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A tugboat or tug is a
marine vessel Any vehicle used in or on water as well as underwater, including Boat, boats, Ship, ships, hovercraft and Submarine, submarines, is a watercraft, also known as a water vessel or waterborne vessel. A watercraft usually has a propulsive capabilit ...
that manoeuvres other vessels by pushing or pulling them, with direct contact or a tow line. These
boat A boat is a watercraft of a large range of types and sizes, but generally smaller than a ship, which is distinguished by its larger size, shape, cargo or passenger capacity, or its ability to carry boats. Small boats are typically found on inl ...

boat
s typically tug
ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying cargo or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fishing. Ships are generally dist ...

ship
s in circumstances where they cannot or should not move under their own power, such as in crowded
harbour A harbor (American English), harbour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences), or haven is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked. The term ''harb ...

harbour
or narrow
canal Canals or artificial waterways are waterways or engineered channels built for drainage management (e.g. flood control and irrigation) or for conveyancing water transport vehicles (e.g. water taxi). They carry free, calm surface flo ...

canal
s, or cannot move at all, such as
barge Barge nowadays generally refers to a flat-bottomed boat, flat-bottomed inland waterway vessel which does not have its own means of mechanical propulsion. The first modern barges were pulled by tugs, but nowadays most are pushed by Pusher (boat) ...

barge
s, disabled ships, log rafts, or
oil platform An oil platform (or oil rig, offshore platform, oil production platform, and similar terms) is a large structure with facilities to extract and process petroleum and natural gas that lie in rock formations beneath the seabed. Many oil platfor ...

oil platform
s. Some are ocean-going, some are
icebreaker An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and Ice navigation, navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships. Although the term usually refers to ice-breaking ships, it may also r ...
s or
salvage tug A salvage tug, known also historically as a wrecking tug, is a specialized type of tugboat that is used to rescue ships that are in distress or in danger of sinking, or to salvage ships that have already sunk or run aground. Overview Few tugbo ...
s. Early models were powered by
steam engine A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a Cylinder (locomotive), cylinder. This pus ...

steam engine
s, long ago superseded by
diesel engine The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which Combustion, ignition of the diesel fuel, fuel is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression; thus, the di ...

diesel engine
s. Many have deluge gun water jets, which help in
firefighting Firefighting is the act of extinguishing or preventing the spread of unwanted fires from threatening human lives and destroying property and the environment. A person who engages in firefighting is known as a firefighter. Firefighters typically ...

firefighting
, especially in harbours.


