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Vienna
Vienna
(/viˈɛnə/ ( listen);[9][10] German: Wien, pronounced [viːn] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million[1] (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,[4] nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants.[11] Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin.[12][13] Vienna
Vienna
is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations
United Nations
and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria
Austria
and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope
Centrope
border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna
Vienna
forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants.[citation needed] In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.[14] Apart from being regarded as the City of Music[15] because of its musical legacy, Vienna
Vienna
is also said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychotherapist – Sigmund Freud.[16] The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval
Medieval
and Baroque
Baroque
city, and then the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism
Classicism
through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna
Vienna
is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque
Baroque
castles and gardens, and the late-19th-century Ringstraße
Ringstraße
lined with grand buildings, monuments and parks.[17] Vienna
Vienna
is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
ranked the city first (in a tie with Vancouver, Canada and San Francisco, USA) for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna
Vienna
was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia.[18][19][20][21][22] For eight consecutive years (2009–2016), the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna
Vienna
first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world, a title the city still held in 2016.[23][24][25][26][27][28][29] Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna
Vienna
second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."[30][31][32][33][34] The UN-Habitat
UN-Habitat
classified Vienna
Vienna
as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013.[35] The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and sixth globally (out of 256 cities) in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture, infrastructure, and markets.[36][37][38] Vienna
Vienna
regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is often used as a case study by urban planners.[39] Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna
Vienna
was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions.[40] It attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year.[41]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Austro-Hungarian Empire and the early 20th century 2.3 Anschluss
Anschluss
and World War II 2.4 Four-power Vienna 2.5 Austrian State Treaty
Austrian State Treaty
and afterwards

3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

4 Geography and climate 5 Districts and enlargement 6 Politics

6.1 Political history 6.2 Government

7 Economy

7.1 Research and development 7.2 Information technologies 7.3 Tourism and conferences

8 Rankings 9 Urban development

9.1 Central Railway Station 9.2 Aspern 9.3 Smart City

10 Culture

10.1 Music, theatre and opera 10.2 Musicians from Vienna 10.3 Famous Jewish cultural figures from Vienna 10.4 Museums 10.5 Architecture 10.6 Vienna
Vienna
balls

11 Education

11.1 Universities 11.2 International schools

12 Leisure activities

12.1 Parks and gardens 12.2 Sport

13 Culinary specialities

13.1 Food 13.2 Drinks 13.3 Viennese cafés

14 Tourist attractions 15 Transportation 16 International relations

16.1 International organisations in Vienna 16.2 Charitable organisations in Vienna 16.3 International City Cooperations 16.4 District to district partnerships

17 See also 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

20.1 Official websites 20.2 History of Vienna 20.3 Further information on Vienna

Etymology[edit] See also Other names of Vienna The English name Vienna
Vienna
is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German
Old High German
Uuenia (Wenia in modern writing), the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.[42] Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona, probably meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, and -bona "village, settlement".[43] The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of Vindos, a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech, Slovak and Polish names of the city (Vídeň, Viedeň and Wiedeń respectively) and in that of the city's district Wieden.[44] The name of the city in Hungarian (Bécs), Serbo-Croatian (Beč) and Ottoman Turkish (Beç) has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area.[45] Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube
Danube
River, on which the city stands. History[edit] Main articles: History of Vienna
History of Vienna
and Timeline of Vienna Early history[edit]

Depiction of Vienna
Vienna
in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

1683 Allen (printed 1686)

Evidence has been found[by whom?] of continuous habitation in the Vienna
Vienna
area since 500 BC, when Celts
Celts
settled the site on the Danube River.[citation needed] In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona
Vindobona
to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north. Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman (or Koloman, Irish Colmán, derived from colm "dove") is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil (Virgil the Geometer) served as Bishop of Salzburg
Salzburg
for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift
Schottenstift
monastery (Scots Abbey), once home to many Irish monks.

Vienna
Vienna
from Belvedere by Bernardo Bellotto, 1758

In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube
Danube
on the eastern frontier of Bavaria. This initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube, eventually encompassing Vienna
Vienna
and the lands immediately east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg
Klosterneuburg
in Lower Austria
Austria
to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty.[46] In 1440 Vienna
Vienna
became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty. It eventually grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire (1483–1806) and a cultural centre for arts and science, music and fine cuisine. Hungary
Hungary
occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 17th centuries Christian forces stopped Ottoman armies twice outside Vienna
Vienna
(see Siege of Vienna, 1529 and Battle of Vienna, 1683). A plague epidemic ravaged Vienna
Vienna
in 1679, killing nearly a third of its population.[47] Austro-Hungarian Empire and the early 20th century[edit]

Vienna
Vienna
Ringstraße
Ringstraße
and State Opera around 1870

Color photo lithograph of Vienna, 1900

Bond of the city of Vienna, issued 23. June 1908

In 1804, during the Napoleonic Wars, Vienna
Vienna
became the capital of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and continued to play a major role in European and world politics, including hosting the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1814/15. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Vienna
Vienna
remained the capital of what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city was a centre of classical music, for which the title of the First Viennese School is sometimes applied. During the latter half of the 19th century, the city developed what had previously been the bastions and glacis into the Ringstraße, a new boulevard surrounding the historical town and a major prestige project. Former suburbs were incorporated, and the city of Vienna
Vienna
grew dramatically. In 1918, after World War I, Vienna
Vienna
became capital of the Republic of German-Austria, and then in 1919 of the First Republic of Austria. From the late 19th century to 1938, the city remained a centre of high culture and modernism. A world capital of music, the city played host to composers such as Brahms, Bruckner, Mahler
Mahler
and Richard Strauss. The city's cultural contributions in the first half of the 20th century included, among many, the Vienna Secession
Vienna Secession
movement, psychoanalysis, the Second Viennese School, the architecture of Adolf Loos
Adolf Loos
and the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein
Ludwig Wittgenstein
and the Vienna
Vienna
Circle. In 1913, Adolf Hitler, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Tito, Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
and Joseph Stalin all lived within a few miles of each other in central Vienna, some of them being regulars at the same coffeehouses.[48] Within Austria, Vienna
Vienna
was seen as a centre of socialist politics, for which it was sometimes referred to as "Red Vienna". The city was a stage to the Austrian Civil War
Austrian Civil War
of 1934, when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss sent the Austrian Army to shell civilian housing occupied by the socialist militia. Anschluss
Anschluss
and World War II[edit] Main article: Anschluss In 1938, after a triumphant entry into Austria, Austrian-born Adolf Hitler spoke to the Austrian Germans from the balcony of the Neue Burg, a part of the Hofburg
Hofburg
at the Heldenplatz. Viennese Jews were looted, deported and murdered.[49][50] Between 1938 (after the Anschluss) and the end of the Second World War, Vienna
Vienna
lost its status as a capital to Berlin
Berlin
as Austria
Austria
ceased to exist and became a part of Nazi Germany. It was not until 1955 that Austria
Austria
regained full sovereignty. On 2 April 1945, the Soviets launched the Vienna Offensive
Vienna Offensive
against the Germans holding the city and besieged it. British and American air raids and artillery duels between the SS and Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
and the Red Army crippled infrastructure, such as tram services and water and power distribution, and destroyed or damaged thousands of public and private buildings. Vienna
Vienna
fell eleven days later. Austria
Austria
was separated from Germany, and Vienna
Vienna
was restored as the republic's capital city, but the Soviet hold on the city remained until 1955. Four-power Vienna[edit]

