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Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering and encompassing mo ...
is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions.


Federal subjects

Since 18 March 2014, the
Russian Federation Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering and encompassing mo ...
consisted of eighty-five federal subjects that are constituent members of the Federation.Constitution, Article 65 However, two of these federal subjects—the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of
Sevastopol
Sevastopol
—are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine. All federal subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council ( upper house of the Federal Assembly). They do, however, differ in the degree of
autonomy File:Новая Кукковка.jpg, The Republic of Karelia is an autonomous Federal subjects of Russia, federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of Karelia. In developmenta ...
they enjoy. There are 6 types of federal subjects—22  republics, 9 
krais
krais
, 46 
oblasts
oblasts
, 3  federal cities, 1 
autonomous oblastAn autonomous oblast is an autonomous entity within the state which is on the '' oblast'' ( province) level of the overall administrative subdivision. It may refer to: * Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union * Autonomous oblasts of Russia *Serbian ...
, and 4  autonomous okrugs. Autonomous okrugs are the only ones that have a peculiar status of being federal subjects in their own right, yet at the same time they are considered to be administrative divisions of other federal subjects (with
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Chukotka Autonomous Okrug ( rus, Чукотский автономный округ, r=Chukotsky avtonomny okrug, p=tɕʊˈkotskʲɪj ɐftɐˈnomnɨj ˈokrʊk; , ''Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug'', ) or Chukotka () is the easternmost federal sub ...
being the only exception).


2014 Annexation of Crimea

On 18 March 2014, as a part of the annexation of Crimea and following the establishment of the Republic of Crimea (country), Republic of Crimea (an independent entity recognized only by Russia), a treaty was signed between Russia and the Republic of Crimea incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the City of
Sevastopol
Sevastopol
as the constituent members of the Russian Federation.Kremlin.ru
"Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов"
("Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation")
According to the Treaty, the Republic of Crimea is accepted as a federal subject with the status of a republics of Russia, republic while the City of Sevastopol has received federal city status. Neither the Republic of Crimea nor the city of Sevastopol are politically recognized as parts of Russia by international law and Political status of Crimea, most countries."Putin signs Crimea treaty, will not seize other Ukraine regions"
Reuters, 18 March 2014.


Administrative divisions

Prior to the adoption of the 1993 Constitution of Russia, the administrative-territorial structure of Russia was regulated by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Russia, Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 17 August 1982 "On the Procedures of Dealing with the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the RSFSR"."Энциклопедический словарь конституционного права". Статья "Административно-территориальное устройство". Сост. А. А. Избранов. — Мн.: Изд. В.М. Суров, 2001. The 1993 Constitution, however, did not identify the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions as the responsibility of the federal government nor as the joint responsibility of the federal government and the subjects. This was interpreted by the governments of the federal subjects as a sign that the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions became solely the responsibility of the federal subjects. As a result, the modern administrative-territorial structures of the federal subjects vary significantly from one federal subject to another. While the implementation details may be considerably different, in general, however, the following types of high-level administrative divisions are recognized: *administrative districts (raions) *city of federal subject significance, cities/towns and urban-type settlement#Administrative divisions, urban-type settlements of federal subject significance *closed city#Russia, closed administrative-territorial formations Autonomous okrugs of Russia, Autonomous okrugs and okrug#Russian Federation, okrugs are intermediary units of administrative divisions, which include some of the federal subject's districts and cities/towns/urban-type settlements of federal subject significance. *Autonomous okrugs, while being under the jurisdiction of another federal subject, are still constitutionally recognized as federal subjects on their own right.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Chukotka Autonomous Okrug ( rus, Чукотский автономный округ, r=Chukotsky avtonomny okrug, p=tɕʊˈkotskʲɪj ɐftɐˈnomnɨj ˈokrʊk; , ''Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug'', ) or Chukotka () is the easternmost federal sub ...
is an exception in that it is not administratively subordinated to any other federal subject of Russia. *Okrugs are usually former autonomous okrugs that lost their federal subject status due to a merger with another federal subject. Typical lower-level administrative divisions include: *selsoviets (rural councils) *town of district significance, towns and urban-type settlements of the administrative district significance *city districts


Municipal divisions

In the course of the Russian municipal reform of 2004–2005, all federal subjects of Russia were to streamline the structures of local self-government, which is guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia. The reform mandated that each federal subject was to have a unified structure of the municipal government bodies by 1 January 2005, and a law enforcing the reform provisions went in effect on 1 January 2006. According to the law, the units of the municipal division (called "municipal formations") are as follows: *Municipal district, a group of urban and rural settlements, often along with the inter-settlement territories. In practice, municipal districts are usually formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts (''raion#Municipal district, raions''). **Urban settlement, a city/town or an urban-type settlement, possibly together with adjacent rural and/or urban localities **Rural settlement, one or several types of inhabited localities in Russia#Rural localities, rural localities *Urban okrug, an urban settlement not incorporated into a municipal district. In practice, urban okrugs are usually formed within the boundaries of existing city of federal subject significance, cities of federal subject significance. *Intra-urban territory (intra-urban municipal formation) of a federal city, a part of a federal city's territory. In Moscow, these are called municipal formations (which correspond to districts); in St. Petersburg—''municipal okrugs'', ''towns'', and ''settlements''. In (located on the Crimean Peninsula, which is a territory disputed between Russia and Ukraine), they are known as ''municipal okrugs'' and a ''town''.Law #17-ZS Territories not included as a part of municipal formations are known as ''inter-settlement territories''. The Federal Law was amended on 27 May 2014 to include new types of municipal divisions: *Urban okrug with intra-urban divisions, an urban okrug divided into intra-urban districts at the lower level of the municipal hierarchy **Intra-urban district, a municipal formation within an urban okrug with intra-urban divisions. This municipal formation type would typically be established within the borders of existing city districts (i.e., the administrative divisions in some of the city of federal subject significance, cities of federal subject significance). In June 2014, Chelyabinsk#Administrative and municipal status, Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug became the first urban okrug to implement intra-urban divisions. Federal legislation introduced on May 1, 2019, added an additional territorial unit: *Municipal okrug, a grouping of several settlements without municipal status. Municipal okrugs formally exercise local self-government either through direct means or through electoral and other institutions.


Other types of subdivisions


Federal districts

All of the federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts of Russia, federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.


Economic regions

For economic and statistical purposes the federal subjects are grouped into twelve Economic regions of Russia, economic regions. (''Russian Classification of Economic Regions'' (OK 024-95) of January 1, 1997 as amended by the Amendments #1/1998 through #5/2001. Section II. Economic Regions) Economic regions and their parts sharing common economic trends are in turn grouped into economic zones and macrozones of Russia, economic zones and macrozones.


Military districts

In order for the Armed Forces to provide an efficient management of military units, their training, and other operational activities, the federal subjects are grouped into five Military districts of Russia, military districts. Each military district operates under the command of the district headquarters, headed by the district commander, and is subordinated to the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.


See also

*History of the administrative division of Russia *List of federal subjects of Russia by area *List of federal subjects of Russia by population *Types of inhabited localities in Russia *Republics of the Soviet Union *Constituencies of Russia


References


Sources

* *


External links


''Local government in Russia: Its powers vary across the country'' at Citymayors.com
{{Use mdy dates, date=March 2014 Political divisions of Russia, Administrative divisions by country, Russia Administrative divisions in Europe, Russia History of Russia (1992–present) Russia geography-related lists