Types


Seagoing

Seagoing tugs (deep-sea tugs or ocean tugboats) fall into four basic categories: #The standard seagoing tug with model bow that tows almost exclusively by way of a wire cable. In some rare cases, such as some USN fleet tugs, a synthetic rope hawser may be used for the tow in the belief that the line can be pulled aboard a disabled ship by the crew owing to its lightness compared to wire cable. #The "notch tug" can be secured by way of cables, or more commonly in recent times, synthetic lines that run from the stern of the tug to the stern of the barge. This configuration is generally used in inland waters where sea and swell are minimal because of the danger of parting the push wires. Often, this configuration is employed even without a "notch" on the barge, but in those cases it is preferable to have "push knees" on the tug to stabilize its position. Model bow tugs employing this method of pushing nearly always have a towing winch that can be used if sea conditions render pushing inadvisable. With this configuration, the barge being pushed might approach the size of a small ship, with the interaction of the water flow allowing a higher speed with a minimal increase in power required or fuel consumption. #The "integral unit", or "integrated tug and barge" (ITB), comprises specially designed vessels that lock together in such a rigid and strong method as to be certified as such by authorities (classification societies) such as the
American Bureau of Shipping American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the "United States" or "America" ** Americans, citizens and nationals of the United States of America ** American ancestry, pe ...
,
Lloyd's Register of Shipping Lloyd's Register Group Limited (LR) is a technical and professional services organisation and a maritime classification society, wholly owned by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation, a UK charity dedicated to research and education in science and ...
,
Indian Register of Shipping Indian Register of Shipping (IRClass) is an internationally recognised, independent ship classification society, founded in India in 1975. It is a public limited company incorporated under Section 25 of the Indian Companies Act 1956 (Section 8 o ...
,
Det Norske Veritas DNV (formerly DNV GL) is an international accredited registrar and classification society headquartered in Høvik, Norway. The company currently has about 12,000 employees and 350 offices operating in more than 100 countries, and provides servi ...
or several others. These units stay combined under virtually any sea conditions and the tugs usually have poor
sea-keeping Seakeeping ability or seaworthiness is a measure of how well-suited a watercraft is to conditions when underway. A ship or boat which has good seakeeping ability is said to be very seaworthy and is able to operate effectively even in high sea stat ...
designs for navigation without their barges attached. Vessels in this category are legally considered to be ships rather than tugboats and barges must be staffed accordingly. These vessels must show navigation lights compliant with those required of ships rather than those required of tugboats and vessels undertow. #"Articulated tug and barge" (ATB) units also utilize mechanical means to connect to their barges. The tug slips into a notch in the stern and is attached by a hinged connection, becoming an
articulated vehicle An articulated vehicle is a vehicle which has a permanent or semi-permanent pivot joint in its construction, allowing it to turn more sharply. There are many kinds, from heavy equipment to Articulated bus, buses, trams and Articulated car, trai ...
. ATBs generally utilize Intercon and
Bludworth {{unreferenced, date=March 2011 The Bludworth articulated tug and barge (ATB) ocean Tug boat, tug barge connection system was developed by Richard and Robert Bludworth during the 1960s. The first Bludworth articulated tug barge unit was the oce ...
connecting systems. ATBs are generally staffed as a large tugboat, with between seven and nine crew members. The typical American ATB displays navigational lights of a towing vessel pushing ahead, as described in the 1972
ColRegs The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGs) are published by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and set out, among other things, the "rules of the road" or navigation rules to be followed by ships an ...
.


Harbour

Compared with seagoing tugboats,
harbour A harbor (American English), harbour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences), or haven is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked. The term ''harb ...

harbour
tugboats that are employed exclusively as ship assist vessels are generally smaller and their width-to-length ratio is often higher, due to the need for the tugs' wheelhouse to avoid contact with the hull of a ship, which may have a pronounced rake at the bow and stern. In some ports there is a requirement for certain numbers and sizes of tugboats for port operations with
gas tanker A gas carrier, gas tanker, LPG carrier, or LPG tanker is a ship designed to transport Liquefied petroleum gas, LPG, LNG, CNG, or liquefied chemical gases in Bulk liquids, bulk. Types Fully pressurized gas carrier The seaborne transport of li ...
s. Also, in many ports, tankers are required to have tug escorts when transiting in harbors to render assistance in the event of mechanical failure. The port generally mandates a minimum horsepower or bollard pull, determined by the size of the escorted vessel. Most ports will have a number of tugs that are used for other purposes than ship assist, such as dredging operations, bunkering ships, transferring liquid products between berths, and cargo ops. These tugs may also be used for ship assist as needed. Modern ship assist tugs are "tractor tugs" that employ azimuthing stern drives (ASD), propellers that can rotate 360 degrees without a rudder, or cycloidal drives (as described below).


River

River tugs are also referred to as towboats or pushboats. Their hull designs would make open ocean operations dangerous. River tugs usually do not have any significant hawser or winch. Their hulls feature a flat front or bow to line up with the rectangular stern of the barge, often with large pushing knees.


