Ludwig Boltzmann
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (; 20 February 1844 – 5 September 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher. His greatest achievements were the development of statistical mechanics, and the statistical explanation of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1877 he provided the current definition of entropy, S = k_ \ln \Omega \!, where Ω is the number of microstates whose energy equals the system's energy, interpreted as a measure of statistical disorder of a system. Max Planck named the constant the Boltzmann constant. Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics. It describes how macroscopic observations (such as temperature and pressure) are related to microscopic parameters that fluctuate around an average. It connects thermodynamic quantities (such as heat capacity) to microscopic behavior, whereas, in classical thermodynamics, the only available option would be to measure and tabulate such quantities for various materials. Biography Childhood ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vienna
en, Viennese , iso_code = AT9 , registration_plate = W , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = , timezone = CET , utc_offset = +1 , timezone_DST = CEST , utc_offset_DST = +2 , blank_name = Vehicle registration , blank_info = W , blank1_name = GDP , blank1_info = € 96.5 billion (2020) , blank2_name = GDP per capita , blank2_info = € 50,400 (2020) , blank_name_sec1 = HDI (2019) , blank_info_sec1 = 0.947 · 1st of 9 , blank3_name = Seats in the Federal Council , blank3_info = , blank_name_sec2 = GeoTLD , blank_info_sec2 = .wien , website = , footnotes = , image_blank_emblem = Wien logo.svg , blank_emblem_size = Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; ba ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Stefan Meyer (physicist)
Stefan Meyer (27 April 1872 – 29 December 1949) was an Austrian physicist involved in research on radioactivity. He became director of the Institute for Radium Research in Vienna and received the Lieben Prize in 1913 for his research on radium. He was the brother of Hans Leopold Meyer who was also awarded the Lieben Prize. Life and work Stefan was the second son of Jewish parents: a lawyer and notary Gotthelf Karl Meyer and his wife Clara (née Goldschmidt, sister of Victor Mordechai Goldschmidt). He went to school in Vienna and later graduated from gymnasium in Horn in 1892. He studied physics at the University of Vienna and attended the University of Leipzig for one year. He obtained his PhD in 1896 for work with Franz Serafin Exner and completed his habilitation in 1900. In 1897, Meyer became assistant of Ludwig Boltzmann at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Vienna. His research was dedicated to magnetic permeability of liquids. After a talk of Friedr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Canonical Ensemble
In statistical mechanics, a canonical ensemble is the statistical ensemble that represents the possible states of a mechanical system in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath at a fixed temperature. The system can exchange energy with the heat bath, so that the states of the system will differ in total energy. The principal thermodynamic variable of the canonical ensemble, determining the probability distribution of states, is the absolute temperature (symbol: ). The ensemble typically also depends on mechanical variables such as the number of particles in the system (symbol: ) and the system's volume (symbol: ), each of which influence the nature of the system's internal states. An ensemble with these three parameters is sometimes called the ensemble. The canonical ensemble assigns a probability to each distinct microstate given by the following exponential: :P = e^, where is the total energy of the microstate, and is the Boltzmann constant. The number is the free e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boltzmann Relation
In a plasma, the Boltzmann relation describes the number density of an isothermal charged particle fluid when the thermal and the electrostatic forces acting on the fluid have reached equilibrium. In many situations, the electron density of a plasma is assumed to behave according to the Boltzmann relation, due to their small mass and high mobility. Equation If the local electrostatic potentials at two nearby locations are ''φ''1 and ''φ''2, the Boltzmann relation for the electrons takes the form: :n_\text (\phi_2) = n_\text(\phi_1) e^ where ''n''e is the electron number density, ''T''e is the temperature of the plasma, and ''k''B is the Boltzmann constant. Derivation A simple derivation of the Boltzmann relation for the electrons can be obtained using the momentum fluid equation of the twofluid model of plasma physics in absence of a magnetic field. When the electrons reach dynamic equilibrium, the inertial and the collisional terms of the momentum equations are zero, a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boltzmann Factor
Factor, a Latin word meaning "who/which acts", may refer to: Commerce * Factor (agent), a person who acts for, notably a mercantile and colonial agent * Factor (Scotland), a person or firm managing a Scottish estate * Factors of production, such a factor is a resource used in the production of goods and services Science and technology Biology * Coagulation factors, substances essential for blood coagulation * Environmental factor, any abiotic or biotic factor that affects life * Enzyme, proteins that catalyze chemical reactions * Factor B, and factor D, peptides involved in the alternate pathway of immune system complement activation * Transcription factor, a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences Computer science and information technology * Factor (programming language), a concatenative stackoriented programming language * Factor (Unix), a utility for factoring an integer into its prime factors * Factor, a substring, a subsequence of consecutive symbols in a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boltzmann–Matano Analysis
