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Dirk Ter Haar
Dirk ter Haar FRSE FIP DSc (; Oosterwolde, 19 April 1919 – Drachten, 3 September 2002) was an Anglo-Dutch physicist. Life Dirk ter Haar was born at Oosterwolde in the province Friesland in the north of the Netherlands on 19 April 1919. He studied physics at the University of St Andrews in Scotland and Oxford University in England, obtaining an MA degree before carrying out postgraduate studies at Leiden University. In 1946 he was a research fellow of Niels Bohr at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen (now the Niels Bohr Institute), and received his PhD in Leiden in 1948 from Hendrik Kramers for a dissertation on the origin of the Solar System. From 1947 to 1950 he was a visiting associate professor of physics at Purdue University. In 1950 he obtained a post as professor of physics at the University of St. Andrews, and later became a British citizen. In 1952 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. His proposers were Jack Allen, David Jac ...
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FRSE
Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's national academy of science and letters, judged to be "eminently distinguished in their subject". This society received a royal charter in 1783, allowing for its expansion. Elections Around 50 new fellows are elected each year in March. there are around 1,650 Fellows, including 71 Honorary Fellows and 76 Corresponding Fellows. Fellows are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSE, Honorary Fellows HonFRSE, and Corresponding Fellows CorrFRSE. Disciplines The Fellowship is split into four broad sectors, covering the full range of physical and life sciences, arts, humanities, social sciences, education, professions, industry, business and public life. A: Life Sciences * A1: Biomedical and Cognitive Sciences * A2: Clinical Sciences * A3: Organismal and Environmental Biology * A4: Cell and Molecular Biology B: Physical, Engineering and I ...
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David Jack (scientist)
Sir David Jack (22 February 1924 – 8 November 2011) was a Scottish pharmacologist and medicinal chemist who specialised in the development of drugs for treating asthma. He was head of research and development at Glaxo from 1978 until 1987. Early life and education Jack was born the sixth and youngest child of a coal miner, in Markinch, Fife, Scotland. He attended Buckhaven High School before turning down a place at Edinburgh University to become an apprentice pharmacist. In 1944, having completed his apprenticeship, he began a BSc course in chemistry and pharmacy at the Royal Technical College, Glasgow. He won a number of undergraduate prizes and graduated with first class honours. Career He turned down an offer to study for a doctorate and instead worked as an assistant lecturer at the University of Glasgow. In 1951 he joined the pharmaceutical company Glaxo Laboratories, moving to Smith Kline and French in 1953. In 1961 he became director of research at Allen and Ha ...
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Pyotr Kapitsa
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa or Peter Kapitza ( Russian: Пётр Леонидович Капица, Romanian: Petre Capița ( – 8 April 1984) was a leading Soviet physicist and Nobel laureate, best known for his work in low-temperature physics. Biography Kapitsa was born in Kronstadt, Russian Empire, to Bessarabian-Volhynian-born parents Leonid Petrovich Kapitsa (Romanian ''Leonid Petrovici Capița''), a military engineer who constructed fortifications, and Olga Ieronimovna Kapitsa from a noble Polish Stebnicki family. Besides Russian, the Kapitsa family also spoke Romanian. Kapitsa's studies were interrupted by the First World War, in which he served as an ambulance driver for two years on the Polish front. He graduated from the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute in 1918. His wife and two children died in the flu epidemic of 1918–19. He subsequently studied in Britain, working for over ten years with Ernest Rutherford in the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of C ...
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Lev Landau
Lev Davidovich Landau (russian: Лев Дави́дович Ланда́у; 22 January 1908 – 1 April 1968) was a Soviet-Azerbaijani physicist of Jewish descent who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. His accomplishments include the independent co-discovery of the density matrix method in quantum mechanics (alongside John von Neumann), the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of superfluidity, the theory of second-order phase transitions, the Ginzburg–Landau theory of superconductivity, the theory of Fermi liquids, the explanation of Landau damping in plasma physics, the Landau pole in quantum electrodynamics, the two-component theory of neutrinos, and Landau's equations for ''S'' matrix singularities. He received the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics for his development of a mathematical theory of superfluidity that accounts for the properties of liquid helium II at a temperature below (). Life Early years Landa ...
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Chinese Nuclear Weapons
The People's Republic of China has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and nuclear weapons. The first of China's nuclear weapons tests took place in 1964, and its first hydrogen bomb test occurred in 1967. Tests continued until 1996, when China signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). China has acceded to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) in 1984 and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1997. The number of nuclear warheads in China's arsenal is a state secret. There are varying estimates of the size of China's arsenal. China was estimated by the Federation of American Scientists to have an arsenal of about 260 total warheads as of 2015, the fourth largest nuclear arsenal amongst the five nuclear weapon states acknowledged by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and one of 320 total warheads by the '' SIPRI Yearbook 2020'', the third largest. According to some estimates by US inte ...
