Conservative Force
In physics, a conservative force is a force with the property that the total work done in moving a particle between two points is independent of the path taken. Equivalently, if a particle travels in a closed loop, the total work done (the sum of the force acting along the path multiplied by the displacement) by a conservative force is zero. A conservative force depends only on the position of the object. If a force is conservative, it is possible to assign a numerical value for the potential at any point and conversely, when an object moves from one location to another, the force changes the potential energy of the object by an amount that does not depend on the path taken, contributing to the mechanical energy and the overall conservation of energy. If the force is not conservative, then defining a scalar potential is not possible, because taking different paths would lead to conflicting potential differences between the start and end points. Gravitational force is an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Physics
Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, with its main goal being to understand how the universe behaves. "Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flatscreen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Air Drag
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid. This can exist between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or between a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, the drag force depends on velocity. Drag force is proportional to the velocity for lowspeed flow and the squared velocity for high speed flow, where the distinction between low and high speed is measured by the Reynolds number. Even though the ultimate cause of drag is viscous friction, turbulent drag is independent of viscosity. Drag forces always tend to decrease fluid velocity relative to the solid object in the fluid's path. Examples Examples of drag include the component of the net aerodynamic or hydrodynamic force acting opposite to t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus
The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of differentiating a function (calculating its slopes, or rate of change at each time) with the concept of integrating a function (calculating the area under its graph, or the cumulative effect of small contributions). The two operations are inverses of each other apart from a constant value which depends on where one starts to compute area. The first part of the theorem, the first fundamental theorem of calculus, states that for a function , an antiderivative or indefinite integral may be obtained as the integral of over an interval with a variable upper bound. This implies the existence of antiderivatives for continuous functions. Conversely, the second part of the theorem, the second fundamental theorem of calculus, states that the integral of a function over a fixed interval is equal to the change of any antiderivative between the ends of the interval. This greatly simplifies the calculation of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Stokes' Theorem
Stokes's theorem, also known as the Kelvin–Stokes theorem Nagayoshi Iwahori, et al.:"BiBunSekiBunGaku" ShoKaBou(jp) 1983/12Written in Japanese)Atsuo Fujimoto;"VectorKaiSeki Gendai sugaku rekucha zu. C(1)" :ja:培風館, BaiFuKan(jp)(1979/01) [] (Written in Japanese) after Lord Kelvin and Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet, George Stokes, the fundamental theorem for curls or simply the curl theorem, is a theorem in vector calculus on . Given a vector field, the theorem relates the integral of the curl of the vector field over some surface, to the line integral of the vector field around the boundary of the surface. The classical Stokes' theorem can be stated in one sentence: The line integral of a vector field over a loop is equal to the '' flux of its curl'' through the enclosed surface. Stokes' theorem is a special case of the generalized Stokes' theorem. In particular, a vector field on can be considered as a 1form in which case its curl is its exterior deriv ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gradient
In vector calculus, the gradient of a scalarvalued differentiable function of several variables is the vector field (or vectorvalued function) \nabla f whose value at a point p is the "direction and rate of fastest increase". If the gradient of a function is nonzero at a point , the direction of the gradient is the direction in which the function increases most quickly from , and the magnitude of the gradient is the rate of increase in that direction, the greatest absolute directional derivative. Further, a point where the gradient is the zero vector is known as a stationary point. The gradient thus plays a fundamental role in optimization theory, where it is used to maximize a function by gradient ascent. In coordinatefree terms, the gradient of a function f(\bf) may be defined by: :df=\nabla f \cdot d\bf where ''df'' is the total infinitesimal change in ''f'' for an infinitesimal displacement d\bf, and is seen to be maximal when d\bf is in the direction of the gr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Work (physics)
In physics, work is the energy transferred to or from an object via the application of force along a displacement. In its simplest form, for a constant force aligned with the direction of motion, the work equals the product of the force strength and the distance traveled. A force is said to do ''positive work'' if when applied it has a component in the direction of the displacement of the point of application. A force does ''negative work'' if it has a component opposite to the direction of the displacement at the point of application of the force. For example, when a ball is held above the ground and then dropped, the work done by the gravitational force on the ball as it falls is positive, and is equal to the weight of the ball (a force) multiplied by the distance to the ground (a displacement). If the ball is thrown upwards, the work done by its weight is negative, and is equal to the weight multiplied by the displacement in the upwards direction. When the force is const ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Curl (mathematics)
