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Outline Of Industrial Organization
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to industrial organization: Industrial organization – describes the behavior of firms in the marketplace with regard to production, pricing, employment and other decisions. Issues underlying these decisions range from classical issues such as opportunity cost to neoclassical concepts such as factors of production. Overview * a field of economics that studies: ** the strategic behavior of firms ** the structure of markets *** Perfect competition *** Monopolistic competition *** Oligopoly *** Oligopsony *** Monopoly *** Monopsony ** and the interactions between them Concepts Production side of Industry: *Production theory ** productive efficiency ** factors of production ** total, average, and marginal product curves ** marginal productivity ** isoquants & isocosts ** the marginal rate of technical substitution * Production function **inputs **diminishing returns to inputs **the stages ...
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Productive Efficiency
In microeconomic theory, productive efficiency (or production efficiency) is a situation in which the economy or an economic system (e.g., bank, hospital, industry, country) operating within the constraints of current industrial technology cannot increase production of one good without sacrificing production of another good. In simple terms, the concept is illustrated on a production possibility frontier (PPF), where all points on the curve are points of productive efficiency. An equilibrium may be productively efficient without being allocatively efficient — i.e. it may result in a distribution of goods where social welfare is not maximized (bearing in mind that social welfare is a nebulous objective function subject to political controversy). Productive efficiency is an aspect of economic efficiency that focuses on how to maximize output of a chosen product portfolio, without concern for whether your product portfolio is making goods in the right proportion; in misguided ...
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Cost
In production, research, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something or deliver a service, and hence is not available for use anymore. In business, the cost may be one of acquisition, in which case the amount of money expended to acquire it is counted as cost. In this case, money is the input that is gone in order to acquire the thing. This acquisition cost may be the sum of the cost of production as incurred by the original producer, and further costs of transaction as incurred by the acquirer over and above the price paid to the producer. Usually, the price also includes a mark-up for profit over the cost of production. More generalized in the field of economics, cost is a metric that is totaling up as a result of a process or as a differential for the result of a decision. Hence cost is the metric used in the standard modeling paradigm applied to economic processes. Costs (pl.) are often further described based on thei ...
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Cost Theory
In production, research, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something or deliver a service, and hence is not available for use anymore. In business, the cost may be one of acquisition, in which case the amount of money expended to acquire it is counted as cost. In this case, money is the input that is gone in order to acquire the thing. This acquisition cost may be the sum of the cost of production as incurred by the original producer, and further costs of transaction as incurred by the acquirer over and above the price paid to the producer. Usually, the price also includes a mark-up for profit over the cost of production. More generalized in the field of economics, cost is a metric that is totaling up as a result of a process or as a differential for the result of a decision. Hence cost is the metric used in the standard modeling paradigm applied to economic processes. Costs (pl.) are often further described based on th ...
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Marginal Rate Of Transformation
Marginal may refer to: * ''Marginal'' (album), the third album of the Belgian rock band Dead Man Ray, released in 2001 * ''Marginal'' (manga) * '' El Marginal'', Argentine TV series * Marginal seat or marginal constituency or marginal, in politics See also Economics * Marginalism * Marginal analysis * Marginal concepts *Marginal cost * Marginal demand * Marginal product * Marginal product of labor *Marginal propensity to consume *Marginal rate of substitution * Marginal use *Marginal utility * Marginal rate Other * Margin (other) * Marginalization * Marginal intra-industry trade, where the change in a country's exports are essentially of the same products as its change in imports * Marginal land, land that is of little value because of its unsuitability for growing crops and other uses * Marginal model, in hierarchical linear modeling * Marginal observables, in physics; see Renormalization group * Marginal person, in sociology; see Marginalization * Marginal plan ...
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Production Possibility Frontier
Production may refer to: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) * Production as a statistic, gross domestic product * Production line Arts, entertainment, and media Motion pictures * Production, film distributor of a company * Production, phase of filmmaking * Production, video production Other uses in arts, entertainment, and media * ''Production'' (album), by Mirwais, 2000 * Production, category of illusory magic trick * Production, phase of video games development * Production, Record producer's role * Production, theatrical performance Science and technology * Production, deployment environment where changes go "live" and users interact with it * Production (computer science), formal-grammar concept * Primary production, the production of new biomass by autotrophs in ecosystems * Productivity (ecology), the wider ...
