biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Developmenta ...
, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining ( circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological
organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a synonym for "Outline of life forms, life form". Organ ...
s based on shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a
taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a more inclusive group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family,
genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification s ...
, and
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...
. The Swedish botanist
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomia ...
is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a ranked system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binominal nomenclature for naming organisms. With advances in the theory, data and analytical technology of biological systematics, the Linnaean system has transformed into a system of modern biological classification intended to reflect the
evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait, characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the Gene expression, expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offsp ...

ary relationships among organisms, both living and extinct.


The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the discipline remains: the conception, naming, and classification of groups of organisms. As points of reference, recent definitions of taxonomy are presented below: # Theory and practice of grouping individuals into species, arranging species into larger groups, and giving those groups names, thus producing a classification. # A field of science (and major component of
systematics Biology, Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the Correlation and dependence, relationships among living things through time. Relationships are visualized as evolutionary trees (syn ...
) that encompasses description, identification, nomenclature, and classification # The science of classification, in biology the arrangement of organisms into a classification # "The science of classification as applied to living organisms, including study of means of formation of species, etc." # "The analysis of an organism's characteristics for the purpose of classification" # "Systematics studies phylogeny to provide a pattern that can be translated into the classification and names of the more inclusive field of taxonomy" (listed as a desirable but unusual definition) The varied definitions either place taxonomy as a sub-area of systematics (definition 2), invert that relationship (definition 6), or appear to consider the two terms synonymous. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy (definitions 1 and 2), or a part of systematics outside taxonomy. For example, definition 6 is paired with the following definition of systematics that places nomenclature outside taxonomy: * ''Systematics'': "The study of the identification, taxonomy, and nomenclature of organisms, including the classification of living things with regard to their natural relationships and the study of variation and the evolution of taxa". A whole set of terms including taxonomy, systematic biology, systematics, biosystematics, scientific classification, biological classification, and phylogenetics have at times had overlapping meanings – sometimes the same, sometimes slightly different, but always related and intersecting. The broadest meaning of "taxonomy" is used here. The term itself was introduced in 1813 by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, de Candolle, in his ''Théorie élémentaire de la botanique''.

Monograph and taxonomic revision

A taxonomic revision or taxonomic review is a novel analysis of the variation patterns in a particular taxon. This analysis may be executed on the basis of any combination of the various available kinds of characters, such as morphological, anatomical, palynological, biochemical and genetic. A Monograph#In biology, monograph or complete revision is a revision that is comprehensive for a taxon for the information given at a particular time, and for the entire world. Other (partial) revisions may be restricted in the sense that they may only use some of the available character sets or have a limited spatial scope. A revision results in a conformation of or new insights in the relationships between the subtaxa within the taxon under study, which may result in a change in the classification of these subtaxa, the identification of new subtaxa, or the merger of previous subtaxa.

Alpha and beta taxonomy

The term "alpha taxonomy" is primarily used today to refer to the discipline of finding, describing, and naming taxa, particularly species. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, and the products of research through the end of the 19th century. William Bertram Turrill introduced the term "alpha taxonomy" in a series of papers published in 1935 and 1937 in which he discussed the philosophy and possible future directions of the discipline of taxonomy.
... there is an increasing desire amongst taxonomists to consider their problems from wider viewpoints, to investigate the possibilities of closer co-operation with their cytological, ecological and genetics colleagues and to acknowledge that some revision or expansion, perhaps of a drastic nature, of their aims and methods, may be desirable ... Turrill (1935) has suggested that while accepting the older invaluable taxonomy, based on structure, and conveniently designated "alpha", it is possible to glimpse a far-distant taxonomy built upon as wide a basis of morphological and physiological facts as possible, and one in which "place is found for all observational and experimental data relating, even if indirectly, to the constitution, subdivision, origin, and behaviour of species and other taxonomic groups". Ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, a great value of acting as permanent stimulants, and if we have some, even vague, ideal of an "omega" taxonomy we may progress a little way down the Greek alphabet. Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a "beta" taxonomy.
Turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology, genetics, and cytology. He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy (pp. 365–366). Later authors have used the term in a different sense, to mean the delimitation of species (not subspecies or taxa of other ranks), using whatever investigative techniques are available, and including sophisticated computational or laboratory techniques. Thus, Ernst Mayr in 1968 defined "beta taxonomy" as the classification of ranks higher than species.
An understanding of the biological meaning of variation and of the evolutionary origin of groups of related species is even more important for the second stage of taxonomic activity, the sorting of species into groups of relatives ("taxa") and their arrangement in a hierarchy of higher categories. This activity is what the term classification denotes; it is also referred to as "beta taxonomy".