In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal circulation of a vector field in threedimensional Euclidean space. The curl at a point in the field is represented by a vector whose length and direction denote the magnitude and axis of the maximum circulation. The curl of a field is formally defined as the circulation density at each point of the field. A vector field whose curl is zero is called irrotational. The curl is a form of differentiation for vector fields. The corresponding form of the fundamental theorem of calculus is Stokes' theorem, which relates the surface integral of the curl of a vector field to the line integral of the vector field around the boundary curve. is a notation common today to the United States and Americas. In many European countries, particularly in classic scientific literature, the alternative notation is traditionally used, which is spelled as "rotor", and comes from the "rate of rotation", which it re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Conservative Vector Field
In vector calculus, a conservative vector field is a vector field that is the gradient of some function. A conservative vector field has the property that its line integral is path independent; the choice of any path between two points does not change the value of the line integral. Path independence of the line integral is equivalent to the vector field under the line integral being conservative. A conservative vector field is also irrotational; in three dimensions, this means that it has vanishing curl. An irrotational vector field is necessarily conservative provided that the domain is simply connected. Conservative vector fields appear naturally in mechanics: They are vector fields representing forces of physical systems in which energy is conserved. For a conservative system, the work done in moving along a path in a configuration space depends on only the endpoints of the path, so it is possible to define potential energy that is independent of the actual path taken. Inf ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Simplyconnected
In topology, a topological space is called simply connected (or 1connected, or 1simply connected) if it is pathconnected and every path between two points can be continuously transformed (intuitively for embedded spaces, staying within the space) into any other such path while preserving the two endpoints in question. The fundamental group of a topological space is an indicator of the failure for the space to be simply connected: a pathconnected topological space is simply connected if and only if its fundamental group is trivial. Definition and equivalent formulations A topological space X is called if it is pathconnected and any loop in X defined by f : S^1 \to X can be contracted to a point: there exists a continuous map F : D^2 \to X such that F restricted to S^1 is f. Here, S^1 and D^2 denotes the unit circle and closed unit disk in the Euclidean plane respectively. An equivalent formulation is this: X is simply connected if and only if it is pathconnected, and when ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Force Field (physics)
In physics, a force field is a vector field corresponding with a noncontact force acting on a particle at various positions in space. Specifically, a force field is a vector field \vec, where \vec(\vec) is the force that a particle would feel if it were at the point \vec. Examples *Gravity is the force of attraction between two objects. A gravitational force field models this influence that a massive body (or more generally, any quantity of energy) extends into the space around itself. In Newtonian gravity, a particle of mass ''M'' creates a gravitational field \vec=\frac\hat, where the radial unit vector \hat points away from the particle. The gravitational force experienced by a particle of light mass ''m'', close to the surface of Earth is given by \vec = m \vec, where ''g'' is the standard gravity. *An electric field \vec is a vector field. It exerts a force on a point charge ''q'' given by \vec = q\vec. Work Work is dependent on the displacement as well as the force a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Conservative Force Gravity Example
Conservatism is a cultural, social, and political philosophy that seeks to promote and to preserve traditional institutions, practices, and values. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to the culture and civilization in which it appears. In Western culture, conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as organized religion, parliamentary government, and property rights. Conservatives tend to favor institutions and practices that guarantee stability and evolved gradually. Adherents of conservatism often oppose modernism and seek a return to traditional values, though different groups of conservatives may choose different traditional values to preserve. The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with FrançoisRené de Chateaubriand during the period of Bourbon Restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. Historically associated with rightwing politics, the term has ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Second Law Of Thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics is a physical law based on universal experience concerning heat and energy interconversions. One simple statement of the law is that heat always moves from hotter objects to colder objects (or "downhill"), unless energy in some form is supplied to reverse the direction of heat flow. Another definition is: "Not all heat energy can be converted into work in a cyclic process."Young, H. D; Freedman, R. A. (2004). ''University Physics'', 11th edition. Pearson. p. 764. The second law of thermodynamics in other versions establishes the concept of entropy as a physical property of a thermodynamic system. It can be used to predict whether processes are forbidden despite obeying the requirement of conservation of energy as expressed in the first law of thermodynamics and provides necessary criteria for spontaneous processes. The second law may be formulated by the observation that the entropy of isolated systems left to spontaneous evolution cannot decr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 