Occupation zones in Vienna, 1945–55

Further information: Allied-occupied Austria After the war, Vienna
Vienna
was part of Soviet-occupied Eastern Austria until September 1945. As in Berlin, Vienna
Vienna
in September 1945 was divided into sectors by the four powers: the US, the UK, France
France
and the Soviet Union and supervised by an Allied Commission. The four-power occupation of Vienna
Vienna
differed in one key respect from that of Berlin: the central area of the city, known as the first district, constituted an international zone in which the four powers alternated control on a monthly basis. The control was policed by the four powers on a de facto day-to-day basis, the famous "four soldiers in a jeep" method.[51] The Berlin
Berlin
Blockade of 1948 raised Western concerns that the Soviets might repeat the blockade in Vienna. The matter was raised in the UK House of Commons by MP Anthony Nutting, who asked: "What plans have the Government for dealing with a similar situation in Vienna? Vienna
Vienna
is in exactly a similar position to Berlin."[52] There was a lack of airfields in the Western sectors, and authorities drafted contingency plans to deal with such a blockade. Plans included the laying down of metal landing mats at Schönbrunn. The Soviets did not blockade the city. The Potsdam Agreement
Potsdam Agreement
included written rights of land access to the western sectors, whereas no such written guarantees had covered the western sectors of Berlin. Also, there was no precipitating event to cause a blockade in Vienna. (In Berlin, the Western powers had introduced a new currency in early 1948 to economically freeze out the Soviets.) During the 10 years of the four-power occupation, Vienna
Vienna
became a hot-bed for international espionage between the Western and Eastern blocs. In the wake of the Berlin
Berlin
Blockade, the Cold War
Cold War
in Vienna
Vienna
took on a different dynamic. While accepting that Germany
Germany
and Berlin
Berlin
would be divided, the Soviets had decided against allowing the same state of affairs to arise in Austria
Austria
and Vienna. Here, the Soviet forces controlled districts 2, 4, 10, 20, 21 and 22 and all areas incorporated into Vienna
Vienna
in 1938. They put up barbed wire fences around the perimeter of West Berlin
Berlin
in 1953, but not in Vienna. By 1955, the Soviets, by signing the Austrian State Treaty, agreed to relinquish their occupation zones in Eastern Austria
Austria
as well as their sector in Vienna. In exchange they required that Austria
Austria
declare its permanent neutrality after the allied powers had left the country. Thus they ensured that Austria
Austria
would not be a member of NATO
NATO
and that NATO
NATO
forces would therefore not have direct communications between Italy
Italy
and West Germany. The atmosphere of four-power Vienna
Vienna
is the background for Graham Greene's screenplay for the film The Third Man
The Third Man
(1949). Later he adapted the screenplay as a novel and published it. Occupied Vienna
Vienna
is also depicted in the Philip Kerr
Philip Kerr
novel, A German Requiem. Austrian State Treaty
Austrian State Treaty
and afterwards[edit] The four-power control of Vienna
Vienna
lasted until the Austrian State Treaty was signed in May 1955. That year, after years of reconstruction and restoration, the State Opera and the Burgtheater, both on the Ringstraße, reopened to the public. The Soviet Union signed the State Treaty only after having been provided with the political guarantee by the federal government to declare Austria's neutrality after the withdrawal of the allied troops. This law of neutrality, passed in late October 1955 (and not the State Treaty itself), ensured that modern Austria
Austria
would align with neither NATO
NATO
nor the Soviet bloc, and is considered one of the reasons for Austria's late entry into the European Union. In the 1970s, Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky
Bruno Kreisky
inaugurated the Vienna International Centre, a new area of the city created to host international institutions. Vienna
Vienna
has regained much of its former international stature by hosting international organizations, such as the United Nations
United Nations
( United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization, United Nations
United Nations
Office at Vienna
Vienna
and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Demographics[edit]

Population of Vienna
Vienna
1590 to 2013

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1754 175,460 —    

1800 271,800 +54.9%

1850 551,300 +102.8%

1900 1,769,137 +220.9%

1910 2,083,630 +17.8%

1923 1,918,720 −7.9%

1939 1,770,938 −7.7%

1951 1,616,125 −8.7%

1961 1,627,566 +0.7%

1971 1,619,885 −0.5%

Year Pop. ±%

1981 1,535,145 −5.2%

1985 1,494,874 −2.6%

1990 1,492,636 −0.1%

1995 1,542,667 +3.4%

2000 1,548,537 +0.4%

2005 1,632,569 +5.4%

2010 1,689,995 +3.5%

2015 1,797,337 +6.4%

2016 1,840,226 +2.4%

2017 1,877,836 +2.0%

Significant minority groups[53]

Nationality Population (2015)

 Serbia 97,219

 Turkey 76,063

 Germany 53,232

 Poland 49,702

 Bosnia & Herzegovina 39,664

 Romania 30,741

 Croatia 25,299

 Hungary 22,729

 Slovakia 16,578

 Russia 16,358

 Bulgaria 15,140

 Macedonia 12,813

 Iran 10, 751

 China 10,139

Because of the industrialization and migration from other parts of the Empire, the population of Vienna
Vienna
increased sharply during its time as the capital of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1867–1918). In 1910, Vienna
Vienna
had more than two million inhabitants, and was the fourth largest city in Europe after London, Paris
Paris
and Berlin.[54] Around the start of the 20th century, Vienna
Vienna
was the city with the second-largest Czech population in the world (after Prague).[55] After World War I, many Czechs
Czechs
and Hungarians returned to their ancestral countries, resulting in a decline in the Viennese population. After World War II, the Soviets used force to repatriate key workers of Czech, Slovak and Hungarian origins to return to their ethnic homelands to further the Soviet bloc
Soviet bloc
economy. Under the Nazi regime, 65,000 Jewish people were deported and murdered in concentration camps by Nazi forces; approximately 130,000 fled.[56] By 2001, 16% of people living in Austria
Austria
had nationalities other than Austrian, nearly half of whom were from former Yugoslavia;[57][58] the next most numerous nationalities in Vienna
Vienna
were Turks (39,000; 2.5%), Poles (13,600; 0.9%) and Germans (12,700; 0.8%).[59] As of 2012[update], an official report from Statistics Austria
Austria
showed that more than 660,000 (38.8%) of the Viennese population have full or partial migrant background, mostly from Ex-Yugoslavia, Turkey, Germany, Poland, Romania
Romania
and Hungary.[1][2] From 2005 to 2015 the city's population grew by 10.1%.[60] According to UN-Habitat, Vienna
Vienna
could be the fastest growing city out of 17 European metropolitan areas until 2025 with an increase of 4.65% of its population, compared to 2010.[61] Religion[edit]

Karlskirche
Karlskirche
located on the south side of Karlsplatz
Karlsplatz
in the 1st city district

Vienna Islamic Centre
Vienna Islamic Centre
in the 21st city district Floridsdorf

According to the 2001 census, 49.2% of Viennese were Roman Catholics, while 25.7% were of no religion, 7.8% were Muslim, 6.0% were members of an Orthodox denomination, 4.7% were Protestant (mostly Lutheran), 0.5% were Jewish and 6.3% were either of other religions or did not reply.[59] By 2011 the shares of religious bodies had significantly changed:[62]

41.3% Catholics 31.6% no religion 11.6% Muslim 8.4% Orthodox 4.2% Protestant 2.9% others

Vienna
Vienna
is the seat of the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna, in which is also vested the exempt Ordinariate for Byzantine-rite Catholics in Austria; its current Archbishop is Cardinal Christoph Schönborn. Many Roman Catholic churches in central Vienna
Vienna
feature performances of religious or other music, including masses sung to classical music and organ. Some of Vienna's most significant historical buildings are Roman Catholic churches, including the St. Stephen's Cathedral (Stephansdom), Karlskirche, Peterskirche
Peterskirche
and the Votivkirche. The proportion of Viennese who identify as Roman Catholic has dropped over the last fifty years, from 90% in 1961 to 39.8% in 2010.[63] On the banks of the Danube, there is a Buddhist Peace Pagoda, built in 1983 by the monks and nuns of Nipponzan Myohoji. Geography and climate[edit]

Satellite image of Vienna
Vienna
(2002)

Vienna
Vienna
is located in northeastern Austria, at the easternmost extension of the Alps
Alps
in the Vienna
Vienna
Basin. The earliest settlement, at the location of today's inner city, was south of the meandering Danube while the city now spans both sides of the river. Elevation ranges from 151 to 542 m (495 to 1,778 ft). The city has a total area of 414.65 square kilometres (160.1 sq mi), making it the largest city in Austria
Austria
by area. Vienna
Vienna
has an oceanic climate (hovering just below 22 °C in July and August), and features, according to the Köppen classification, a Cfb (oceanic) -climate. The city has warm summers with average high temperatures of 24 to 33 °C (75 to 91 °F), with maximum exceeding 38 °C (100 °F) and lows of around 17 °C (63 °F). Winters are relatively dry and cold with average temperatures at about freezing point. Spring and autumn are mild. Precipitation
Precipitation
is generally moderate throughout the year, averaging 550 mm (21.7 in) annually, with considerable local variations, the Vienna Woods
Vienna Woods
region in the west being the wettest part (700 to 800 mm (28 to 31 in) annually) and the flat plains in the east being the driest part (500 to 550 mm (20 to 22 in) annually). Snow in the winter is not uncommon, but rare compared to Western and Southern regions in Austria.