Microtaxonomy and macrotaxonomy

How species should be defined in a particular group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy. By extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at the higher
taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
s subgenus and above.


While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, a truly scientific attempt to classify organisms did not occur until the 18th century. Earlier works were primarily descriptive and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in this scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on arbitrary criteria, the so-called "artificial systems", including Linnaeus's system of sexual classification for plants (Of course, Linnaeus's classification of animals was entitled "Systema Naturae" ("the System of Nature"), implying that he, at least, believed that it was more than an "artificial system"). Later came systems based on a more complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as "natural systems", such as those of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, de Jussieu (1789), de Candolle (1813) and Bentham and Hooker (1862–1863). These classifications described empirical patterns and were pre-
evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait, characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the Gene expression, expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offsp ...

ary in thinking. The publication of Charles Darwin's ''On the Origin of Species'' (1859) led to a new explanation for classifications, based on evolutionary relationships. This was the concept of phyletic systems, from 1883 onwards. This approach was typified by those of August Eichler, Eichler (1883) and Adolf Engler, Engler (1886–1892). The advent of cladistic methodology in the 1970s led to classifications based on the sole criterion of monophyly, supported by the presence of synapomorphies. Since then, the evidentiary basis has been expanded with data from molecular genetics that for the most part complements traditional Morphology (biology), morphology.


Early taxonomists

Naming and classifying our surroundings has probably been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate. It would always have been important to know the names of poisonous and edible plants and animals in order to communicate this information to other members of the family or group. Medicinal plant illustrations show up in Egyptian wall paintings from c. 1500 BC, indicating that the uses of different species were understood and that a basic taxonomy was in place.Manktelow, M. (2010
History of Taxonomy
. Lecture from Dept. of Systematic Biology, Uppsala University.

Ancient times

Organisms were first classified by Aristotle (Greece, 384–322 BC) during his stay on the Lesbos, Island of Lesbos. He classified beings by their parts, or in modern terms ''attributes'', such as having live birth, having four legs, laying eggs, having blood, or being warm-bodied. He divided all living things into two groups: plants and animals. Some of his groups of animals, such as ''Anhaima'' (animals without blood, translated as invertebrates) and ''Enhaima'' (animals with blood, roughly the vertebrates), as well as groups like the sharks and cetaceans, are still commonly used today. His student Theophrastus (Greece, 370–285 BC) carried on this tradition, mentioning some 500 plants and their uses in his ''Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus), Historia Plantarum''. Again, several plant groups currently still recognized can be traced back to Theophrastus, such as ''Cornus (genus), Cornus'', ''Crocus'', and ''Narcissus (plant), Narcissus''.


Taxonomy in the Middle Ages was largely based on the Aristotelian system, with additions concerning the philosophical and existential order of creatures. This included concepts such as the Great chain of being in the Western scholasticism, scholastic tradition, again deriving ultimately from Aristotle. Aristotelian system did not classify plants or fungi, due to the lack of microscope at the time, as his ideas were based on arranging the complete world in a single continuum, as per the ''scala naturae'' (the Natural Ladder). This, as well, was taken into consideration in the Great chain of being. Advances were made by scholars such as Procopius, Timotheos of Gaza, Demetrios Pepagomenos, and Thomas Aquinas. Medieval thinkers used abstract philosophical and logical categorizations more suited to abstract philosophy than to pragmatic taxonomy.

