Group Action (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group action on a space is a group homomorphism of a given group into the group of transformations of the space. Similarly, a group action on a mathematical structure is a group homomorphism of a group into the automorphism group of the structure. It is said that the group ''acts'' on the space or structure. If a group acts on a structure, it will usually also act on objects built from that structure. For example, the group of Euclidean isometries acts on Euclidean space and also on the figures drawn in it. For example, it acts on the set of all triangles. Similarly, the group of symmetries of a polyhedron acts on the vertices, the edges, and the faces of the polyhedron. A group action on a vector space is called a representation of the group. In the case of a finitedimensional vector space, it allows one to identify many groups with subgroups of , the group of the invertible matrices of dimension over a field . The symmetric group acts on any se ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Automorphism Group
In mathematics, the automorphism group of an object ''X'' is the group consisting of automorphisms of ''X'' under composition of morphisms. For example, if ''X'' is a finitedimensional vector space, then the automorphism group of ''X'' is the group of invertible linear transformations from ''X'' to itself (the general linear group of ''X''). If instead ''X'' is a group, then its automorphism group \operatorname(X) is the group consisting of all group automorphisms of ''X''. Especially in geometric contexts, an automorphism group is also called a symmetry group. A subgroup of an automorphism group is sometimes called a transformation group. Automorphism groups are studied in a general way in the field of category theory. Examples If ''X'' is a set with no additional structure, then any bijection from ''X'' to itself is an automorphism, and hence the automorphism group of ''X'' in this case is precisely the symmetric group of ''X''. If the set ''X'' has additional struct ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Action On Equilateral Triangle
A group is a number of persons or things that are located, gathered, or classed together. Groups of people * Cultural group, a group whose members share the same cultural identity * Ethnic group, a group whose members share the same ethnic identity * Religious group (other), a group whose members share the same religious identity * Social group, a group whose members share the same social identity * Tribal group, a group whose members share the same tribal identity * Organization, an entity that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment * Peer group, an entity of three or more people with similar age, ability, experience, and interest Social science * Ingroup and outgroup * Primary, secondary, and reference groups * Social group * Collectives Science and technology Mathematics * Group (mathematics), a set together with a binary operation satisfying certain algebraic conditions Chemistry * Functional group, a group of atoms which prov ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Representation
In the mathematical field of representation theory, group representations describe abstract groups in terms of bijective linear transformations of a vector space to itself (i.e. vector space automorphisms); in particular, they can be used to represent group elements as invertible matrices so that the group operation can be represented by matrix multiplication. In chemistry, a group representation can relate mathematical group elements to symmetric rotations and reflections of molecules. Representations of groups are important because they allow many grouptheoretic problems to be reduced to problems in linear algebra, which is well understood. They are also important in physics because, for example, they describe how the symmetry group of a physical system affects the solutions of equations describing that system. The term ''representation of a group'' is also used in a more general sense to mean any "description" of a group as a group of transformations of some mathematic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Alternating Group
In mathematics, an alternating group is the group of even permutations of a finite set. The alternating group on a set of elements is called the alternating group of degree , or the alternating group on letters and denoted by or Basic properties For , the group A''n'' is the commutator subgroup of the symmetric group S''n'' with index 2 and has therefore ''n''!/2 elements. It is the kernel of the signature group homomorphism explained under symmetric group. The group A''n'' is abelian if and only if and simple if and only if or . A5 is the smallest nonabelian simple group, having order 60, and the smallest non solvable group. The group A4 has the Klein fourgroup V as a proper normal subgroup, namely the identity and the double transpositions , that is the kernel of the surjection of A4 onto . We have the exact sequence . In Galois theory, this map, or rather the corresponding map , corresponds to associating the Lagrange resolvent cubic to a quartic, w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multiply Transitive Group
In group theory, a topic in abstract algebra, the Mathieu groups are the five sporadic simple groups ''M''11, ''M''12, ''M''22, ''M''23 and ''M''24 introduced by . They are multiply transitive permutation groups on 11, 12, 22, 23 or 24 objects. They were the first sporadic groups to be discovered. Sometimes the notation ''M''9, ''M''10, ''M''20 and ''M''21 is used for related groups (which act on sets of 9, 10, 20, and 21 points, respectively), namely the stabilizers of points in the larger groups. While these are not sporadic simple groups, they are subgroups of the larger groups and can be used to construct the larger ones. John Conway has shown that one can also extend this sequence up, obtaining the Mathieu groupoid ''M''13 acting on 13 points. ''M''21 is simple, but is not a sporadic group, being isomorphic to PSL(3,4). History introduced the group ''M''12 as part of an investigation of multiply transitive permutation groups, and briefly mentioned (on page 274) ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

2transitive Group