Climate data for Vienna
Vienna
(Innere Stadt)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.8 (62.2) 20.3 (68.5) 25.4 (77.7) 27.4 (81.3) 31.5 (88.7) 36.5 (97.7) 36.1 (97) 39.5 (103.1) 31.8 (89.2) 24.8 (76.6) 21.3 (70.3) 16.4 (61.5) 37.0 (98.6)

Average high °C (°F) 3.8 (38.8) 6.1 (43) 11.5 (52.7) 16.1 (61) 21.3 (70.3) 24.0 (75.2) 26.7 (80.1) 26.6 (79.9) 21.1 (70) 15.3 (59.5) 8.1 (46.6) 4.6 (40.3) 15.3 (59.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 2.9 (37.2) 6.4 (43.5) 11.5 (52.7) 16.5 (61.7) 19.1 (66.4) 21.7 (71.1) 21.6 (70.9) 16.8 (62.2) 11.6 (52.9) 5.5 (41.9) 2.4 (36.3) 11.4 (52.5)

Average low °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) 0.3 (32.5) 3.5 (38.3) 7.8 (46) 12.5 (54.5) 15.1 (59.2) 17.4 (63.3) 17.5 (63.5) 13.6 (56.5) 8.8 (47.8) 3.6 (38.5) 0.5 (32.9) 8.3 (46.9)

Record low °C (°F) −17.6 (0.3) −16.4 (2.5) −16.4 (2.5) −2.1 (28.2) 4.9 (40.8) 6.8 (44.2) 10.9 (51.6) 10.1 (50.2) 5.6 (42.1) −1.8 (28.8) −7.0 (19.4) −15.4 (4.3) −17.6 (0.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.3 (0.839) 29.3 (1.154) 39.1 (1.539) 39.2 (1.543) 60.9 (2.398) 63.3 (2.492) 66.6 (2.622) 66.5 (2.618) 50.4 (1.984) 32.8 (1.291) 43.9 (1.728) 34.6 (1.362) 547.9 (21.57)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 18.6 (7.32) 15.6 (6.14) 8.3 (3.27) 1.5 (0.59) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 7.9 (3.11) 16.4 (6.46) 68.3 (26.89)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.3 6.0 8.1 6.3 8.3 9.3 8.2 8.5 6.9 6.0 7.5 7.6 88

Mean monthly sunshine hours 70.1 101.6 142.9 197.5 238.5 237.9 263.1 251.6 181.6 132.3 66.7 51.8 1,935.5

Percent possible sunshine 25.6 35.5 40.1 48.2 50.6 49.6 54.4 56.8 53.8 40.6 23.9 19.8 41.58

Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics[64]

Districts and enlargement[edit] Main article: Districts of Vienna

Map of the districts of Vienna
Vienna
with numbers

Vienna
Vienna
is composed of 23 districts (Bezirke). Administrative district offices in Vienna
Vienna
(called Magistratische Bezirksämter) serve functions similar to those in the other Austrian states (called Bezirkshauptmannschaften), the officers being subject to the mayor of Vienna; with the notable exception of the police, which is under federal supervision. District residents in Vienna
Vienna
( Austrians
Austrians
as well as EU citizens with permanent residence here) elect a District Assembly (Bezirksvertretung). City hall has delegated maintenance budgets, e.g., for schools and parks, so that the districts are able to set priorities autonomously. Any decision of a district can be overridden by the city assembly (Gemeinderat) or the responsible city councillor (amtsführender Stadrat).

Albertina Terrace in the Innere Stadt

The Ring Road (Ringstraße) with a historical tram

The heart and historical city of Vienna, a large part of today's Innere Stadt, was a fortress surrounded by fields in order to defend itself from potential attackers. In 1850, Vienna
Vienna
with the consent of the emperor annexed 34 surrounding villages,[65] called Vorstädte, into the city limits (districts no. 2 to 8, after 1861 with the separation of Margareten
Margareten
from Wieden
Wieden
no. 2 to 9). Consequently, the walls were razed after 1857,[66] making it possible for the city centre to expand. In their place, a broad boulevard called the Ringstraße
Ringstraße
was built, along which imposing public and private buildings, monuments, and parks were created by the start of the 20th century. These buildings include the Rathaus (town hall), the Burgtheater, the University, the Parliament, the twin museums of natural history and fine art, and the Staatsoper. It is also the location of New Wing of the Hofburg, the former imperial palace, and the Imperial and Royal War Ministry finished in 1913. The mainly Gothic Stephansdom is located at the centre of the city, on Stephansplatz. The Imperial-Royal Government set up the Vienna
Vienna
City Renovation Fund (Wiener Stadterneuerungsfonds) and sold many building lots to private investors, thereby partly financing public construction works.

Urania at sunset

Skyline of Donaustadt

From 1850 to 1890, city limits in the West and the South mainly followed another wall called Linienwall
Linienwall
at which a road toll called the Liniengeld
Liniengeld
was charged. Outside this wall from 1873 onwards a ring road called Gürtel was built. In 1890 it was decided to integrate 33 suburbs (called Vororte) beyond that wall into Vienna
Vienna
by 1 January 1892[67] and transform them into districts no. 11 to 19 (district no. 10 had been constituted in 1874); hence the Linienwall
Linienwall
was torn down beginning in 1894.[68] In 1900, district no. 20, Brigittenau, was created by separating the area from the 2nd district. From 1850 to 1904, Vienna
Vienna
had expanded only on the right bank of the Danube, following the main branch before the regulation of 1868–1875, i.e., the Old Danube
Danube
of today. In 1904, the 21st district was created by integrating Floridsdorf, Kagran, Stadlau, Hirschstetten, Aspern and other villages on the left bank of the Danube
Danube
into Vienna, in 1910 Strebersdorf followed. On 15 October 1938 the Nazis created Great Vienna
Vienna
with 26 districts by merging 97 towns and villages into Vienna, 80 of which were returned to surrounding Lower Austria
Austria
in 1954.[67] Since then Vienna
Vienna
has 23 districts. Industries are located mostly in the southern and eastern districts. The Innere Stadt
Innere Stadt
is situated away from the main flow of the Danube, but is bounded by the Donaukanal
Donaukanal
(" Danube
Danube
canal"). Vienna's second and twentieth districts are located between the Donaukanal
Donaukanal
and the Danube River. Across the Danube, where the Vienna International Centre
Vienna International Centre
is located (districts 21–22), and in the southern areas (district 23) are the newest parts of the city. Politics[edit] Political history[edit]

Austrian Parliament
Austrian Parliament
Buildings Debating Chamber of the former House of Deputies of Austria