Renaissance and Early Modern

During the Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment, Age of Reason, and the Enlightenment, categorizing organisms became more prevalent, and taxonomic works became ambitious enough to replace the ancient texts. This is sometimes credited to the development of sophisticated optical lenses, which allowed the morphology of organisms to be studied in much greater detail. One of the earliest authors to take advantage of this leap in technology was the Italian physician Andrea Cesalpino (1519–1603), who has been called "the first taxonomist". His Masterpiece, magnum opus ''De Plantis'' came out in 1583, and described more than 1500 plant species. Two large plant families that he first recognized are still in use today: the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae. Then in the 17th century John Ray (England, 1627–1705) wrote many important taxonomic works. Arguably his greatest accomplishment was ''Methodus Plantarum Nova'' (1682), in which he published details of over 18,000 plant species. At the time, his classifications were perhaps the most complex yet produced by any taxonomist, as he based his taxa on many combined characters. The next major taxonomic works were produced by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (France, 1656–1708). His work from 1700, ''Institutiones Rei Herbariae'', included more than 9000 species in 698 genera, which directly influenced Linnaeus, as it was the text he used as a young student.

The Linnaean era

The Swedish botanist
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomia ...
(1707–1778) ushered in a new era of taxonomy. With his major works ''Systema Naturae'' 1st Edition in 1735, ''Species Plantarum'' in 1753, and 10th edition of Systema Naturae, ''Systema Naturae'' 10th Edition, he revolutionized modern taxonomy. His works implemented a standardized binomial naming system for animal and plant species, which proved to be an elegant solution to a chaotic and disorganized taxonomic literature. He not only introduced the standard of class, order, genus, and species, but also made it possible to identify plants and animals from his book, by using the smaller parts of the flower. Thus the Linnaean system was born, and is still used in essentially the same way today as it was in the 18th century. Currently, plant and animal taxonomists regard Linnaeus' work as the "starting point" for valid names (at 1753 and 1758 respectively). Names published before these dates are referred to as "pre-Linnaean", and not considered valid (with the exception of spiders published in ''Svenska Spindlar''). Even taxonomic names published by Linnaeus himself before these dates are considered pre-Linnaean.

Modern system of classification

File:Cladogram vertebrata.jpg, The same relationship, expressed as a cladogram typical for cladistics A pattern of groups nested within groups was specified by Linnaeus' classifications of plants and animals, and these patterns began to be represented as dendrograms of the animal and plant Kingdom (biology), kingdoms toward the end of the 18th century, well before ''On the Origin of Species'' was published. The pattern of the "Natural System" did not entail a generating process, such as evolution, but may have implied it, inspiring early transmutationist thinkers . Among early works exploring the idea of a transmutation of species were Erasmus Darwin's 1796 ''Zoonomia, Zoönomia'' and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's ''Philosophie Zoologique'' of 1809. The idea was popularized in the Anglophone world by the speculative but widely read ''Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation'', published anonymously by Robert Chambers (publisher born 1802), Robert Chambers in 1844. With Darwin's theory, a general acceptance quickly appeared that a classification should reflect the Darwinian principle of common descent. Tree of life (science), Tree of life representations became popular in scientific works, with known fossil groups incorporated. One of the first modern groups tied to fossil ancestors was birds. Using the then newly discovered fossils of ''Archaeopteryx'' and ''Hesperornis'', Thomas Henry Huxley pronounced that they had evolved from dinosaurs, a group formally named by Richard Owen in 1842. The resulting description, that of dinosaurs "giving rise to" or being "the ancestors of" birds, is the essential hallmark of Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary taxonomic thinking. As more and more fossil groups were found and recognized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, paleontology, palaeontologists worked to understand the history of animals through the ages by linking together known groups. With the modern synthesis (20th century), modern evolutionary synthesis of the early 1940s, an essentially modern understanding of the evolution of the major groups was in place. As evolutionary taxonomy is based on Linnaean taxonomic ranks, the two terms are largely interchangeable in modern use. The cladistic method has emerged since the 1960s. In 1958, Julian Huxley used the term clade. Later, in 1960, Cain and Harrison introduced the term cladistic. The salient feature is arranging taxa in a hierarchical evolutionary tree, with the desideratum that all named taxa are monophyletic. A taxon is called monophyletic, if it includes all the descendants of an ancestral form. Groups that have descendant groups removed from them are termed paraphyletic, while groups representing more than one branch from the tree of life are called polyphyletic. Monophyletic groups are recognized and diagnosed on the basis of synapomorphies, shared derived character states. Cladistic classifications are compatible with traditional Linnean taxonomy and the Codes of Zoological nomenclature, Zoological and Botanical nomenclature, Botanical Nomenclature. An alternative system of nomenclature, the ''PhyloCode, International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature'' or ''PhyloCode'' has been proposed, whose intent is to regulate the formal naming of clades. Linnaean ranks will be optional under the ''PhyloCode'', which is intended to coexist with the current, rank-based codes. It remains to be seen whether the systematic community will adopt the PhyloCode or reject it in favor of the current systems of nomenclature that have been employed (and modified as needed) for over 250 years.