The Boltzmann–Matano method is used to convert the partial differential equation resulting from Fick's law of diffusion into a more easily solved ordinary differential equation, which can then be applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient as a function of concentration. Ludwig Boltzmann worked on Fick's second law to convert it into an ordinary differential equation, whereas Chujiro Matano performed experiments with diffusion couples and calculated the diffusion coefficients as a function of concentration in metal alloys. Specifically, Matano proved that the diffusion rate of A atoms into a Batom crystal lattice is a function of the amount of A atoms already in the B lattice. The importance of the classic Boltzmann–Matano method consists in the ability to extract diffusivities from concentration–distance data. These methods, also known as ''inverse methods'', have both proven to be reliable, convenient and accurate with the assistance of modern computational techniques. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Stefan–Boltzmann Law
The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature. Specifically, the Stefan–Boltzmann law states that the total energy radiated per unit surface area of a black body across all wavelengths per unit time j^ (also known as the blackbody ''radiant emittance'') is directly proportional to the fourth power of the black body's thermodynamic temperature ''T'': : j^ = \sigma T^. The constant of proportionality ''σ'', called the Stefan–Boltzmann constant, is derived from other known physical constants. Since 2019, the value of the constant is : \sigma=\frac = 5.670374419\times 10^\, \mathrm, where ''k'' is the Boltzmann constant, ''h'' is Planck's constant, and ''c'' is the speed of light in a vacuum. The radiance from a specified angle of view (watts per square metre per steradian) is given by : L = \frac\pi = \frac\sigma\pi T^. A body that does not absorb all incident radiation (sometimes known as a grey body) emits ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Stefan–Boltzmann Constant
The Stefan–Boltzmann constant (also Stefan's constant), a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter ''σ'' (sigma), is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law: "the total intensity radiated over all wavelengths increases as the temperature increases", of a black body which is proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature. The theory of thermal radiation lays down the theory of quantum mechanics, by using physics to relate to molecular, atomic and subatomic levels. Slovenian physicist Josef Stefan formulated the constant in 1879; it was formally derived in 1884 by his former student and collaborator, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann. The equation can also be derived from Planck's law, by integrating over all wavelengths at a given temperature, which will represent a small flat black body box. "The amount of thermal radiation emitted increases quickly and the principal frequency of the radiation becomes higher with increas ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maxwell–Boltzmann Distribution
In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, or Maxwell(ian) distribution, is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann. It was first defined and used for describing particle speeds in idealized gases, where the particles move freely inside a stationary container without interacting with one another, except for very brief collisions in which they exchange energy and momentum with each other or with their thermal environment. The term "particle" in this context refers to gaseous particles only ( atoms or molecules), and the system of particles is assumed to have reached thermodynamic equilibrium.''Statistical Physics'' (2nd Edition), F. Mandl, Manchester Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, The energies of such particles follow what is known as Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, and the statistical distribution of speeds is derived by equating particle energies with kinetic energy. Mathema ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boltzmann Distribution
In statistical mechanics and mathematics, a Boltzmann distribution (also called Gibbs distribution Translated by J.B. Sykes and M.J. Kearsley. See section 28) is a probability distribution or probability measure that gives the probability that a system will be in a certain state as a function of that state's energy and the temperature of the system. The distribution is expressed in the form: :p_i \propto e^ where is the probability of the system being in state , is the energy of that state, and a constant of the distribution is the product of the Boltzmann constant and thermodynamic temperature . The symbol \propto denotes proportionality (see for the proportionality constant). The term ''system'' here has a very wide meaning; it can range from a collection of 'sufficient number' of atoms or a single atom to a macroscopic system such as a natural gas storage tank. Therefore the Boltzmann distribution can be used to solve a very wide variety of problems. The distribut ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boltzmann Equation
The Boltzmann equation or Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) describes the statistical behaviour of a thermodynamic system not in a state of equilibrium, devised by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872.Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), R. G. Lerner, G. L. Trigg, VHC publishers, 1991, ISBN (Verlagsgesellschaft) 3527269541, ISBN (VHC Inc.) 0895737523. The classic example of such a system is a fluid with temperature gradients in space causing heat to flow from hotter regions to colder ones, by the random but biased transport of the particles making up that fluid. In the modern literature the term Boltzmann equation is often used in a more general sense, referring to any kinetic equation that describes the change of a macroscopic quantity in a thermodynamic system, such as energy, charge or particle number. The equation arises not by analyzing the individual positions and momenta of each particle in the fluid but rather by considering a probability distribution for the position ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 