Net Present Value
The net present value (NPV) or net present worth (NPW) applies to a series of cash flows occurring at different times. The present value of a cash flow depends on the interval of time between now and the cash flow. It also depends on the discount rate. NPV accounts for the time value of money. It provides a method for evaluating and comparing capital projects or financial products with cash flows spread over time, as in loans, investments, payouts from insurance contracts plus many other applications. Time value of money dictates that time affects the value of cash flows. For example, a lender may offer 99 cents for the promise of receiving $1.00 a month from now, but the promise to receive that same dollar 20 years in the future would be worth much less today to that same person (lender), even if the payback in both cases was equally certain. This decrease in the current value of future cash flows is based on a chosen rate of return (or discount rate). If for example there exists ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Time Value Of Money
The time value of money is the widely accepted conjecture that there is greater benefit to receiving a sum of money now rather than an identical sum later. It may be seen as an implication of the laterdeveloped concept of time preference. The time value of money is among the factors considered when weighing the opportunity costs of spending rather than saving or investing money. As such, it is among the reasons why interest is paid or earned: interest, whether it is on a bank deposit or debt, compensates the depositor or lender for the loss of their use of their money. Investors are willing to forgo spending their money now only if they expect a favorable net return on their investment in the future, such that the increased value to be available later is sufficiently high to offset both the preference to spending money now and inflation (if present); see required rate of return. History The Talmud (~500 CE) recognizes the time value of money. In Tractate Makkos page 3a the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Opportunity Cost
In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost of a particular activity is the value or benefit given up by engaging in that activity, relative to engaging in an alternative activity. More effective it means if you chose one activity (for example, an investment) you are giving up the opportunity to do a different option. The optimal activity is the one that, net of its opportunity cost, provides the greater return compared to any other activities, net of their opportunity costs. For example, if you buy a car and use it exclusively to transport yourself, you cannot rent it out, whereas if you rent it out you cannot use it to transport yourself. If your cost of transporting yourself without the car is more than what you get for renting out the car, the optimal choice is to use the car yourself. In basic equation form, opportunity cost can be defined as: "Opportunity Cost = (returns on best Forgone Option)  (returns on Chosen Option)." The opportunity cost of mowing one’s own l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral Operator
An integral operator is an operator that involves integration. Special instances are: * The operator of integration itself, denoted by the integral symbol * Integral linear operators, which are linear operators induced by bilinear forms involving integrals * Integral transforms, which are maps between two function space In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets. Often, the domain and/or codomain will have additional structure which is inherited by the function space. For example, the set of functions from any set into a vect ...s, which involve integrals {{mathanalysisstub Integral calculus ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ztransform
In mathematics and signal processing, the Ztransform converts a discretetime signal, which is a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex frequencydomain (zdomain or zplane) representation. It can be considered as a discretetime equivalent of the Laplace transform (sdomain). This similarity is explored in the theory of timescale calculus. Whereas the continuoustime Fourier transform is evaluated on the Laplace sdomain's imaginary line, the discretetime Fourier transform is evaluated over the unit circle of the zdomain. What is roughly the sdomain's left halfplane, is now the inside of the complex unit circle; what is the zdomain's outside of the unit circle, roughly corresponds to the right halfplane of the sdomain. One of the means of designing digital filters is to take analog designs, subject them to a bilinear transform which maps them from the sdomain to the zdomain, and then produce the digital filter by inspection, manipulation, or numeric ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Laplace Transform
In mathematics, the Laplace transform, named after its discoverer PierreSimon Laplace (), is an integral transform that converts a function of a real variable (usually t, in the '' time domain'') to a function of a complex variable s (in the complex frequency domain, also known as ''s''domain, or splane). The transform has many applications in science and engineering because it is a tool for solving differential equations. In particular, it transforms ordinary differential equations into algebraic equations and convolution into multiplication. For suitable functions ''f'', the Laplace transform is the integral \mathcal\(s) = \int_0^\infty f(t)e^ \, dt. History The Laplace transform is named after mathematician and astronomer PierreSimon, marquis de Laplace, who used a similar transform in his work on probability theory. Laplace wrote extensively about the use of generating functions in ''Essai philosophique sur les probabilités'' (1814), and the integral form of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cost Of Capital
In economics and accounting, the cost of capital is the cost of a company's funds (both debt and equity), or from an investor's point of view is "the required rate of return on a portfolio company's existing securities". It is used to evaluate new projects of a company. It is the minimum return that investors expect for providing capital to the company, thus setting a benchmark that a new project has to meet. Basic concept For an investment to be worthwhile, the expected return on capital has to be higher than the cost of capital. Given a number of competing investment opportunities, investors are expected to put their capital to work in order to maximize the return. In other words, the cost of capital is the rate of return that capital could be expected to earn in the best alternative investment of equivalent risk; this is the opportunity cost of capital. If a project is of similar risk to a company's average business activities it is reasonable to use the company's average cos ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Risk Premium