Kingdoms and domains

Well before Linnaeus, plants and animals were considered separate Kingdoms. Linnaeus used this as the top rank, dividing the physical world into the vegetable, animal and mineral kingdoms. As advances in microscopy made classification of microorganisms possible, the number of kingdoms increased, five- and six-kingdom systems being the most common. Domain (biology), Domains are a relatively new grouping. First proposed in 1977, Carl Woese's three-domain system was not generally accepted until later. One main characteristic of the three-domain method is the separation of Archaea and Bacteria, previously grouped into the single kingdom Bacteria (a kingdom also sometimes called Monera), with the Eukaryota for all organisms whose cells contain Nucleus (biology), a nucleus. A small number of scientists include a sixth kingdom, Archaea, but do not accept the domain method. Thomas Cavalier-Smith, who has published extensively on the classification of protists, has recently proposed that the Neomura, the clade that groups together the Archaea and Eukaryote, Eucarya, would have evolved from Bacteria, more precisely from Actinobacteria. His 2004 classification treated the archaeobacteria as part of a subkingdom of the kingdom Bacteria, i.e., he rejected the three-domain system entirely. Stefan Luketa in 2012 proposed a five "dominion" system, adding Prionobiota (acellular and without nucleic acid) and Virusobiota (acellular but with nucleic acid) to the traditional three domains.

Recent comprehensive classifications

Partial classifications exist for many individual groups of organisms and are revised and replaced as new information becomes available; however, comprehensive, published treatments of most or all life are rarer; recent examples are that of Adl et al., 2012 and 2019, which covers eukaryotes only with an emphasis on protists, and Ruggiero et al., 2015, covering both eukaryotes and prokaryotes to the rank of Order, although both exclude fossil representatives. A separate compilation (Ruggiero, 2014) covers extant taxa to the rank of family. Other, database-driven treatments include the Encyclopedia of Life, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, the NCBI taxonomy database, the Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera, the Open Tree of Life, and the Catalogue of Life. The Paleobiology Database is a resource for fossils.


Biological taxonomy is a sub-discipline of
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Developmenta ...
, and is generally practiced by biologists known as "taxonomists", though enthusiastic Natural history, naturalists are also frequently involved in the publication of new taxa. Because taxonomy aims to describe and organize life, the work conducted by taxonomists is essential for the study of biodiversity and the resulting field of conservation biology.

Classifying organisms

Biological classification is a critical component of the taxonomic process. As a result, it informs the user as to what the relatives of the taxon are hypothesized to be. Biological classification uses taxonomic ranks, including among others (in order from most inclusive to least inclusive): Domain (biology), Domain, Kingdom (biology), Kingdom, Phylum, Class (biology), Class, Order (biology), Order, Family (biology), Family, Genus, Species, and Strain (biology), Strain.

