Fractal Derivative
In applied mathematics and mathematical analysis, the fractal derivative or Hausdorff derivative is a nonNewtonian generalization of the derivative dealing with the measurement of fractals, defined in fractal geometry. Fractal derivatives were created for the study of anomalous diffusion, by which traditional approaches fail to factor in the fractal nature of the media. A fractal measure ''t'' is scaled according to ''tα''. Such a derivative is local, in contrast to the similarly applied fractional derivative. Fractal calculus is formulated as a generalized of standard calculus Physical background Porous media, aquifers, turbulence, and other media usually exhibit fractal properties. Classical diffusion or dispersion laws based on random walks in free space (essentially the same result variously known as Fick's laws of diffusion, Darcy's law, and Fourier's law) are not applicable to fractal media. To address this, concepts such as distance and velocity must be redefined fo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Applied Mathematics
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as physics, engineering, medicine, biology, finance, business, computer science, and industry. Thus, applied mathematics is a combination of mathematical science and specialized knowledge. The term "applied mathematics" also describes the professional specialty in which mathematicians work on practical problems by formulating and studying mathematical models. In the past, practical applications have motivated the development of mathematical theories, which then became the subject of study in pure mathematics where abstract concepts are studied for their own sake. The activity of applied mathematics is thus intimately connected with research in pure mathematics. History Historically, applied mathematics consisted principally of applied analysis, most notably differential equations; approximation theory (broadly construed, to include representations, asymptotic methods, variati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Applied Mathematics
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as physics, engineering, medicine, biology, finance, business, computer science, and industry. Thus, applied mathematics is a combination of mathematical science and specialized knowledge. The term "applied mathematics" also describes the professional specialty in which mathematicians work on practical problems by formulating and studying mathematical models. In the past, practical applications have motivated the development of mathematical theories, which then became the subject of study in pure mathematics where abstract concepts are studied for their own sake. The activity of applied mathematics is thus intimately connected with research in pure mathematics. History Historically, applied mathematics consisted principally of applied analysis, most notably differential equations; approximation theory (broadly construed, to include representations, asymptotic methods, variati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fractals
In mathematics, a fractal is a geometric shape containing detailed structure at arbitrarily small scales, usually having a fractal dimension strictly exceeding the topological dimension. Many fractals appear similar at various scales, as illustrated in successive magnifications of the Mandelbrot set. This exhibition of similar patterns at increasingly smaller scales is called selfsimilarity, also known as expanding symmetry or unfolding symmetry; if this replication is exactly the same at every scale, as in the Menger sponge, the shape is called Affine geometry, affine selfsimilar. Fractal geometry lies within the mathematical branch of measure theory. One way that fractals are different from finite geometric figures is how they Scaling (geometry), scale. Doubling the edge lengths of a filled polygon multiplies its area by four, which is two (the ratio of the new to the old side length) raised to the power of two (the conventional dimension of the filled polygon). Likewise, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multifractal System
A multifractal system is a generalization of a fractal system in which a single exponent (the fractal dimension) is not enough to describe its dynamics; instead, a continuous spectrum of exponents (the socalled singularity spectrum) is needed. Multifractal systems are common in nature. They include the length of coastlines, mountain topography, fully developed turbulence, realworld scenes, heartbeat dynamics, human gait and activity, human brain activity, and natural luminosity time series. Models have been proposed in various contexts ranging from turbulence in fluid dynamics to internet traffic, finance, image modeling, texture synthesis, meteorology, geophysics and more. The origin of multifractality in sequential (time series) data has been attributed to mathematical convergence effects related to the central limit theorem that have as foci of convergence the family of statistical distributions known as the Tweedie exponential dispersion models, as well as the geomet ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fractionalorder System
In the fields of dynamical systems and control theory, a fractionalorder system is a dynamical system that can be modeled by a fractional differential equation containing derivatives of noninteger order. Such systems are said to have ''fractional dynamics''. Derivatives and integrals of fractional orders are used to describe objects that can be characterized by powerlaw nonlocality, powerlaw longrange dependence or fractal properties. Fractionalorder systems are useful in studying the anomalous behavior of dynamical systems in physics, electrochemistry, biology, viscoelasticity and chaotic systems. Definition A general dynamical system of fractional order can be written in the form : H(D^)(y_1,y_2,\ldots,y_l) = G(D^)(u_1,u_2,\ldots,u_k) where H and G are functions of the fractional derivative operator D of orders \alpha_1,\alpha_2,\ldots,\alpha_m and \beta_1,\beta_2,\ldots,\beta_n and y_i and u_j are functions of time. A common special case of this is the linear tim ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fractional Calculus