Propulsion

The first tugboat, '' Charlotte Dundas'', was built by William Symington in 1801. It had a steam engine and paddle wheels and was used on rivers in Scotland. Paddle tugs proliferated thereafter and were a common sight for a century. In the 1870s schooner hulls were converted to screw tugs. Compound steam engines and scotch boilers provided 300 Indicated Horse Power. Steam tugs were put to use in every harbour of the world towing and ship berthing. Tugboat diesel engines typically produce 500 to 2,500
kW
kW
(
~
~
680 to 3,400
hp
hp
), but larger boats (used in deep waters) can have power ratings up to 20,000 kW (~ 27,200 hp). Tugboats usually have an extreme power:
tonnage Tonnage Ship measurements, is a measure of the cargo-carrying capacity of a ship, and is commonly used to assess fees on commerce, commercial shipping. The term derives from the taxation paid on ''Tun (unit), tuns'' or casks of wine. In modern ma ...
-ratio; normal
cargo Cargo consists of bulk goods conveyed by water, air, or land. In economics, freight is cargo that is transported at a freight rate for Commerce, commercial gain. ''Cargo'' was originally a shipload but now covers all types of freight, includ ...

cargo
and passenger ships have a P:T-ratio (in kW: GRT) of 0.35 to 1.20, whereas large tugs typically are 2.20 to 4.50 and small harbour-tugs 4.0 to 9.5. The engines are often the same as those used in railroad
locomotive A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the Power (physics), motive power for a train. If a locomotive is capable of carrying a payload, it is usually rather referred to as a multiple unit, Motor coach (rail), motor ...

locomotive
s, but typically drive the
propeller A propeller (colloquially often called a screw if on a ship or an airscrew if on an aircraft) is a device with a rotating hub and radiating blades that are set at a pitch to form a helical spiral which, when rotated, exerts linear thrust upon ...

propeller
mechanically instead of converting the engine output to power electric motors, as is common for diesel-electric locomotives. For safety, tugboat engines often feature two of each critical part for redundancy. A tugboat is typically rated by its engine's power output and its overall bollard pull. The largest commercial harbour tugboats in the 2000s–2010s, used for towing container ships or similar, had around of bollard pull, which is described as above "normal" tugboats. Tugboats are highly manoeuvrable, and various propulsion systems have been developed to increase manoeuvrability and increase safety. The earliest tugs were fitted with
paddle wheels
paddle wheels
, but these were soon replaced by propeller-driven tugs. Kort nozzles (see below) have been added to increase thrust-to-power ratio. This was followed by the nozzle-rudder, which omitted the need for a conventional
rudder A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other vehicle that moves through a fluid medium (generally aircraft, air or watercraft, water). On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to ...

rudder
. The cycloidal propeller (see below) was developed prior to
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
and was occasionally used in tugs because of its maneuverability. After World War II it was also linked to safety due to the development of the Voith Water Tractor, a tugboat configuration that could not be pulled over by its tow. In the late 1950s, the Z-drive or ( azimuth thruster) was developed. Although sometimes referred to as the Aquamaster or Schottel system, many brands exist: Steerprop,
Wärtsilä Wärtsilä Oyj Abp (), trading internationally as Wärtsilä Corporation, is a Finnish corporation, Finnish company which manufactures and services power sources and other equipment in the Marine propulsion, marine and energy markets. The core ...
, Berg Propulsion, etc. These propulsion systems are used on tugboats designed for tasks such as ship docking and marine construction. Conventional propeller/rudder configurations are more efficient for port-to-port towing.


Kort nozzle

The Kort nozzle is a sturdy cylindrical structure around a special propeller having minimum clearance between the propeller blades and the inner wall of the Kort nozzle. The thrust-to-power ratio is enhanced because the water approaches the propeller in a linear configuration and exits the nozzle the same way. The Kort nozzle is named after its inventor, but many brands exist.


Cyclorotor

The cycloidal propeller is a circular plate mounted on the underside of the hull, rotating around a vertical axis with a circular array of vertical blades (in the shape of hydrofoils) that protrude out of the bottom of the ship. Each blade can rotate itself around a vertical axis. The internal mechanism changes the angle of attack of the blades in sync with the rotation of the plate, so that each blade can provide thrust in any direction, similar to the collective pitch control and cyclic in a helicopter.