Taxonomic descriptions

The "definition" of a taxon is encapsulated by its description or its diagnosis or by both combined. There are no set rules governing the definition of taxa, but the naming and publication of new taxa is governed by sets of rules. In zoology, the nomenclature for the more commonly used ranks (Superfamily (taxonomy), superfamily to subspecies), is regulated by the ''International Code of Zoological Nomenclature'' (''ICZN Code''). In the fields of phycology, mycology, and botany, the naming of taxa is governed by the ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (''ICN''). The initial description of a taxon involves five main requirements: # The taxon must be given a name based on the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet (a binomial nomenclature, binomial for new species, or uninomial for other ranks). # The name must be unique (i.e. not a homonym (biology), homonym). # The description must be based on at least one name-bearing Type (biology), type specimen. # It should include statements about appropriate attributes either to describe (define) the taxon or to differentiate it from other taxa (the diagnosis, ''ICZN Code'', Article 13.1.1, ''ICN'', Article 38). Both codes deliberately separate defining the content of a taxon (its circumscription (taxonomy), circumscription) from defining its name. # These first four requirements must be published in a work that is obtainable in numerous identical copies, as a permanent scientific record. However, often much more information is included, like the geographic range of the taxon, ecological notes, chemistry, behavior, etc. How researchers arrive at their taxa varies: depending on the available data, and resources, methods vary from simple Quantitative property, quantitative or Qualitative property, qualitative comparisons of striking features, to elaborate computer analyses of large amounts of DNA sequence data.

Author citation

An "authority" may be placed after a scientific name. The authority is the name of the scientist or scientists who first validly published the name. For example, in 1758 Linnaeus gave the Asian elephant the scientific name ''Elephas maximus'', so the name is sometimes written as "''Elephas maximus'' Linnaeus, 1758". The names of authors are frequently abbreviated: the abbreviation ''L., for Linnaeus,'' is commonly used. In botany, there is, in fact, a regulated list of standard abbreviations (see list of botanists by author abbreviation). The system for assigning authorities differs slightly between Author citation (botany), botany and Author citation (zoology), zoology. However, it is standard that if the genus of a species has been changed since the original description, the original authority's name is placed in parentheses.


In phenetics, also known as taximetrics, or numerical taxonomy, organisms are classified based on overall similarity, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relationships. It results in a measure of evolutionary "distance" between taxa. Phenetic methods have become relatively rare in modern times, largely superseded by cladistic analyses, as phenetic methods do not distinguish common ancestral (or plesiomorphic) traits from new common (or apomorphic) traits. However, certain phenetic methods, such as neighbor joining, have found their way into cladistics, as a reasonable approximation of phylogeny when more advanced methods (such as Bayesian inference) are too computationally expensive.


Modern taxonomy uses database technologies to search and catalogue classifications and their documentation. While there is no commonly used database, there are comprehensive databases such as the ''Catalogue of Life'', which attempts to list every documented species. The catalogue listed 1.64 million species for all kingdoms as of April 2016, claiming coverage of more than three quarters of the estimated species known to modern science.

See also

* Automated species identification * Bacterial taxonomy * Cladogram * Cladistics * Cluster analysis * Consortium for the Barcode of Life * Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities * Dendrogram * Genetypes * Glossary of scientific naming * Identification (biology) * ''Incertae sedis'' * Open Tree of Life * Parataxonomy * Phenogram * Set theory * Taxonomy (general) * Virus classification




* * *

External links

{{Wikisource portal, Taxonomy
What is taxonomy?
at th
''Natural History Museum London''

the ''National Center for Biotechnology Information''
the ''Universal Protein Resource''
the ''Integrated Taxonomic Information System''
the ''Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities''
''free species directory''

Taxonomy (biology), Biological nomenclature Biological classification, *