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In
logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, account, re ...

logic
, especially
mathematical logic Mathematical logic, also called formal logic, is a subfield of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry) ...
, a signature lists and describes the non-logical symbols of a formal language. In
universal algebraUniversal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures. For instance, rather than take particular Group (mathematics), groups as t ...
, a signature lists the operations that characterize an algebraic structure. In
model theory In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
, signatures are used for both purposes. They are rarely made explicit in more philosophical treatments of logic.


Definition

Formally, a (single-sorted) signature can be defined as a triple σ = (''S''func, ''S''rel, ar), where ''S''func and ''S''rel are disjoint sets not containing any other basic logical symbols, called respectively * ''function symbols'' (examples: +, ×, 0, 1) and * ''relation symbols'' or ''predicates'' (examples: ≤, ∈), and a function ar: ''S''func \cup ''S''rel\mathbb N which assigns a natural number called '' arity'' to every function or relation symbol. A function or relation symbol is called ''n''-ary if its arity is ''n''. A nullary (''0''-ary) function symbol is called a ''constant symbol''. A signature with no function symbols is called a relational signature, and a signature with no relation symbols is called an algebraic signature. A finite signature is a signature such that ''S''func and ''S''rel are finite. More generally, the cardinality of a signature σ = (''S''func, ''S''rel, ar) is defined as , σ, = , ''S''func, + , ''S''rel, . The language of a signature is the set of all well formed sentences built from the symbols in that signature together with the symbols in the logical system.


Other conventions

In universal algebra the word type or similarity type is often used as a synonym for "signature". In model theory, a signature σ is often called a vocabulary, or identified with the (first-order) language ''L'' to which it provides the non-logical symbols. However, the
cardinality In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
of the language ''L'' will always be infinite; if σ is finite then , L, will be 0. As the formal definition is inconvenient for everyday use, the definition of a specific signature is often abbreviated in an informal way, as in: :"The standard signature for
abelian group In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
s is σ = (+,−,0), where − is a unary operator." Sometimes an algebraic signature is regarded as just a list of arities, as in: :"The similarity type for abelian groups is σ = (2,1,0)." Formally this would define the function symbols of the signature as something like ''f''0 (nullary), ''f''1 (unary) and ''f''2 (binary), but in reality the usual names are used even in connection with this convention. In
mathematical logic Mathematical logic, also called formal logic, is a subfield of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry) ...
, very often symbols are not allowed to be nullary, so that constant symbols must be treated separately rather than as nullary function symbols. They form a set ''S''const disjoint from ''S''func, on which the arity function ''ar'' is not defined. However, this only serves to complicate matters, especially in proofs by induction over the structure of a formula, where an additional case must be considered. Any nullary relation symbol, which is also not allowed under such a definition, can be emulated by a unary relation symbol together with a sentence expressing that its value is the same for all elements. This translation fails only for empty structures (which are often excluded by convention). If nullary symbols are allowed, then every formula of
propositional logic Propositional calculus is a branch of logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos' ...
is also a formula of
first-order logic First-order logic—also known as predicate logic, quantificational logic, and first-order predicate calculus—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. First-order logic uses Quantificat ...
. An example for an infinite signature uses ''S''func = ∪ and ''S''rel = to formalize expressions and equations about a vector space over an infinite scalar field ''F'', where each f''a'' denotes the unary operation of scalar multiplication by ''a''. This way, the signature and the logic can be kept single-sorted, with vectors being the only sort.


Use of signatures in logic and algebra

In the context of
first-order logic First-order logic—also known as predicate logic, quantificational logic, and first-order predicate calculus—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. First-order logic uses Quantificat ...
, the symbols in a signature are also known as the non-logical symbols, because together with the logical symbols they form the underlying alphabet over which two formal languages are inductively defined: The set of ''terms'' over the signature and the set of (well-formed) ''formulas'' over the signature. In a structure (mathematical logic), structure, an ''interpretation'' ties the function and relation symbols to mathematical objects that justify their names: The interpretation of an ''n''-ary function symbol ''f'' in a structure ''A'' with ''domain'' ''A'' is a function ''fA'': ''An'' → ''A'', and the interpretation of an ''n''-ary relation symbol is a relation ''RA'' ⊆ ''An''. Here ''A''''n'' = ''A'' × ''A'' × ... × ''A'' denotes the ''n''-fold cartesian product of the domain ''A'' with itself, and so ''f'' is in fact an ''n''-ary function, and ''R'' an ''n''-ary relation.


Many-sorted signatures

For many-sorted logic and for structure (mathematical logic)#Many-sorted structures, many-sorted structures signatures must encode information about the sorts. The most straightforward way of doing this is via symbol types that play the role of generalized arities.Many-Sorted Logic
the first chapter i

written b
Calogero G. Zarba


Symbol types

Let ''S'' be a set (of sorts) not containing the symbols × or →. The symbol types over ''S'' are certain words over the alphabet S \cup \: the relational symbol types ''s''1 × … × ''s''''n'', and the functional symbol types ''s''1 × … × ''s''''n''→''s′'', for non-negative integers ''n'' and s_1, s_2, \dots, s_n, s' \in S. (For ''n'' = 0, the expression ''s''1 × … × ''s''''n'' denotes the empty word.)


Signature

A (many-sorted) signature is a triple (''S'', ''P'', type) consisting of * a set ''S'' of sorts, * a set ''P'' of symbols, and * a map type which associates to every symbol in ''P'' a symbol type over ''S''.


Notes


References

*

* {{ cite book , last=Hodges , first=Wilfrid , publisher=Cambridge University Press , title=A Shorter Model Theory , year=1997 , isbn=0-521-58713-1


External links


Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Model theory
—by Wilfred Hodges.
PlanetMath:
Entry
Signature
describes the concept for the case when no sorts are introduced.



Model theory Universal algebra