Fenders

Tugboat fenders are made of high-abrasion-resistance rubber with good resilience properties. They are very popular with small port craft owners and tug owners. These fenders are generally made from cut pieces of vehicle tires strung together. Often the rendering on the sides of the tug is composed of large heavy equipment or aircraft tires attached to or hung on the side of the tug. Some rendering is compression moulded in high-pressure thermic-fluid-heated moulds and have excellent seawater resistance, but are not widely used owing to the cost. Tugboat bow fenders are also called beards or bow puds. In the past they were made of rope for padding to protect the bow, but rope rendering is almost never seen in recent times. Other types of tugboat fender include Tug cylindrical fender, W fender, M fender, D fender, and others.


Carousel

A recent
Dutch
Dutch
innovation is the carousel tug, winner of the Maritime Innovation Award at the Dutch Maritime Innovation Awards Gala in 2006. It adds a pair of interlocking rings to the body of the tug, the inner on the boat, the outer on the ship by winch or towing hook. Since the towing point rotates freely, the tug is very difficult to capsize.


Races

Vintage tugboat races have been held annually in
Olympia, Washington Olympia is the capital city, capital of the U.S. state of Washington (state), Washington and the county seat and largest city of Thurston County, Washington, Thurston County. It is southwest of the state's most populous city, Seattle, and is a c ...
, since 1974 during the Olympia Harbor Days Maritime Festival. Tugboat races are held annually on
Elliott Bay Elliott Bay is a part of the Central Basin region of Puget Sound. It is in the U.S. state of Washington (state), Washington, extending southeastward between West Point (Seattle), West Point in the north and Alki Point in the south. Seattle was fou ...
in
Seattle Seattle ( ) is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of King County, Washington. With a 2020 population of 737,015, it is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest regio ...
, on the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the New York Harb ...
at the New York Tugboat Race, the
Detroit River The Detroit River flows west and south for from Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie as a strait A strait is an Ocean, oceanic landform connecting two Sea, seas or two other large areas of water. The surface water generally flows at the same ele ...
, and the Great Tugboat Race and Parade on the St. Mary's River.


Ballet

Since 1980, an annual tugboat ballet has been held in
Hamburg (male), (female) en, Hamburger(s), Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal ...
harbour on the occasion of the festival commemorating the anniversary of the establishment of a port in Hamburg. On a weekend in May, eight tugboats perform choreographed movements for about an hour to the tunes of
waltz The waltz ( ), meaning "to roll or revolve") is a ballroom dance, ballroom and folk dance, normally in triple (3/4 time, time), performed primarily in closed position. History There are many references to a sliding or gliding dance that w ...
and other sorts of dance music.


Roundups

The Tugboat Roundup is a gathering of tugboats and other vessels in celebration of maritime industry. The Waterford Tugboat Roundup is held in the late summer at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers in Waterford, New York. The tugs featured are river tugs and other tugs re-purposed to serve on the New York State Canal System.


In popular culture

''
Tugboat Annie ''Tugboat Annie'' is a 1933 American Pre-Code Hollywood, pre-Code film directed by Mervyn LeRoy, written by Norman Reilly Raine and Zelda Sears, and starring Marie Dressler and Wallace Beery as a comically quarrelsome middle-aged couple who oper ...
'' was the subject of a series of ''
Saturday Evening Post ''The Saturday Evening Post'' is an American magazine, currently published six times a year. It was issued weekly under this title from 1897 until 1963, then every two weeks until 1969. From the 1920s to the 1960s, it was one of the most widely c ...
'' magazine stories featuring the female captain of the tugboat ''Narcissus'' in
Puget Sound Puget Sound ( ) is a sound (geography), sound of the Pacific Northwest, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, and part of the Salish Sea. It is located along the northwestern coast of the U.S. state of Washington (state), Washington. It is a complex e ...
, later featured in the films ''
Tugboat Annie ''Tugboat Annie'' is a 1933 American Pre-Code Hollywood, pre-Code film directed by Mervyn LeRoy, written by Norman Reilly Raine and Zelda Sears, and starring Marie Dressler and Wallace Beery as a comically quarrelsome middle-aged couple who oper ...
'' (1933), '' Tugboat Annie Sails Again'' (1940) and '' Captain Tugboat Annie'' (1945). The Canadian television series ''
The Adventures of Tugboat Annie ''The Adventures of Tugboat Annie'' is a 1957 Canada, Canadian-filmed comedy television series starring Minerva Urecal as Annie Brennan, the widowed captain of the tugboat "Narcissus," and Walter Sande as Horatio J. Bullwinkle, the captain of the ...
'' was filmed in
1957 1957 (Roman numerals, MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday, common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1957th year of the Common Era (CE) and ''Anno Domini'' (AD) designations, the 957th year of the 2nd millennium, t ...
.