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Deng Jiaxian
Deng Jiaxian (; June 25, 1924 – July 29, 1986) was a Chinese nuclear physicist and academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). He was a leading organizer and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs. Biography Deng was born in Huaining, Anhui, China, on June 25, 1924. After graduating from the National Southwestern Associated University, he taught at Peking University. He went to the United States in 1948 to study at Purdue University, and earned his PhD in physics in 1950. He returned to the newly founded People's Republic of China just nine days after graduation. From 1958 on, Deng spent over 20 years working secretly with a team of young scientists on the development of the nuclear and hydrogen bomb for China, culminating in success in 1964 and 1967. He died on July 29, 1986 in Beijing. Deng is regarded as the "Father of China's Nuclear Program". In 1999, he was posthumously awarded the Two Bombs, One Satellite Meritorious Award for his contributi ...
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Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind." Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist most famously known for the invention of dynamite. He died in 1896. In his will, he bequeathed all of his "remaining realisable assets" to be used to establish five prizes which became known as "Nobel Prizes." Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901. Nobel Prizes are awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace (Nobel characterized the Peace Prize as "to the person who has done the most or best to advance fellowship among nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and the establishment and promotion of peace congresses"). In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) funded the establishment of the Prize in Ec ...
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Anthony Leggett
Sir Anthony James Leggett (born 26 March 1938) is a British-American theoretical physicist and professor emeritus at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Leggett is widely recognised as a world leader in the theory of low-temperature physics, and his pioneering work on superfluidity was recognised by the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics. He has shaped the theoretical understanding of normal and superfluid helium liquids and strongly coupled superfluids. He set directions for research in the quantum physics of macroscopic dissipative systems and use of condensed systems to test the foundations of quantum mechanics. In a 2021 interview given to Federal University of Pará in Brazil, Leggett talks about his early life in London, his path to become a theoretical physicist and also his scientific works and collaborations. Early life and education Leggett was born in Camberwell, South London, and raised Catholic. His father's forebears were village cobblers in a small village ...
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Huygens Institute
The Huygens Institute for the History of the Netherlands was formed on January 1, 2011 through a merger of the Institute of Dutch History ( nl, 'Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis', ING) a research institute of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, and the Huygens Instituut of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (founded in 1808). The institute is located in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in the Spinhuis building. The institute is made up of three thematically oriented sections: one for the study of political and institutional history, one for the study of the history of science, and a third one for the study of literature. The first section dates back to 1902, when it was established as the "Commissie van Advies voor de 's Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatien" (Advisory Commission for Publications in the History of the Empire), under the directorship of the historian Herman Theodoor Colenbrander. Huygens ING researches texts and sources from the past ...
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Royal Netherlands Academy Of Arts And Sciences
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences ( nl, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands. The academy is housed in the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam. In addition to various advisory and administrative functions it operates a number of research institutes and awards many prizes, including the Lorentz Medal in theoretical physics, the Dr Hendrik Muller Prize for Behavioural and Social Science and the Heineken Prizes. Main functions The academy advises the Dutch government on scientific matters. While its advice often pertains to genuine scientific concerns, it also counsels the government on such topics as policy on careers for researchers or the Netherlands' contribution to major international projects. The academy offers solicited and unsolicited advice to parliament, ministries, universities and research institutes, funding agencies and internatio ...
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University Of Oxford
, mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = £2.145 billion (2019–20) , chancellor = The Lord Patten of Barnes , vice_chancellor = Louise Richardson , students = 24,515 (2019) , undergrad = 11,955 , postgrad = 12,010 , other = 541 (2017) , city = Oxford , country = England , coordinates = , campus_type = University town , athletics_affiliations = Blue (university sport) , logo_size = 250px , website = , logo = University of Oxford.svg , colours = Oxford Blue , faculty = 6,995 (2020) , academic_affiliations = , The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxf ...
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Reader (academic Rank)
The title of reader in the United Kingdom and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations, for example India, Australia and New Zealand, denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship. In the traditional hierarchy of British and other Commonwealth universities, reader (and principal lecturer in the new universities) are academic ranks above senior lecturer and below professor, recognising a distinguished record of original research. Reader is similar to a professor without a chair, similar to the distinction between ''professor extraordinarius'' and ''professor ordinarius'' at some European universities, professor and chaired professor in Hong Kong and "professor name" (or associate professor) and chaired professor in Ireland. Readers and professors in the UK would correspond to full professors in the United States.Graham WebbMaking the most of appraisal: career and professional development planning for ...
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