Fractional calculus is a branch of mathematical analysis that studies the several different possibilities of defining real number powers or complex number powers of the differentiation operator D :D f(x) = \frac f(x)\,, and of the integration operator J The symbol J is commonly used instead of the intuitive I in order to avoid confusion with other concepts identified by similar I–like glyphs, such as identities. :J f(x) = \int_0^x f(s) \,ds\,, and developing a calculus for such operators generalizing the classical one. In this context, the term ''powers'' refers to iterative application of a linear operator D to a function f, that is, repeatedly composing D with itself, as in D^n(f) = (\underbrace_n)(f) = \underbrace_n (f)\cdots))). For example, one may ask for a meaningful interpretation of :\sqrt = D^\frac12 as an analogue of the functional square root for the differentiation operator, that is, an expression for some linear operator that, when applied ''twice'' to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Asymptote
In analytic geometry, an asymptote () of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the ''x'' or ''y'' coordinates tends to infinity. In projective geometry and related contexts, an asymptote of a curve is a line which is tangent to the curve at a point at infinity. The word asymptote is derived from the Greek ἀσύμπτωτος (''asumptōtos'') which means "not falling together", from ἀ priv. + σύν "together" + πτωτός "fallen". The term was introduced by Apollonius of Perga in his work on conic sections, but in contrast to its modern meaning, he used it to mean any line that does not intersect the given curve. There are three kinds of asymptotes: ''horizontal'', ''vertical'' and ''oblique''. For curves given by the graph of a function , horizontal asymptotes are horizontal lines that the graph of the function approaches as ''x'' tends to Vertical asymptotes are vertical lines near whic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mean Squared Displacement
In statistical mechanics, the mean squared displacement (MSD, also mean square displacement, average squared displacement, or mean square fluctuation) is a measure of the deviation of the position of a particle with respect to a reference position over time. It is the most common measure of the spatial extent of random motion, and can be thought of as measuring the portion of the system "explored" by the random walker. In the realm of biophysics and environmental engineering, the Mean Squared Displacement is measured over time to determine if a particle is spreading slowly due to diffusion, or if an advective force is also contributing. Another relevant concept, the variancerelated diameter (VRD, which is twice the square root of MSD), is also used in studying the transportation and mixing phenomena in the realm of environmental engineering. It prominently appears in the Debye–Waller factor (describing vibrations within the solid state) and in the Langevin equation (describin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gaussian Distribution
In statistics, a normal distribution or Gaussian distribution is a type of continuous probability distribution for a realvalued random variable. The general form of its probability density function is : f(x) = \frac e^ The parameter \mu is the mean or expectation of the distribution (and also its median and mode), while the parameter \sigma is its standard deviation. The variance of the distribution is \sigma^2. A random variable with a Gaussian distribution is said to be normally distributed, and is called a normal deviate. Normal distributions are important in statistics and are often used in the natural and social sciences to represent realvalued random variables whose distributions are not known. Their importance is partly due to the central limit theorem. It states that, under some conditions, the average of many samples (observations) of a random variable with finite mean and variance is itself a random variable—whose distribution converges to a normal ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fundamental Solution
In mathematics, a fundamental solution for a linear partial differential operator is a formulation in the language of distribution theory of the older idea of a Green's function (although unlike Green's functions, fundamental solutions do not address boundary conditions). In terms of the Dirac delta "function" , a fundamental solution is a solution of the inhomogeneous equation Here is ''a priori'' only assumed to be a distribution. This concept has long been utilized for the Laplacian in two and three dimensions. It was investigated for all dimensions for the Laplacian by Marcel Riesz. The existence of a fundamental solution for any operator with constant coefficients — the most important case, directly linked to the possibility of using convolution to solve an arbitrary right hand side — was shown by Bernard Malgrange and Leon Ehrenpreis. In the context of functional analysis, fundamental solutions are usually developed via the Fredholm alternative and explored i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dirac Delta Function
In mathematics, the Dirac delta distribution ( distribution), also known as the unit impulse, is a generalized function or distribution over the real numbers, whose value is zero everywhere except at zero, and whose integral over the entire real line is equal to one. The current understanding of the unit impulse is as a linear functional that maps every continuous function (e.g., f(x)) to its value at zero of its domain (f(0)), or as the weak limit of a sequence of bump functions (e.g., \delta(x) = \lim_ \frace^), which are zero over most of the real line, with a tall spike at the origin. Bump functions are thus sometimes called "approximate" or "nascent" delta distributions. The delta function was introduced by physicist Paul Dirac as a tool for the normalization of state vectors. It also has uses in probability theory and signal processing. Its validity was disputed until Laurent Schwartz developed the theory of distributions where it is defined as a linear form actin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 