to which the homomorphism fails to be injective.See and . For some types of structure, such as abelian groups and vector spaces, the possible kernels are exactly the substructures of the same type. This is not always the case, and, sometimes, the possible kernels have received a special name, such as normal subgroup for groups and twosided ideals fo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Roots Of Unity
In mathematics, a root of unity, occasionally called a de Moivre number, is any complex number that yields 1 when raised to some positive integer power . Roots of unity are used in many branches of mathematics, and are especially important in number theory, the theory of group characters, and the discrete Fourier transform. Roots of unity can be defined in any field. If the characteristic of the field is zero, the roots are complex numbers that are also algebraic integers. For fields with a positive characteristic, the roots belong to a finite field, and, conversely, every nonzero element of a finite field is a root of unity. Any algebraically closed field contains exactly th roots of unity, except when is a multiple of the (positive) characteristic of the field. General definition An ''th root of unity'', where is a positive integer, is a number satisfying the equation :z^n = 1. Unless otherwise specified, the roots of unity may be taken to be complex numbers (inc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Normal Subgroup Illustration
Normal(s) or The Normal(s) may refer to: Film and television * ''Normal'' (2003 film), starring Jessica Lange and Tom Wilkinson * ''Normal'' (2007 film), starring CarrieAnne Moss, Kevin Zegers, Callum Keith Rennie, and Andrew Airlie * ''Normal'' (2009 film), an adaptation of Anthony Neilson's 1991 play ''Normal: The Düsseldorf Ripper'' * '' Normal!'', a 2011 Algerian film * ''The Normals'' (film), a 2012 American comedy film * "Normal" (''New Girl''), an episode of the TV series Mathematics * Normal (geometry), an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object * Normal basis (of a Galois extension), used heavily in cryptography * Normal bundle * Normal cone, of a subscheme in algebraic geometry * Normal coordinates, in differential geometry, local coordinates obtained from the exponential map (Riemannian geometry) * Normal distribution, the Gaussian continuous probability distribution * Normal equations, describing the solution of the linear leas ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Division (mathematics)
Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the ways that numbers are combined to make new numbers. The other operations are addition, subtraction, and multiplication. At an elementary level the division of two natural numbers is, among other possible interpretations, the process of calculating the number of times one number is contained within another. This number of times need not be an integer. For example, if 20 apples are divided evenly between 4 people, everyone receives 5 apples (see picture). The division with remainder or Euclidean division of two natural numbers provides an integer ''quotient'', which is the number of times the second number is completely contained in the first number, and a ''remainder'', which is the part of the first number that remains, when in the course of computing the quotient, no further full chunk of the size of the second number can be allocated. For example, if 21 apples are divided between 4 people, everyone receives 5 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

If And Only If
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, "if and only if" (shortened as "iff") is a biconditional logical connective between statements, where either both statements are true or both are false. The connective is biconditional (a statement of material equivalence), and can be likened to the standard material conditional ("only if", equal to "if ... then") combined with its reverse ("if"); hence the name. The result is that the truth of either one of the connected statements requires the truth of the other (i.e. either both statements are true, or both are false), though it is controversial whether the connective thus defined is properly rendered by the English "if and only if"—with its preexisting meaning. For example, ''P if and only if Q'' means that ''P'' is true whenever ''Q'' is true, and the only case in which ''P'' is true is if ''Q'' is also true, whereas in the case of ''P if Q'', there could be other scenarios where ''P'' is true and ''Q ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Binary Operation
In mathematics, a binary operation or dyadic operation is a rule for combining two elements (called operands) to produce another element. More formally, a binary operation is an operation of arity two. More specifically, an internal binary operation ''on a set'' is a binary operation whose two domains and the codomain are the same set. Examples include the familiar arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Other examples are readily found in different areas of mathematics, such as vector addition, matrix multiplication, and conjugation in groups. An operation of arity two that involves several sets is sometimes also called a ''binary operation''. For example, scalar multiplication of vector spaces takes a scalar and a vector to produce a vector, and scalar product takes two vectors to produce a scalar. Such binary operations may be called simply binary functions. Binary operations are the keystone of most algebraic structures that are studie ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abelian Group
In mathematics, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written. That is, the group operation is commutative. With addition as an operation, the integers and the real numbers form abelian groups, and the concept of an abelian group may be viewed as a generalization of these examples. Abelian groups are named after early 19th century mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. The concept of an abelian group underlies many fundamental algebraic structures, such as fields, rings, vector spaces, and algebras. The theory of abelian groups is generally simpler than that of their nonabelian counterparts, and finite abelian groups are very well understood and fully classified. Definition An abelian group is a set A, together with an operation \cdot that combines any two elements a and b of A to form another element of A, denoted a \cdot b. The ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subobject
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a subobject is, roughly speaking, an object that sits inside another object in the same category. The notion is a generalization of concepts such as subsets from set theory, subgroups from group theory,Mac Lane, p. 126 and subspaces from topology. Since the detailed structure of objects is immaterial in category theory, the definition of subobject relies on a morphism that describes how one object sits inside another, rather than relying on the use of elements. The dual concept to a subobject is a . This generalizes concepts such as quotient sets, quotient groups, quotient spaces, quotient graphs, etc. Definitions In detail, let ''A'' be an object of some category. Given two monomorphisms :u: S \to A \ \text \ v: T\to A with codomain ''A'', we define an equivalence relation by u \equiv v if there exists an isomorphism \phi: S \to T with u = v \circ \phi. Equivalently, we write u \leq v if u factors through ''v''—that is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dual (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, duality is a correspondence between the properties of a category ''C'' and the dual properties of the opposite category ''C''op. Given a statement regarding the category ''C'', by interchanging the source and target of each morphism as well as interchanging the order of composing two morphisms, a corresponding dual statement is obtained regarding the opposite category ''C''op. Duality, as such, is the assertion that truth is invariant under this operation on statements. In other words, if a statement is true about ''C'', then its dual statement is true about ''C''op. Also, if a statement is false about ''C'', then its dual has to be false about ''C''op. Given a concrete category ''C'', it is often the case that the opposite category ''C''op per se is abstract. ''C''op need not be a category that arises from mathematical practice. In this case, another category ''D'' is also termed to be in duality with ''C'' if ''D'' and ''C''op are e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient Object
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a subobject is, roughly speaking, an object that sits inside another object in the same category. The notion is a generalization of concepts such as subsets from set theory, subgroups from group theory,Mac Lane, p. 126 and subspaces from topology. Since the detailed structure of objects is immaterial in category theory, the definition of subobject relies on a morphism that describes how one object sits inside another, rather than relying on the use of elements. The dual concept to a subobject is a . This generalizes concepts such as quotient sets, quotient groups, quotient spaces, quotient graphs, etc. Definitions In detail, let ''A'' be an object of some category. Given two monomorphisms :u: S \to A \ \text \ v: T\to A with codomain ''A'', we define an equivalence relation by u \equiv v if there exists an isomorphism \phi: S \to T with u = v \circ \phi. Equivalently, we write u \leq v if u factors through ''v''—that is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 