House of Deputies

In the twenty years before the First World War and until 1918, Viennese politics were shaped by the Christian Social Party. In particular, long-term mayor Karl Lueger
Karl Lueger
was able to not apply the general voting rights for men introduced by and for the parliament of imperial Austria, the Reichsrat, in 1907, thereby excluding most of the working class from taking part in decisions. For Adolf Hitler, who spent some years in Vienna, Lueger was a teacher of how to use antisemitism in politics. Vienna
Vienna
is today considered the center of the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ). During the period of the First Republic (1918–1934), the Vienna
Vienna
Social Democrats undertook many social reforms. At that time, Vienna's municipal policy was admired by Socialists throughout Europe, who therefore referred to the city as "Red Vienna" (Rotes Wien). In February 1934 troops of the Austrian federal government under Engelbert Dollfuss, who had closed down the first chamber of the federal parliament, the Nationalrat, in 1933, and paramilitary socialist organisations were engaged in the Austrian Civil War, which led to the ban of the Social Democratic party. The (SPÖ) has held the mayor's office and an absolute majority in the city council/parliament at every free election since 1919. The only break in this SPÖ dominance came between 1934 and 1945, when the Social Democratic Party was illegal, mayors were appointed by the austro-fascist and later by the Nazi authorities. The current mayor of Vienna
Vienna
is Michael Häupl
Michael Häupl
of the SPÖ. As rural Austria
Austria
is dominated by conservative citizens, if the Social Democrats would not maintain their nearly unbreakable hold on Vienna, the rival Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) would dominate Austrian politics. The city has enacted many social democratic policies. The Gemeindebauten are social housing assets that are well integrated into the city architecture outside the first or "inner" district. The low rents enable comfortable accommodation and good access to the city amenities. Many of the projects were built after the Second World War on vacant lots that were destroyed by bombing during the war. The city took particular pride in building them to a high standard. Government[edit] Main article: Gemeinderat and Landtag
Landtag
of Vienna Since Vienna
Vienna
obtained federal state (Bundesland) status of its own by the federal constitution of 1920, the city council is also the state parliament (Landtag), and the mayor (except 1934–1945) also holds the function of the state governor (Landeshauptmann). The Rathaus accommodates the offices of the mayor (Magistrat der Stadt Wien) and the state government (Landesregierung). The city is administered by a multitude of departments (Magistratsabteilungen), politically supervised by amtsführende Stadträte (members of the city government leading offices; according to the Vienna
Vienna
constitution opposition parties have the right to designate members of the city government not leading offices). In the 1996 City Council election, the SPÖ lost its overall majority in the 100-seat chamber, winning 43 seats and 39.15% of the vote. In 1996 the Freedom Party of Austria
Austria
(FPÖ), which won 29 seats (up from 21 in 1991), beat the ÖVP into third place for the second time running. From 1996–2001, the SPÖ governed Vienna
Vienna
in a coalition with the ÖVP. In 2001 the SPÖ regained the overall majority with 52 seats and 46.91% of the vote; in October 2005 this majority was increased further to 55 seats (49.09%). In course of the 2010 city council elections the SPÖ lost their overall majority again and consequently forged a coalition with the Green Party – the first SPÖ/Green coalition in Austria.[69] This coalition was maintained following the 2015 election. Economy[edit]

High-rise
High-rise
buildings in the outer district

Messe Wien
Messe Wien
Congress Center

Austria
Austria
Center Vienna
Vienna
(ACV)

Vienna
Vienna
is one of the wealthiest regions in the European Union: Its gross regional product of EUR 47,200 per capita constituted 25.7% of Austria's GDP in 2013. It amounts to 159% of the EU average.[70] The city improved its position from 2012 on the ranking of the most economically powerful cities reaching number nine on the listing in 2015.[71][72] With a share of 85.5% in gross value added, the service sector is Vienna’s most important economic sector. Industry and commerce have a share of 14.5% in gross value added, the primary sector (agriculture) has a share of 0.07% and therefore plays a minor role in the local added value.[73] However, the cultivation and production of wines within the city borders have a high socio-cultural value. The most important business sectors are trade (14.7% of added value in Vienna), scientific and technological services, real estate and housing activities as well as manufacturing of goods. In 2012, Vienna’s contribution in Austria’s outgoing and incoming foreign direct investments was of about 60%, which demonstrates Vienna’s role as an international hub for domestic and foreign companies.[73] Since the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, Vienna
Vienna
has expanded its position as gateway to Eastern Europe: 300 international companies have their Eastern European headquarters in Vienna
Vienna
and its environs. Among them are Hewlett Packard, Henkel, Baxalta and Siemens.[74] Companies in Vienna
Vienna
have extensive contacts and competences in business with Eastern Europe due to the city’s historical role as centre of the Habsburg Empire.[75] The number of international businesses in Vienna
Vienna
is still growing: In 2014 159 and in 2015 175 international firms established offices in Vienna.[76] Altogether, approximately 8,300 new companies have been founded in Vienna
Vienna
every year since 2004.[77] The majority of these companies are operating in fields of industry-oriented services, wholesale trade as well as information and communications technologies and new media.[78] Vienna
Vienna
makes effort to establish itself as a start-up hub. Since 2012, the city hosts the annual Pioneers Festival, the largest start-up event in Central Europe
Central Europe
with 2,500 international participants taking place at Hofburg
Hofburg
Palace. Tech Cocktail, an online portal for the start-up scene, has ranked Vienna
Vienna
sixth among the top ten start-up cities worldwide.[79][80][81] Research and development[edit] The city of Vienna
Vienna
attaches major importance to science and research and focuses on creating a positive environment for research and development. In 2014, Vienna
Vienna
has accommodated 1,329 research facilities; 40,400 persons are employed in the R&D sector and 35% of Austria’s R&D expenses are invested in the city. With a research quota of 3.4% Vienna
Vienna
exceeds the Austrian average of 2.77% and has already met the EU target of 3.0% by 2020.[73] A major R&D sector in Vienna
Vienna
are life sciences with 378 biotech, pharma and medtech companies such as Johnson & Johnson, Siemens, Roche, Philips
Philips
and Boehringer Ingelheim, with more than 21,000 employees. There are 25 public and private research institutions, among them the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), the Austrian Institute of Technology and the Vienna
Vienna
Biocenter.[82] Information technologies[edit] The Viennese sector for information and communication technologies is comparable in size with the sector in Helsinki, Milan
Milan
or Munich
Munich
and thus among Europe’s largest IT locations. In 2012 8,962 IT businesses with a workforce of 64,223 were located in the Vienna Region. The main products are instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation as well as electronic components. More than ⅔ of the enterprises provide IT services. Among the biggest IT firms in Vienna
Vienna
are Kapsch, Beko
Beko
Engineering & Informatics, air traffic control experts Frequentis, Cisco Systems Austria, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft
Microsoft
Austria, IBM
IBM
Austria
Austria
and Samsung Electronics Austria.[83][84] The US technology corporation Cisco runs its Entrepreneurs in Residence program for Europe in Vienna
Vienna
in cooperation with the Vienna Business Agency.[85][86] The British company UBM has rated Vienna
Vienna
one of the Top 10 Internet Cities worldwide, by analysing criteria like connection speed, WiFi availability, innovation spirit and open government data.[87] In 2011 74.3% of Viennese households were connected with broadband, 79% were in possession of a computer. According to the broadband strategy of the City, full broadband coverage will be reached by 2020.[83][84] Tourism and conferences[edit] 14.99 million tourists visited Vienna
Vienna
in 2016.[88] In 2014, 6.2 million tourists visited Vienna
Vienna
and amountied to 13,524,266 overnight stays. The main markets for tourists are Germany, the United States, Italy
Italy
and Russia.[89][90] Between 2005 and 2013, Vienna
Vienna
was the world's number one destination for international congresses and conventions. In 2014, 202 international conferences were held in Vienna, making it the second most popular congress location worldwide according to the statistics of the International Congress and Convention Association.[91][92] Its largest conference centre, the Austria
Austria
Center Vienna
Vienna
(ACV) has a total capacity for around 20,000 people and is situated next to the United Nations
United Nations
Headquarters in Vienna.[93] Other centres are the Messe Wien
Messe Wien
Exhibition & Congress Center (up to 3,300 people) and the Hofburg Palace
Hofburg Palace
(up to 4,900 people). Rankings[edit] Regarding quality of living, Vienna
Vienna
leads the 2016 Quality of Living Ranking by the international Mercer Consulting Group for the seventh consecutive year.[94] In the 2015 liveability report by the Economist Intellicence Unit as well as in the Quality of Life Survey 2015 of London-based Monocle magazine Vienna
Vienna
was equally ranked second most liveable city worldwide.[95][96] The United Nations
United Nations
Human Settlements Programme UN-Habitat
UN-Habitat
has ranked Vienna
Vienna
the most prosperous city in the world in its flagship report State of the World Cities 2012/2013.[97] According to the 2014 City RepTrack ranking by the Reputation Institute, Vienna
Vienna
has the best reputation in comparison with 100 major global cities.[98] The Innovation Cities Global Index 2014 by the Australian innovation agency 2thinknow ranks Vienna
Vienna
sixth behind San Francisco-San Jose, New York City, London, Boston
Boston
and Paris.[99] US climate strategist Boyd Cohen placed Vienna
Vienna
first in his first global smart cities ranking of 2012. In the 2014 ranking, Vienna reached third place among European cities behind Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Amsterdam.[100] The Mori Memorial Institute for Urban Strategies ranked Vienna
Vienna
in the top ten of their Global Power City Index 2016.[101] Urban development[edit] Central Railway Station[edit] Vienna’s new Central Railway Station was opened in October 2014.[102] Construction began in June 2007 and was due to last until December 2015. The station is served by 1,100 trains with 145,000 passengers. There is a shopping centre with approximately 90 shops and restaurants. In the vicinity of the station a new district is emerging with 550,000 m2 (5,920,000 sq ft) office space and 5,000 apartments until 2020.[103][104][105] Aspern[edit] Seestadt Aspern is one of the largest urban expansion projects of Europe. A 5 hectare artificial lake, offices, apartments and a tube station within walking distance are supposed to attract 20,000 new citizens when construction is completed in 2028.[106][107] In addition, the highest wooden skyscraper of the world called “HoHo Wien” will be built within 3 years, starting in 2015.[108] Smart City[edit] In 2014, the Vienna
Vienna
City Council adopted the Smart City Wien Framework Strategy 2050. It is a long-term umbrella strategy that is supposed to establish a conducive, long-term and structural framework in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from 3.1 tonnes per capita to 1 tonne per capita by 2050, have 50% of Vienna’s gross energy consumption originate from renewable sources and to reduce motorized individual traffic from the current 28% to 15% by 2030. A stated goal is that, by 2050, all vehicles within the municipal boundaries will run without conventional propulsion technologies. Additionally, Vienna
Vienna
aims to be one of the five biggest European research and innovation hubs in 2050.[109] Culture[edit] Music, theatre and opera[edit] See also: Music of Vienna and Music of Austria