Film and television

To date, there have been four children's shows revolving around
anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics t ...
tugboats. * In the late 1980s, 13
episode An episode is a narrative unit within a larger drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on Radio drama ...
s were made of ''TUGS'', a series depicting the life of tugboats in the 1920s. * An American adaptation using edited footage from ''Tugs'' followed: '' Salty's Lighthouse''. * In the 1975's Soviet short animation musical film '' В порту/ In the sea port'' a tugboat sang a song: "Through a harbour area" * One of the creators of ''Tugs'' went on to direct ''
Theodore Tugboat ''Theodore Tugboat'' is a Canadian children's television series about a tugboat named Theodore who lives in the Big Harbour with all of his friends. The show originated (and is set) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada as a co-production between th ...
''. * Animated preschool series '' Toot the Tiny Tugboat'' started broadcasting on Channel 5 ''
Milkshake! ''Milkshake!'' (stylised as milkshake!) is a British Children's television series, children's television programming block on Channel 5 (UK), Channel 5 and is currently aimed at children aged 3–7. History The block debuted on Channel 5's fi ...
'' in 2014 and on
Cartoonito Cartoonito is a brand name used by Warner Bros. Discovery for a collection of television networks and Block programming, programming blocks that target preschool-age children. The name combines the "cartoon" with the Spanish language, Spanish suf ...
in 2015, with a Welsh-language version airing on S4C Cyw. "Tugger" is a tugboat in the
animated series An animated series is a set of Animation, animated works with a common series title, usually related to one another. These episodes should typically share the same main characters, some different secondary characters and a basic theme. Series can ...
''
South Park ''South Park'' is an American animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone and developed by Brian Graden for Comedy Central Comedy Central is an American basic cable channel owned by Paramount Global Paramount Globa ...
''. He appears in the
episode An episode is a narrative unit within a larger drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on Radio drama ...
" The New Terrance and Phillip Movie Trailer" as a sidekick for
Russell Crowe Russell Ira Crowe (born 7 April 1964) is an actor. He was born in New Zealand, spent ten years of his childhood in Australia, and moved there permanently at age twenty one. He came to international attention for his role as Roman Empire, Roma ...
in a fictitious
television series A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set which can be broadcast via over-the-air, satellite television, satellite, or cable television, cable, excluding breaking news, television adverti ...
entitled ''Fightin' Round The World with Russell Crowe''. Tugger follows Crowe as he engages various people in physical conflicts, providing emotional support and comic relief. At one point Tugger even attempts to commit suicide, upon being forced to hear Russell Crowe's new musical composition.