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Paretian Factor Rents
Pareto efficiency or Pareto optimality is a situation where no action or allocation is available that makes one individual better off without making another worse off. The concept is named after Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923), Italian civil engineer and economist, who used the concept in his studies of economic efficiency and income distribution. The following three concepts are closely related: * Given an initial situation, a Pareto improvement is a new situation where some agents will gain, and no agents will lose. * A situation is called Pareto-dominated if there exists a possible Pareto improvement. * A situation is called Pareto-optimal or Pareto-efficient if no change could lead to improved satisfaction for some agent without some other agent losing or, equivalently, if there is no scope for further Pareto improvement. The Pareto front (also called Pareto frontier or Pareto set) is the set of all Pareto-efficient situations. Pareto originally used the word "optimal" for ...
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Classical Factor Rents
Classical may refer to: European antiquity * Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity *Classical mythology, the body of myths from the ancient Greeks and Romans *Classical tradition, the reception of classical Greco-Roman antiquity by later cultures *Classics, study of the language and culture of classical antiquity, particularly its literature *Classicism, a high regard for classical antiquity in the arts Music and arts *Classical ballet, the most formal of the ballet styles *Classical music, a variety of Western musical styles from the 9th century to the present *Classical guitar, a common type of acoustic guitar *Classical Hollywood cinema, a visual and sound style in the American film industry between 1927 and 1963 * Classical Indian dance, various codified art forms whose the ...
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Economic Rent
In economics, economic rent is any payment (in the context of a market transaction) to the owner of a factor of production in excess of the cost needed to bring that factor into production. In classical economics, economic rent is any payment made (including imputed value) or benefit received for non-produced inputs such as location ( land) and for assets formed by creating official privilege over natural opportunities (e.g., patents). In the moral economy of neoclassical economics, economic rent includes income gained by labor or state beneficiaries of other "contrived" (assuming the market is natural, and does not come about by state and social contrivance) exclusivity, such as labor guilds and unofficial corruption. Overview In the moral economy of the economics tradition broadly, economic rent is opposed to producer surplus, or normal profit, both of which are theorized to involve productive human action. Economic rent is also independent of opportunity cost, unlik ...
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Diminishing Returns
In economics, diminishing returns are the decrease in marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, holding all other factors of production equal ( ceteris paribus). The law of diminishing returns (also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity) states that in productive processes, increasing a factor of production by one unit, while holding all other production factors constant, will at some point return a lower unit of output per incremental unit of input. The law of diminishing returns does not cause a decrease in overall production capabilities, rather it defines a point on a production curve whereby producing an additional unit of output will result in a loss and is known as negative returns. Under diminishing returns, output remains positive, however productivity and efficiency decrease. The modern understanding of the law adds the dimension of holding other outputs equal, sin ...
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Production Function
In economics, a production function gives the technological relation between quantities of physical inputs and quantities of output of goods. The production function is one of the key concepts of mainstream neoclassical theories, used to define marginal product and to distinguish allocative efficiency, a key focus of economics. One important purpose of the production function is to address allocative efficiency in the use of factor inputs in production and the resulting distribution of income to those factors, while abstracting away from the technological problems of achieving technical efficiency, as an engineer or professional manager might understand it. For modelling the case of many outputs and many inputs, researchers often use the so-called Shephard's distance functions or, alternatively, directional distance functions, which are generalizations of the simple production function in economics. In macroeconomics, aggregate production functions are estimated to create a fr ...
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Marginal Rate Of Technical Substitution
In microeconomic theory, the marginal rate of technical substitution (MRTS)—or technical rate of substitution (TRS)—is the amount by which the quantity of one input has to be reduced (-\Delta x_2) when one extra unit of another input is used (\Delta x_1 = 1), so that output remains constant (y = \bar). MRTS(x_1,x_2) =-\frac = \frac where MP_1 and MP_2 are the marginal products of input 1 and input 2, respectively. Along an isoquant, the MRTS shows the rate at which one input (e.g. capital or labor) may be substituted for another, while maintaining the same level of output. Thus the MRTS is the absolute value of the slope of an isoquant at the point in question. When relative input usages are optimal, the marginal rate of technical substitution is equal to the relative unit costs of the inputs, and the slope of the isoquant at the chosen point equals the slope of the isocost curve (see Conditional factor demands). It is the rate at which one input is substituted for anoth ...
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