Monument of Johann Strauss II
Johann Strauss II
at Stadtpark, Vienna

Musical luminaries including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven, Ferdinand Ries, Franz Schubert, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler, Robert Stolz, and Arnold Schoenberg
Arnold Schoenberg
have worked there. Art and culture had a long tradition in Vienna, including theatre, opera, classical music and fine arts. The Burgtheater
Burgtheater
is considered one of the best theatres in the German-speaking world alongside its branch, the Akademietheater. The Volkstheater Wien and the Theater in der Josefstadt
Josefstadt
also enjoy good reputations. There is also a multitude of smaller theatres, in many cases devoted to less mainstream forms of the performing arts, such as modern, experimental plays or cabaret.

State Opera (Staatsoper)

Vienna
Vienna
is also home to a number of opera houses, including the Theater an der Wien, the Staatsoper and the Volksoper, the latter being devoted to the typical Viennese operetta. Classical concerts are performed at world-famous venues such as the Wiener Musikverein, home of the Vienna Philharmonic
Vienna Philharmonic
Orchestra known across the world for the annual widely broadcast "New Year's Day Concert", as well as the Wiener Konzerthaus, home of the internationally renowned Vienna Symphony. Many concert venues offer concerts aimed at tourists, featuring popular highlights of Viennese music, particularly the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Strauss I, and Johann Strauss II.

Hofburg
Hofburg
Palace

Musikverein
Musikverein
Vienna

Up until 2005, the Theater an der Wien
Theater an der Wien
has hosted premieres of musicals, although with the year of the Mozart celebrations 2006 it has devoted itself to the opera again and has since become a stagione opera house offering one new production each month, thus quickly becoming one of Europe's most interesting and advanced opera houses. Since 2012 Theater an der Wien
Theater an der Wien
has taken over the Wiener Kammeroper, a historical small theatre in the first district of Vienna
Vienna
seating 300 spectators, turning it into its second venue for smaller sized productions and chamber operas created by the young ensemble of Theater an der Wien
Theater an der Wien
(JET). Before 2005 the most successful musical was Elisabeth, which was later translated into several languages and performed all over the world. The Wiener Taschenoper is dedicated to stage music of the 20th and 21st century. The Haus der Musik
Haus der Musik
("house of music") opened in the year 2000. The Wienerlied
Wienerlied
is a unique song genre from Vienna. There are approximately 60,000 – 70,000 Wienerlieder.[110] In 1981 the popular British new romantic group Ultravox
Ultravox
paid a tribute to Vienna
Vienna
on an album and an artful music video recording called Vienna. The inspiration for this work arose from the cinema production called The Third Man
The Third Man
with the title Zither
Zither
music of Anton Karas. The Vienna's English Theatre
Vienna's English Theatre
(VET) is an English theater in Vienna. It was founded in 1963 and is located in the 8th Vienna's district. It is the oldest English-language theater in Europe outside the UK. In May 2015, Vienna
Vienna
hosted the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
following Austria's victory in the 2014 contest. Musicians from Vienna[edit] Notable musicians born in Vienna
Vienna
include Louie Austen, Alban Berg, Falco, Fritz Kreisler, Joseph Lanner, Arnold Schönberg, Franz Schubert, Johann Strauss I, Johann Strauss II, Anton Webern, and Joe Zawinul. Famous musicians who came here to work from other parts of Austria
Austria
and Germany
Germany
were Johann Joseph Fux, Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Ferdinand Ries, Johann Sedlatzek, Antonio Salieri, Carl Czerny, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Franz Liszt, Franz von Suppé, Anton Bruckner, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler
Mahler
and Rainhard Fendrich. [111] Famous Jewish cultural figures from Vienna[edit] Among the most notable Viennese Jews, some of whom left Austria
Austria
before and during Nazi persecution, are the following figures: Alfred Adler (who eventually converted to Christianity), Rudolf Dreikurs, Viktor Frankl, Sigmund Freud, Fritz Lang, Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(both of whose parents died in the Holocaust), Stefan Zweig, Simon Wiesenthal, Theodor Herzl, Judah Alkalai, Erich von Stroheim, Hedy Lamarr, Billy Wilder, Franz Werfel, Arnold Schoenberg
Arnold Schoenberg
and Fritz Kreisler. Museums[edit] See also: List of museums in Vienna

Courtyard of the Museumsquartier
Museumsquartier
with Enzi seating furniture

The Hofburg
Hofburg
is the location of the Imperial Treasury (Schatzkammer), holding the imperial jewels of the Habsburg dynasty. The Sisi Museum (a museum devoted to Empress Elisabeth of Austria) allows visitors to view the imperial apartments as well as the silver cabinet. Directly opposite the Hofburg
Hofburg
are the Kunsthistorisches Museum, which houses many paintings by old masters, ancient and classical artifacts, and the Naturhistorisches Museum.