Literature

(Alphabetical by author) *The children's book ''
Scuffy the Tugboat ''Scuffy the Tugboat'' is a children's book written by Gertrude Crampton and illustrated by Tibor Gergely Tibor Gergely ( August 3, 1900 – January 13, 1978) was a Hungarian-American artist best known for his illustration of popular child ...
'', written by Gertrude Crampton and illustrated by
Tibor Gergely Tibor Gergely ( August 3, 1900 – January 13, 1978) was a Hungarian-American artist best known for his illustration of popular children's picture books A picture book combines visual and verbal narratives in a book format, most often aimed a ...
and first published in
1946 Events January * January 6 Events Pre-1600 *1066 – Following the death of Edward the Confessor on the previous day, the Witan meets to confirm Harold Godwinson as the new King of England; Harold is crowned the same day, spar ...
as part of the
Little Golden Books Little Golden Books is a series of children's books, published since 1942. ''The Poky Little Puppy'', the eighth release in the series, is the top-selling children's book of all time in the United States.. Many other Little Golden Books have b ...
series, follows the adventures of a young toy tugboat who seeks a life beyond the confines of a tub inside his owner's toy store. *The
Dutch
Dutch
writer Jan de Hartog wrote numerous nautical novels, first in Dutch, then in English. **The novel '' Hollands Glorie'', written prior to
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, was made into a Dutch miniseries in 1978 and concerned the dangers faced by the crews of Dutch salvage tugs. **The novella '' Stella'', concerning the dangers faced by the captains of rescue tugs in the
English Channel The English Channel, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" ( Cotentinais) or ( Jèrriais), ( Guernésiais), "The Channel"; br, Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; cy, Môr Udd, "Lord's Sea"; kw, Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"; nl, Het Ka ...
during World War II, was made into a film entitled '' The Key'' in 1958. **The novel '' The Captain'' (1967), about the captain of a rescue tug during a Murmansk Convoy, sold over a million copies. **Its 1986 sequel, '' The Commodore'', features the narrator captaining a fleet of tugs in peace-time. *'' Little Toot'' (1939), written and illustrated by Hardie Gramatky, is a children's story of an anthropomorphic tugboat child, who wants to help tow ships in a harbour near
Hoboken Hoboken ( ; Unami language, Unami: ') is a City (New Jersey), city in Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson County in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2020 United States census, 2020 U.S. census, the city's population was 60,417. The United ...
. He's rejected by the tugboat community and dejectedly drifts out to sea, where he accidentally discovers a shipwrecked liner and a chance to prove his worth. This story was animated as part of the Disney movie Melody Time. *
Farley Mowat Farley McGill Mowat, (May 12, 1921 – May 6, 2014) was a Canadian writer and environmentalist. His works were translated into 52 languages, and he sold more than 17 million books. He achieved fame with the publication of his books on the Can ...
's book '' The Grey Seas Under'' tells the tale of a legendary North Atlantic salvage tug, the ''
Foundation Franklin SS ''Foundation Franklin'' was a seagoing salvage tug built for the Royal Navy as HMS ''Frisky'' in 1918. In 1924, the tugboat was sold and renamed ''Gustavo Ipland'' before being acquired in 1930 by Foundation Maritime and renamed ''Foundation ...
''. He later wrote ''The Serpent's Coil'', which also deals with salvage tugs in the North Atlantic.


Gallery

File:Svitzer Freja tug.jpg, Swedish harbour tug ''Svitzer Freja'' in tug-operation (3,600 kW / ) File:ErfgoedLeiden LEI001016475 Stoomsleepboot Mascotte II.jpg, Dutch river tugboat "Mascotte II" File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1983-0330-002, Rostock, Überseehafen, Frachter, Schlepper.jpg, German harbour-tug and DDR quick-freighter ''Karl Marx'' at
Rostock Rostock (), officially the Hanseatic and University City of Rostock (german: link=no, Hanse- und Universitätsstadt Rostock), is the largest city in the German States of Germany, state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and lies in the Mecklenburgian p ...
harbour File:WOONA.JPG, The tugboat ''Woona'' in
Sydney Harbour Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove River, Lane Cove and Parramatta River, Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or harbor, natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. T ...
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of , Australia is the largest country by ...
File:Svitzer Tyr - - Ystad-2018.jpg, Danish ''Svitzer'' Tyr in
Ystad Ystad (; older da, Ysted) is a Urban areas in Sweden, town and the seat of Ystad Municipality, in Scania County, Sweden. Ystad had 18,350 inhabitants in 2010. The settlement dates from the 11th century and has become a busy ferryport, local adm ...
harbour 2018 File:Baltsund - Ystad-2019.jpg, Danish ''Baltsund'' in
Ystad Ystad (; older da, Ysted) is a Urban areas in Sweden, town and the seat of Ystad Municipality, in Scania County, Sweden. Ystad had 18,350 inhabitants in 2010. The settlement dates from the 11th century and has become a busy ferryport, local adm ...
harbour 2019 File:Tugs on the starbord of vlcc.jpg, Tugs towing an
oil tanker An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk cargo, bulk transport of petroleum, oil or its products. There are two basic types of oil tankers: crude tankers and product tankers. Crude tankers move large quant ...
(VLCC) File:Tugboat Nancy Anne.jpg, Tugboat ''Nancy Anne'' assisting a tug and barge docking in
Rogers City, Michigan Rogers City is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 2,827 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. It is the county seat of Presque Isle County, Michigan, Presque Isle County. The city is adjacent to Rogers Township, Michi ...
File:Smit Rotterdam.jpg, Oceangoing tug ''Smit Rotterdam'' arriving at
Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , , lit. ''The Dam on the River Rotte'') is the second largest city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ed ...
(1987) File:Watergeus 2008.jpg, Dutch tugboat ''Watergeus'' towing a barge in the locks at Kiel-Holtenau File:Ship and Tugs Sydney 1942 slnsw.jpg, Ship surrounded by tug boats, Sydney, 1942] File:Eppleton Hall.jpg, '' Eppleton Hall (1914), Eppleton Hall'', a paddlewheel tugboat, in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Northern California. The city proper is the List of Ca ...