A group G acts 2transitively on a set S if it acts transitively on the set of distinct ordered pairs \. That is, assuming (without a real loss of generality) that G acts on the left of S, for each pair of pairs (x,y),(w,z)\in S\times S with x \neq y and w\neq z, there exists a g\in G such that g(x,y) = (w,z). The group action is sharply 2transitive if such g\in G is unique. A 2transitive group is a group such that there exists a group action that's 2transitive and faithful. Similarly we can define sharply 2transitive group. Equivalently, gx = w and gy = z, since the induced action on the distinct set of pairs is g(x,y) = (gx,gy). The definition works in general with ''k'' replacing 2. Such multiply transitive permutation groups can be defined for any natural number ''k''. Specifically, a permutation group ''G'' acting on ''n'' points is ''k''transitive if, given two sets of points ''a''1, ... ''a''''k'' and ''b''1, ... ''b''''k'' with the property that all the ''a''''i'' a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Principal Homogeneous Space
In mathematics, a principal homogeneous space, or torsor, for a group ''G'' is a homogeneous space ''X'' for ''G'' in which the stabilizer subgroup of every point is trivial. Equivalently, a principal homogeneous space for a group ''G'' is a nonempty set ''X'' on which ''G'' acts freely and transitively (meaning that, for any ''x'', ''y'' in ''X'', there exists a unique ''g'' in ''G'' such that , where ยท denotes the (right) action of ''G'' on ''X''). An analogous definition holds in other categories, where, for example, *''G'' is a topological group, ''X'' is a topological space and the action is continuous, *''G'' is a Lie group, ''X'' is a smooth manifold and the action is smooth, *''G'' is an algebraic group, ''X'' is an algebraic variety and the action is regular. Definition If ''G'' is nonabelian then one must distinguish between left and right torsors according to whether the action is on the left or right. In this article, we will use right actions. To state the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cayley's Theorem
In group theory, Cayley's theorem, named in honour of Arthur Cayley, states that every group is isomorphic to a subgroup of a symmetric group. More specifically, is isomorphic to a subgroup of the symmetric group \operatorname(G) whose elements are the permutations of the underlying set of . Explicitly, * for each g \in G, the leftmultiplicationby map \ell_g \colon G \to G sending each element to is a permutation of , and * the map G \to \operatorname(G) sending each element to \ell_g is an injective homomorphism, so it defines an isomorphism from onto a subgroup of \operatorname(G). The homomorphism G \to \operatorname(G) can also be understood as arising from the left translation action of on the underlying set . When is finite, \operatorname(G) is finite too. The proof of Cayley's theorem in this case shows that if is a finite group of order , then is isomorphic to a subgroup of the standard symmetric group S_n. But might also be isomorphic to a subgroup of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Opposite Group
In group theory, a branch of mathematics, an opposite group is a way to construct a group from another group that allows one to define right action as a special case of left action. Monoids, groups, rings, and algebras can be viewed as categories with a single object. The construction of the opposite category generalizes the opposite group, opposite ring, etc. Definition Let G be a group under the operation *. The opposite group of G, denoted G^, has the same underlying set as G, and its group operation \mathbin is defined by g_1 \mathbin g_2 = g_2 * g_1. If G is abelian, then it is equal to its opposite group. Also, every group G (not necessarily abelian) is naturally isomorphic In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a natural transformation provides a way of transforming one functor into another while respecting the internal structure (i.e., the composition of morphisms) of the categories involved. Hence, a natur ... to its opposite group: An isomorphism \ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a set and an operation that combines any two elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is associative, an identity element exists and every element has an inverse. These three axioms hold for number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of symmetries and geometric transformations: The symmetries of an object form a group, called the symmetry group of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cardinality
In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the number of elements of the set. For example, the set A = \ contains 3 elements, and therefore A has a cardinality of 3. Beginning in the late 19th century, this concept was generalized to infinite sets, which allows one to distinguish between different types of infinity, and to perform arithmetic on them. There are two approaches to cardinality: one which compares sets directly using bijections and injections, and another which uses cardinal numbers. The cardinality of a set is also called its size, when no confusion with other notions of size is possible. The cardinality of a set A is usually denoted , A, , with a vertical bar on each side; this is the same notation as absolute value, and the meaning depends on context. The cardinality of a set A may alternatively be denoted by n(A), , \operatorname(A), or \#A. History A crude sense of cardinality, an awareness that groups of things or events compare with other grou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Permutation
In mathematics, a permutation of a set is, loosely speaking, an arrangement of its members into a sequence or linear order, or if the set is already ordered, a rearrangement of its elements. The word "permutation" also refers to the act or process of changing the linear order of an ordered set. Permutations differ from combinations, which are selections of some members of a set regardless of order. For example, written as tuples, there are six permutations of the set , namely (1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2), (2, 1, 3), (2, 3, 1), (3, 1, 2), and (3, 2, 1). These are all the possible orderings of this threeelement set. Anagrams of words whose letters are different are also permutations: the letters are already ordered in the original word, and the anagram is a reordering of the letters. The study of permutations of finite sets is an important topic in the fields of combinatorics and group theory. Permutations are used in almost every branch of mathematics, and in many other fields of s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 