Liechtenstein Museum

A number of museums are located in the Museumsquartier
Museumsquartier
(museum quarter), the former Imperial Stalls which were converted into a museum complex in the 1990s. It houses the Museum of Modern Art, commonly known as the MUMOK
MUMOK
(Ludwig Foundation), the Leopold Museum (featuring the largest collection of paintings in the world by Egon Schiele, as well as works by the Vienna
Vienna
Secession, Viennese Modernism and Austrian Expressionism), the AzW (museum of architecture), additional halls with feature exhibitions, and the Tanzquartier. The Liechtenstein Palace contains much of one of the world's largest private art collections, especially strong in the Baroque. Castle Belvedere, built under Prince Eugene, has a gallery containing paintings by Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt
(The Kiss), Egon Schiele, and other painters of the early 20th century, also sculptures by Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, and changing exhibitions too. There are a multitude of other museums in Vienna, including the Albertina, the Military History Museum, the Technical Museum, the Burial Museum, the Museum of Art Fakes, the KunstHausWien, Museum of Applied Arts, the Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Museum, and the Mozarthaus Vienna. The museums on the history of the city, including the former Historical Museum of the City of Vienna
Vienna
on Karlsplatz, the Hermesvilla, the residences and birthplaces of various composers, the Museum of the Romans, and the Vienna
Vienna
Clock Museum, are now gathered together under the group umbrella Vienna
Vienna
Museum. In addition there are museums dedicated to Vienna's individual districts. They provide a record of individual struggles, achievements and tragedy as the city grew and survived two world wars. For readers seeking family histories these are good sources of information. Architecture[edit] See also: Category:Buildings and structures in Austria

Palais Ferstel

Hotel Sacher
Hotel Sacher
at night

A variety of architectural styles can be found in Vienna, such as the Romanesque Ruprechtskirche
Ruprechtskirche
and the Baroque
Baroque
Karlskirche. Styles range from classicist buildings to modern architecture. Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
left many architectural traces in Vienna. The Secession building, Karlsplatz
Karlsplatz
Stadtbahn Station, and the Kirche am Steinhof
Kirche am Steinhof
by Otto Wagner rank among the best known examples of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
in the world. Wagner's prominent student Jože Plečnik
Jože Plečnik
from Slovenia
Slovenia
also left important traces in Vienna. His works include the Langer House (1900) and the Zacherlhaus
Zacherlhaus
(1903–1905). Plečnik's 1910–1913 Church of the Holy Spirit (Heilig-Geist-Kirche (de)) in Vienna
Vienna
is remarkable for its innovative use of poured-in-place concrete as both structure and exterior surface, and also for its abstracted classical form language. Most radical is the church's crypt, with its slender concrete columns and angular, cubist capitals and bases. Concurrent to the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
movement was the Wiener Moderne, during which some architects shunned the use of extraneous adornment. A key architect of this period was Adolf Loos, whose works include the Looshaus (1909), the Kärntner Bar or American Bar (1908) and the Steiner House (1910). The Hundertwasserhaus
Hundertwasserhaus
by Friedensreich Hundertwasser, designed to counter the clinical look of modern architecture, is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions. Another example of unique architecture is the Wotrubakirche by sculptor Fritz Wotruba. In the 1990s, a number of quarters were adapted and extensive building projects were implemented in the areas around Donaustadt
Donaustadt
(north of the Danube) and Wienerberg (in southern Vienna).

View of the city from Stephansdom

The 220-meter high DC Tower 1 located on the Northern bank of the Danube, completed in 2013, is the tallest skyscraper in Vienna.[112][113] In recent years, Vienna
Vienna
has seen numerous architecture projects completed which combine modern architectural elements with old buildings, such as the remodelling and revitalisation of the old Gasometer in 2001. Most buildings in Vienna are relatively low; in early 2006 there were around 100 buildings higher than 40 metres (130 feet). The number of high-rise buildings is kept low by building legislation aimed at preserving green areas and districts designated as world cultural heritage. Strong rules apply to the planning, authorisation and construction of high-rise buildings. Consequently, much of the inner city is a high-rise free zone. Vienna
Vienna
balls[edit] Vienna
Vienna
is the last great capital of the 19th-century ball. There are over 450 balls per year, some featuring as many as nine live orchestras.[114] Balls are held in the many beautiful palaces in Vienna, with the principal venue being the Hofburg Palace
Hofburg Palace
in Heldenplatz. While the Opera Ball is the best known internationally of all the Austrian balls, other balls such as the Kaffeesiederball (Cafe Owners Ball), the Jägerball (Hunter's Ball) and the Life Ball
Life Ball
(AIDS charity event) are almost as well known within Austria
Austria
and even better appreciated for their cordial atmosphere. Viennese of at least middle class may visit a number of balls in their lifetime.[clarification needed] Dancers and opera singers from the Vienna State Opera
Vienna State Opera
often perform at the openings of the larger balls. A Vienna
Vienna
ball is an all-night cultural attraction. Major Viennese balls generally begin at 9 pm and last until 5 am, although many guests carry on the celebrations into the next day. The Viennese balls are being exported with the support of the City of Vienna
Vienna
in around 30 cities worldwide such as New York, Barcelona, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Rome, Prague, Bucharest, Berlin
Berlin
and Moscow.[114][115][116] Education[edit] Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's main centre of education and home to many universities, professional colleges and gymnasiums (high schools).

Friedrich Schiller statue in front of the Academy of Fine Arts

The Medical University of Vienna

The Vienna
Vienna
University of Economics and Business

The University of Vienna's main building

Vienna
Vienna
University of Technology

Schönbrunn Gardens in autumn

Universities[edit]

Academy of Fine Arts Vienna Diplomatic Academy of Vienna Medical University of Vienna PEF Private University of Management Vienna University of Applied Arts Vienna University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna University of Vienna Vienna
Vienna
University of Economics and Business University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna Vienna
Vienna
University of Technology Webster University Vienna Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
University Vienna International Anti-Corruption Academy
International Anti-Corruption Academy
(in Laxenburg, 24 km (15 mi) south of Vienna)

International schools[edit]

Danube
Danube
International School International University Vienna SAE Vienna Lauder Business School Lycée Français de Vienne Vienna
Vienna
Christian School Vienna
Vienna
International School American International School Japanische Schule in Wien
Japanische Schule in Wien
(Japanese school) Amadeus International School

Leisure activities[edit] Parks and gardens[edit]

Vienna
Vienna
city park

Vienna
Vienna
possesses many parks, including the Stadtpark, the Burggarten, the Volksgarten (part of the Hofburg), the Schlosspark at Schloss Belvedere (home to the Vienna
Vienna
Botanic Gardens), the Donaupark, the Schönbrunner Schlosspark, the Prater, the Augarten, the Rathauspark, the Lainzer Tiergarten, the Dehnepark, the Resselpark, the Votivpark, the Kurpark Oberlaa, the Auer-Welsbach-Park and the Türkenschanzpark. Green areas include Laaer-Berg (including the Bohemian Prater) and the foothills of the Wienerwald, which reaches into the outer areas of the city. Small parks, known by the Viennese as Beserlparks, are everywhere in the inner city areas. Many of Vienna's famous parks include monuments, such as the Stadtpark with its statue of Johann Strauss II, and the gardens of the baroque palace, where the State Treaty was signed. Vienna's principal park is the Prater
Prater
which is home to the Riesenrad, a Ferris wheel, and Kugelmugel, a micronation the shape of a sphere. The imperial Schönbrunn's grounds contain an 18th-century park which includes the world's oldest zoo, founded in 1752. The Donauinsel, part of Vienna's flood defences, is a 21.1 km (13.1 mi) long artificial island between the Danube
Danube
and Neue Donau dedicated to leisure activities. Sport[edit]