See also

* Admiralty tug * American Waterways Operators *
Azipod Azipod is a trademark azimuth thruster An azimuth thruster is a configuration of marine propellers placed in pods that can be rotated to any horizontal angle (azimuth), making a rudder unnecessary. These give ships better maneuverability th ...
* Charlotte Dundas * E3 Tug Project * Fish tug * HydroTug *
Maritime pilot A maritime pilot, marine pilot, harbor pilot, port pilot, ship pilot, or simply pilot, is a mariner who maneuvers ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying ...
*
PS Comet The PS (paddle steamer ) ''Comet'' was built in 1812 for Henry Bell (engineer), Henry Bell, hotel and Bathing, baths owner in Helensburgh, and began a passenger service on 15 August 1812 on the River Clyde between Glasgow and Greenock, the firs ...
*
Pusher (boat) A pusher, pusher craft, pusher boat, pusher tug, or towboat, is a boat designed for pushing barges or car floats. In the United States, the industries that use these vessels refer to them as towboats. These vessels are characterized by a squar ...
*
Switcher A switcher, shunter, yard pilot, switch engine, yard goat, or shifter is a small Rail transport, railroad locomotive used for manoeuvring railroad cars inside a rail yard in a process known as Shunt (railway operations), ''switching'' (US) or ...
, rail analog *Tugboats in New York City *
Type V ship The Type V ship is a United States Maritime Commission (MARCOM) designation for World War II tugboats. Type V was used in World War II, Korean War, and the Vietnam War. Type V ships were used to move ships and barges. Type V tugboats were made of ...


Notes


References

*''Jane's Ocean Technology 1979–80'' / Jane's Yearbooks, 1979 – . *''On Tugboats: Stories of Work and Life Aboard'' / Virginia Thorndike – Down East Books, 2004. *''Under Tow: A Canadian History of Tugs and Towing'' / Donal Baird – Vanwell Publishing, 277 p., 2003 – *''Pacific Tugboats: / Gordon Newell – Superior Publishing Company 1957, Seattle Washington. *''Primer of Towing'' / George H. Reid – Cornell Maritime Press, 1992.


Further reading

* Nautical terminology specific to towboating on inland waterways. * Farrell, Paul (2016)
Tugboats Illustrated History, Technology, Seamanship
New York: W. W. Norton & Company. . A gorgeously detailed guide to the evolution, design, and role of tugboats, from the earliest days of steam to today’s most advanced ocean-going workboats.


External links


At the Port of FelixstoweBeacon Finland Ltd JAK®-ATB Coupling SystemCompagnie Maritime Chambon"Docking The World's Great Liners"
''Popular Mechanics'', May 1930, article on docking large ships in the first half of the 20th century using tugboats
Intercon ATB Couplers

Tugboat Enthusiasts Society

University of Wisconsin–La Crosse Historic Steamboat Photographs

Waterford Tugboat Roundup
{{Authority control Boat types Port infrastructure Ship types