A risk premium is a measure of excess return that is required by an individual to compensate being subjected to an increased level of risk. It is used widely in finance and economics, the general definition being the expected risky return less the riskfree return, as demonstrated by the formula below. Risk \ premium = E(r)  r_f Where E(r) is the risky expected rate of return and r_f is the riskfree return. The inputs for each of these variables and the ultimate interpretation of the risk premium value differs depending on the application as explained in the following sections. Regardless of the application, the market premium can be volatile as both comprising variables can be impacted independent of each other by both cyclical and abrupt changes. This means that the market premium is dynamic in nature and everchanging. Additionally, a general observation regardless of application is that the risk premium is larger during economic downturns and during periods of increased ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discounting
Discounting is a financial mechanism in which a debtor obtains the right to delay payments to a creditor, for a defined period of time, in exchange for a charge or fee.See "Time Value", "Discount", "Discount Yield", "Compound Interest", "Efficient Market", "Market Value" and "Opportunity Cost" in Downes, J. and Goodman, J. E. ''Dictionary of Finance and Investment Terms'', Baron's Financial Guides, 2003. Essentially, the party that owes money in the present purchases the right to delay the payment until some future date.See "Discount", "Compound Interest", "Efficient Markets Hypothesis", "Efficient Resource Allocation", "ParetoOptimality", "Price", "Price Mechanism" and "Efficient Market" in Black, John, ''Oxford Dictionary of Economics'', Oxford University Press, 2002. This transaction is based on the fact that most people prefer current interest to delayed interest because of mortality effects, impatience effects, and salience effects. The discount, or charge, is the difference ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discount Rate (federal)
The discount window is an instrument of monetary policy (usually controlled by central banks) that allows eligible institutions to borrow money from the central bank, usually on a shortterm basis, to meet temporary shortages of liquidity caused by internal or external disruptions. The term originated with the practice of sending a bank representative to a reserve bank teller window when a bank needed to borrow money. The interest rate charged on such loans by a central bank is called the discount rate, policy rate, base rate, or repo rate, and is separate and distinct from the prime rate. It is also not the same thing as the federal funds rate or its equivalents in other currencies, which determine the rate at which banks lend money to ''each other''. In recent years, the discount rate has been approximately a percentage point above the federal funds rate (see Lombard credit). Because of this, it is a relatively unimportant factor in the control of the money supply and is onl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cash Flow
A cash flow is a real or virtual movement of money: *a cash flow in its narrow sense is a payment (in a currency), especially from one central bank account to another; the term 'cash flow' is mostly used to describe payments that are expected to happen in the future, are thus uncertain and therefore need to be forecast with cash flows; *a cash flow is determined by its time ''t'', nominal amount ''N'', currency ''CCY'' and account ''A''; symbolically ''CF'' = ''CF''(''t,N,CCY,A''). * it is however popular to use ''cash flow'' in a less specified sense describing (symbolic) payments into or out of a business, project, or financial product. Cash flows are narrowly interconnected with the concepts of value, ''interest rate'' and liquidity. A cash flow that shall happen on a future day ''t''N can be transformed into a cash flow of the same value in ''t''0. Cash flow analysis Cash flows are often transformed into measures that give information e.g. on a company's value and situat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Financial Theory
Finance is the study and discipline of money, currency and capital assets. It is related to, but not synonymous with economics, the study of production, distribution, and consumption of money, assets, goods and services (the discipline of financial economics bridges the two). Finance activities take place in financial systems at various scopes, thus the field can be roughly divided into personal, corporate, and public finance. In a financial system, assets are bought, sold, or traded as financial instruments, such as currencies, loans, bonds, shares, stocks, options, futures, etc. Assets can also be banked, invested, and insured to maximize value and minimize loss. In practice, risks are always present in any financial action and entities. A broad range of subfields within finance exist due to its wide scope. Asset, money, risk and investment management aim to maximize value and minimize volatility. Financial analysis is viability, stability, and profitability assessm ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

RNPV
In finance, rNPV ("riskadjusted net present value") or eNPV ("expected NPV") is a method to value risky future cash flows. rNPV is the standard valuation method in the drug development industry, where sufficient data exists to estimate success rates for all R&D phases.Stewart JJ et alPutting a Price on Biotechnology Nature Biotechnology. 2001. 19:5 A similar technique is used in the probability model of credit default swap (CDS) valuation. rNPV modifies the standard NPV calculation of discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis by adjusting (multiplying) each cash flow by the estimated probability that it occurs (the estimated success rate). In the language of probability theory, the rNPV is the expected value. Note that this in contrast to the more general valuation approach, where risk is instead incorporated by adding a risk premium percentage to the discount rate, i.e. as opposed to weighting the cash flows. See also * * Expected commercial value * * * First Chicago Method *Pen ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 