Ernst-Happel-Stadion
Ernst-Happel-Stadion
in the Prater

Austria's capital is home to numerous football teams. The best known are the local football clubs include FK Austria
Austria
Wien (21 Austrian Bundesliga titles and record 27-time cup winners), SK Rapid Wien (record 32 Austrian Bundesliga titles), and the oldest team, First Vienna
Vienna
FC. Other important sports clubs include the Raiffeisen Vikings Vienna
Vienna
(American Football), who won the Eurobowl
Eurobowl
title between 2004 and 2007 4 times in a row and had a perfect season in 2013, the Aon hotVolleys Vienna, one of Europe's premier Volleyball organisations, the Vienna
Vienna
Wanderers (baseball) who won the 2012 and 2013 Championship of the Austrian Baseball League, and the Vienna Capitals
Vienna Capitals
(Ice Hockey). Vienna
Vienna
was also where the European Handball Federation (EHF) was founded. There are also three rugby clubs; Vienna
Vienna
Celtic, the oldest rugby club in Austria, RC Donau, and Stade Viennois Vienna
Vienna
hosts many different sporting events including the Vienna
Vienna
City Marathon, which attracts more than 10,000 participants every year and normally takes place in May. In 2005 the Ice Hockey World Championships took place in Austria
Austria
and the final was played in Vienna. Vienna's Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue of four Champions League and European Champion Clubs' Cup finals (1964, 1987, 1990 and 1995) and on 29 June it hosted the final of Euro 2008 which saw a Spanish 1–0 victory over Germany. Tennis
Tennis
tournament Vienna Open also takes place in the city since 1974. The matches are played in the Wiener Stadthalle. The Neu Donau, which was formed after the Donauinsel
Donauinsel
was created is free of river traffic and has been referred to as an "autobahn for swimmers" due to its use by the public for commuting.[117] Culinary specialities[edit] Food[edit] See also: Austrian cuisine

Wiener Schnitzel

Sachertorte

Vienna
Vienna
is well known for Wiener Schnitzel, a cutlet of veal (Kalbsschnitzel) or pork (Schweinsschnitzel) that is pounded flat, coated in flour, egg and breadcrumbs, and fried in clarified butter. It is available in almost every restaurant that serves Viennese cuisine and can be eaten hot or cold. The traditional 'Wiener Schnitzel' though is a cutlet of veal. Other examples of Viennese cuisine include Tafelspitz
Tafelspitz
(very lean boiled beef), which is traditionally served with Geröstete Erdäpfel (boiled potatoes mashed with a fork and subsequently fried) and horseradish sauce, Apfelkren (a mixture of horseradish, cream and apple) and Schnittlauchsauce (a chives sauce made with mayonnaise and stale bread). Vienna
Vienna
has a long tradition of producing cakes and desserts. These include Apfelstrudel (hot apple strudel), Milchrahmstrudel
Milchrahmstrudel
(milk-cream strudel), Palatschinken
Palatschinken
(sweet pancakes), and Knödel (dumplings) often filled with fruit such as apricots (Marillenknödel). Sachertorte, a delicately moist chocolate cake with apricot jam created by the Sacher Hotel, is world-famous. In winter, small street stands sell traditional Maroni (hot chestnuts) and potato fritters. Sausages are popular and available from street vendors (Würstelstand) throughout the day and into the night. The sausage known as Wiener (German for Viennese) in the U.S. and in Germany, is called a Frankfurter in Vienna. Other popular sausages are Burenwurst (a coarse beef and pork sausage, generally boiled), Käsekrainer (spicy pork with small chunks of cheese), and Bratwurst
Bratwurst
(a white pork sausage). Most can be ordered "mit Brot" (with bread) or as a "hot dog" (stuffed inside a long roll). Mustard is the traditional condiment and usually offered in two varieties: "süß" (sweet) or "scharf" (spicy). Kebab, pizza and noodles are, increasingly, the snack foods most widely available from small stands. The Naschmarkt
Naschmarkt
is a permanent market for fruit, vegetables, spices, fish, meat, etc., from around the world. The city has many coffee and breakfast stores. Drinks[edit]

Typical Heurigen-Restaurant in Grinzing

Vienna, along with Paris, Santiago, Cape Town, Prague, Canberra, Bratislava
Bratislava
and Warsaw[citation needed], is one of the few remaining world capital cities with its own vineyards. The wine is served in small Viennese pubs known as Heuriger, which are especially numerous in the wine growing areas of Döbling
Döbling
(Grinzing, Neustift am Walde, Nußdorf, Salmannsdorf, Sievering), Floridsdorf
Floridsdorf
(Stammersdorf, Strebersdorf), Liesing
Liesing
(Mauer) and Favoriten
Favoriten
(Oberlaa). The wine is often drunk as a Spritzer ("G'spritzter") with sparkling water. The Grüner Veltliner, a dry white wine, is the most widely cultivated wine in Austria.[118] Beer is next in importance to wine. Vienna
Vienna
has a single large brewery, Ottakringer, and more than ten microbreweries. A "Beisl" is a typical small Austrian pub, of which Vienna
Vienna
has many. Also, local soft drinks such as Almdudler
Almdudler
are very popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages, placing it on the top spots along American counterparts such as Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
in terms of market share. Another popular drink is the so-called "Spezi", a mix between Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
and the original formula of Orange Fanta
Fanta
or the more locally renowned Frucade. Viennese cafés[edit]

Demel Café

Viennese cafés have an extremely long and distinguished history that dates back centuries, and the caffeine addictions of some famous historical patrons of the oldest are something of a local legend. These coffee houses are unique to Vienna
Vienna
and many cities have unsuccessfully sought to copy them. Some people consider cafés as their extended living room where nobody will be bothered if they spend hours reading a newspaper while enjoying their coffee. Traditionally, the coffee comes with a glass of water. Viennese cafés claim to have invented the process of filtering coffee from booty captured after the second Turkish siege in 1683. Viennese cafés claim that when the invading Turks left Vienna, they abandoned hundreds of sacks of coffee beans. The Polish King John III Sobieski, the commander of the anti-Turkish coalition of Poles, Germans, and Austrians, gave Franz George Kolschitzky (Polish – Franciszek Jerzy Kulczycki) some of this coffee as a reward for providing information that allowed him to defeat the Turks. Kolschitzky then opened Vienna's first coffee shop. Julius Meinl
Julius Meinl
set up a modern roasting plant in the same premises where the coffee sacks were found, in 1891. Tourist attractions[edit] Further information: Tourist attractions in Vienna Major tourist attractions include the imperial palaces of the Hofburg and Schönbrunn (also home to the world's oldest zoo, Tiergarten Schönbrunn) and the Riesenrad in the Prater. Cultural highlights include the Burgtheater, the Wiener Staatsoper, the Lipizzaner horses at the spanische Hofreitschule, and the Vienna
Vienna
Boys' Choir, as well as excursions to Vienna's Heurigen district Döbling.

Schönbrunn Palace

Gloriette
Gloriette
at the Schönbrunn Palace

There are also more than 100 art museums, which together attract over eight million visitors per year.[119] The most popular ones are Albertina, Belvedere, Leopold Museum
Leopold Museum
in the Museumsquartier, KunstHausWien, Bank Austria
Austria
Kunstforum, the twin Kunsthistorisches Museum and Naturhistorisches Museum, and the Technisches Museum Wien, each of which receives over a quarter of a million visitors per year.[120] There are many popular sites associated with composers who lived in Vienna
Vienna
including Beethoven's various residences and grave at Zentralfriedhof
Zentralfriedhof
(Central Cemetery) which is the largest cemetery in Vienna
Vienna
and the burial site of many famous people. Mozart has a memorial grave at the Habsburg gardens and at St. Marx cemetery (where his grave was lost). Vienna's many churches also draw large crowds, famous of which are St. Stephen's Cathedral, the Deutschordenskirche, the Jesuitenkirche, the Karlskirche, the Peterskirche, Maria am Gestade, the Minoritenkirche, the Ruprechtskirche, the Schottenkirche, St. Ulrich and the Votivkirche. Modern attractions include the Hundertwasserhaus, the United Nations headquarters and the view from the Donauturm.

Albertina

Austrian Parliament
Austrian Parliament
Building

Belvedere Palace

Burgtheater

Graben

Hundertwasserhaus

Karlskirche
Karlskirche
at dusk

Kunsthistorisches Museum

Naturhistorisches Museum

Palais Augarten

Rathaus

Schönbrunn Zoo

Spanish Riding School

Stephansplatz

St. Stephen's Cathedral

Prince Eugene Monument

View of Hofburg

Vienna Secession
Vienna Secession
building

Vienna
Vienna
State Opera

Wiener Riesenrad

Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Vienna

Stephansplatz metro station

Vienna
Vienna
Airport terminal 3 arrivals lounge

Vienna
Vienna
has an extensive transportation network with a unified fare system that integrates municipal, regional and railway systems under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region (VOR). Public transport is provided by buses, trams and 5 underground metro lines (U-Bahn), most operated by the Wiener Linien. There are also more than 50 S-train stations within the city limits. Suburban trains are operated by the ÖBB. The city forms the hub of the Austrian railway system, with services to all parts of the country and abroad. The railway system connects Vienna
Vienna
with other European cities, like Munich, Venice, Budapest, Prague, Bratislava
Bratislava
and Zürich. Vienna
Vienna
has multiple road connections including motorways. Vienna
Vienna
is served by Vienna
Vienna
International Airport, located 18 km (11 mi) southeast of the city centre next to the town of Schwechat. The airport handled approximately 22 million passengers in 2014. Following lengthy negotiations with surrounding communities, the airport will be expanded to increase its capacity by adding a third runway. The airport is currently undergoing a major expansion, including a new terminal building opened in 2012 to prepare for an expected increase in passengers. International relations[edit] International organisations in Vienna[edit]

UN complex in Vienna, with the Austria
Austria
Center Vienna
Vienna
in front, taken from the Danube
Danube
Tower in the nearby Donaupark before the extensive building work

Many international organisations and offices are located in Donaustadt

Vienna
Vienna
is the seat of a number of United Nations
United Nations
offices and various international institutions and companies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the United Nations
United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the OPEC
OPEC
Fund for International Development (OFID), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the United Nations
United Nations
Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and the European Union
European Union
Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). Currently Vienna
Vienna
is the world's third "UN city", next to New York, Geneva, and Nairobi. Additionally, Vienna
Vienna
is the seat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law's secretariat (UNCITRAL). In conjunction, the University of Vienna
University of Vienna
annually hosts the prestigious Willem C. Vis Moot, an international commercial arbitration competition for students of law from around the world. Various special diplomatic meetings have been held in Vienna
Vienna
in the latter half of the 20th century, resulting in various documents bearing the name Vienna
Vienna
Convention or Vienna
Vienna
Document. Among the more important documents negotiated in Vienna
Vienna
are the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, as well as the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Vienna
Vienna
also hosted the negotiations leading to the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
on Iran's nuclear program as well as the Vienna
Vienna
peace talks for Syria. Vienna
Vienna
also headquartered the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF). Charitable organisations in Vienna[edit] Alongside international and intergovernmental organisations, there are dozens of charitable organisations based in Vienna.. One such organisation is the network of SOS Children's Villages, founded by Hermann Gmeiner
Hermann Gmeiner
in 1949. Today, SOS Children's Villages
SOS Children's Villages
are active in 132 countries and territories worldwide. Others include HASCO. Another extremely popular international event is the annual Life Ball, which supports people with HIV
HIV
or AIDS. Guests such as Bill Clinton and Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
were recent attendees. International City Cooperations[edit] The general policy of the City of Vienna
Vienna
is not to sign any twin or sister city agreements with other cities. Instead Vienna
Vienna
has only cooperation agreements in which specific cooperation areas are defined.[121]

Brasilia, Brazil Bratislava, Slovakia Brno, Czech Republic Budapest, Hungary Chengdu, China Kiev, Ukraine Kraków, Poland Ljubljana, Slovenia Moscow, Russia Paris, France Tehran, Iran Trieste, Italy

District to district partnerships[edit] In addition, individual Viennese districts have international partnerships all over the world. A detailed list can be found on the following webpage of the City of Vienna.[122] See also[edit]

Donauinselfest List of honorary citizens of Vienna List of mayors of Vienna List of restaurants in Vienna List of Viennese List of World Heritage Sites in Austria Soviet War Memorial (Vienna) Outline of Vienna Vienna
Vienna
Biennale Vienna
Vienna
Porcelain Manufactory Vienna
Vienna
(Billy Joel song) Vienna
Vienna
( Ultravox
Ultravox
song) Viennese German

Europe portal Vienna
Vienna
portal Austria
Austria
portal European Union
European Union
portal

References[edit]

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Vienna
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Vienna
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Vindobona
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Vienna
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Vienna
& the Danube
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Vienna
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Vienna
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as hub for Eastern and South-Eastern Europe". Vienna
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City Administration. Retrieved 13 October 2015.  ^ "Wieder Rekordergebnis bei Betriebsansiedlungen" (in German). Vienna City Administration. Retrieved 21 August 2016.  ^ "Unternehmensgründungen nach Bundesländern" (PDF) (in German). Austrian Chamber of Commerce. July 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.  ^ "Volkswirtschaft – Statistiken" (in German). Vienna
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Further reading[edit]

Pippal, M.: A short History of Art in Vienna, Munich: C.H. Beck 2000, ISBN 978-3-406-46789-9, provides a concise overview. Dassanowsky, Robert ed, : "World Film Locations: Vienna", London: Intellect/Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 2012, ISBN 978-1-84150-569-5. International films about Vienna
Vienna
or Austria
Austria
shot on location throughout cinema history.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutViennaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage

Official websites[edit]

Wien.gv.at – Official site of the municipality, with interactive map. Wien.info – Official site of the tourism board: events, sightseeing, cultural information, etc. List of Embassies in Vienna Information about Vienna
Vienna
and Centrope
Centrope
countries Geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at – Vienna
Vienna
History Wiki operated by the city of Vienna

History of Vienna[edit]

Hundreds of articles on historical buildings of Vienna: Churches, Palaces, Art, Culture and History of Vienna German flaktowers in Vienna History of the Coat of Arms of Vienna
Vienna
and all (former) districts and municipalities The free printing service for students in vienna

Further information on Vienna[edit]

Vienna
Vienna
Information Sorted by categories. Choose from 5 Languages Events in Vienna Events and useful information from Vienna WhenWhereWh.at English Guide to Events and Contemporary Culture in Vienna

Articles related to Vienna

Vienna
Vienna
in Austria

v t e

Principal cities of Austria

Bregenz Feldkirch Graz Innsbruck Klagenfurt Leoben Lienz Linz Salzburg Sankt Pölten Steyr Vienna Villach Wels Wiener Neustadt

v t e

States of Austria

  Burgenland
Burgenland
•   Vienna
Vienna
•  Lower Austria
Austria
•   Carinthia
Carinthia
•   Styria
Styria
•  Upper Austria
Austria
•   Salzburg
Salzburg
•  Tyrol •  Vorarlberg

v t e

Administrative seats of Austrian states

Bregenz Eisenstadt Graz Innsbruck Klagenfurt Linz Salzburg Sankt Pölten Vienna

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Austria

Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut
Salzkammergut
Cultural Landscape Semmering Railway City of Graz
Graz
– Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg Wachau
Wachau
Cultural Landscape Fertő / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape1 Historic Centre of Vienna Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps2

1 Shared with Hungary 2 Shared with France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Switzerland

Vienna
Vienna
in the European Union

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

Districts of Vienna

Districts by Number

I. Innere Stadt II. Leopoldstadt III. Landstraße IV. Wieden V. Margareten VI. Mariahilf VII. Neubau VIII. Josefstadt IX. Alsergrund X. Favoriten XI. Simmering XII. Meidling XIII. Hietzing XIV. Penzing XV. Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus XVI. Ottakring XVII. Hernals XVIII. Währing XIX. Döbling XX. Brigittenau XXI. Floridsdorf XXII. Donaustadt XXIII. Liesing

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The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

Coordinates: 48°12′N 16°22′E / 48.200°N 16.367°E / 48.200; 16.367

Preceded by Stuttgart, West Germany
West Germany
(1961) World Gymnaestrada
World Gymnaestrada
host city 1965 Succeeded by Basle, Switzerland
Switzerland
(1969)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155870729 LCCN: n79018895 ISNI: 0000 0001 2186 5140 GND: 4066009-6 SUDOC: 026590697 BNF: cb118808983 (d

.