raisin
   HOME

TheInfoList



A raisin is a dried
grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...

grape
. Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The va ...

cooking
,
baking Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven upA double oven A ceramic oven An oven is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environmen ...

baking
, and
brewing Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and #Fermenting, fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with Yeast#Beer, yeast. It may be done in a brewery ...
. In the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
,
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
, and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...

Australia
, the word ''raisin'' is reserved for the dark-colored dried large grape, with '' sultana'' being a golden-colored dried grape, and '' currant'' being a dried small Black Corinth seedless grape.


Etymology

The word "raisin" dates back to
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent distinct variations and developments following ...
and is a
loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lin ...
from
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...
; in modern
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...

French
, ''raisin'' means "grape", while a dried grape is a ''raisin sec'', or "dry grape". The Old French word, in turn, developed from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
word '' racemus'', "a bunch of grapes".


Varieties

Raisin varieties depend on the type of grape used and are made in a variety of sizes and colors including green, black, brown, blue, purple, and yellow. Seedless varieties include the sultana (the common American type is known as
Thompson Seedless The sultana is a "white" (pale green), oval seedless grape variety also called the sultanina, Thompson Seedless (United States), Lady de Coverly (England), and oval-fruited Kishmish (Iraq, Iran, Israel, Palestine (region), Palestine, India). It ...

Thompson Seedless
in the United States), the Greek currants (black Corinthian raisins,'' Vitis vinifera ''L. var. Apyrena) and Flame grapes. Raisins are traditionally
sun-dried 150px, A whole potato, sliced pieces (right), and dried sliced pieces (left), 1943. Food drying is a method of food preservation Food preservation includes food processing practices which prevent the growth of microorganisms, such as yeasts (a ...
, but may also be water-dipped and artificially dehydrated. "Golden raisins" are generally dried in dehydrators with controlled temperature and humidity, which allows them to retain a lighter color and more moisture. They are often treated with
sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide (IUPAC-recommended spelling) or sulphur dioxide (traditional Commonwealth English) is the chemical compound with the formula . It is a Toxicity, toxic gas responsible for the smell of burnt matches. It is released naturally by vol ...
after drying. Black Corinth or
Zante currant Zante currants, Corinth raisins, or simply currants outside the United States, are raisin A raisin is a dried grape. Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking, and brewing. In the Uni ...
are small, sometimes seedless raisins that are much darker and have a tart, tangy flavor. They are usually called currants.
Muscat Muscat ( ar, مَسْقَط, ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'' ...
raisins are large compared to other varieties, and also sweeter. Grapes used to produce raisins in the Middle East and Asia include the large black monukka (or manucca) grapes that produce large raisins.


Processing

Raisins are produced commercially by drying harvested grape
berries A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissem ...
. For a grape berry to dry, water inside the grape must be removed completely from the interior of the cells onto the surface of the grape where the water droplets can evaporate. However, this diffusion process is very difficult because the grape skin contains wax in its cuticle, which prevents the water from passing through. In addition to this, the physical and chemical mechanisms located on the outer layers of the grape are adapted to prevent water loss.Christensen, L.P., and Peacock, W.L. (20 April 2013
"The Raisin Drying Process"
. ''Raisin Production Manual'',
University of California The University of California (UC) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university, research university system in the U.S. state of California. The system is composed of the campuses at University of Californ ...
at Davis.
The three steps to commercial raisin production include pre-treatment, drying, and post-drying processes.


Pre-treatment

Pre-treatment is a necessary step in raisin production to ensure the increased rate of water removal during the drying process. A faster water removal rate decreases the rate of browning and helps to produce more desirable raisins. The historical method of completing this process was developed in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor areas by using a dry emulsion cold dip made of potassium carbonate and ethyl esters of fatty acids. This dip was shown to increase the rate of water loss by two- to three-fold. Recently, new methods have been developed such as exposing the grapes to oil emulsions or dilute alkaline solutions. These methods can encourage water transfer to the outer surface of grapes which helps to increase the efficiency of the drying process.


Drying

The three types of drying methods are: sun drying, shade drying, and mechanical drying. Sun drying is an inexpensive process; however, environmental contamination, insect infections, and microbial deterioration can occur and the resulting raisins are often of low quality. Additionally, sun drying is a very slow process and may not produce the most desirable raisins. Mechanical drying can be done in a safer and more controlled environment where rapid drying is guaranteed. One type of mechanical drying is to use microwave heating. Water molecules in the grapes absorb microwave energy resulting in rapid evaporation. Microwave heating often produces puffy raisins.


Post-drying processes

After the drying process is complete, raisins are sent to processing plants where they are cleaned with water to remove any foreign objects that may have become embedded during the drying process. Stems and off-grade raisins are also removed. The washing process may cause rehydration, so another drying step is completed after washing to ensure that the added moisture has been removed. All steps in the production of raisins are very important in determining the quality of raisins. Sometimes, sulfur dioxide is applied to raisins after the pre treatment step and before drying to decrease the rate of browning caused by the reaction between polyphenol oxidase and phenolic compounds. Sulfur dioxide also helps to preserve flavor and prevent the loss of certain vitamins during the drying process.


Production

Global production of raisins in 2020-21 was 1.2 million
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), the current metric system, having the unit symbol kg. I ...
s, led by
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkans in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the B ...

Turkey
, the United States,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...

Iran
, and India as the largest producers.


Nutrition

Raisins are 15% water, 79%
carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage. A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) ato ...
s (including 4%
fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a #Natural fibers, natural or #Man-made fibers, man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. The strongest engineer ...
), 3%
protein Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including Enzyme catalysis, catalysing metabol ...
, and contain negligible
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies ...

fat
(table). In a 100 gram reference amount, raisins supply 299
kilocalorie The calorie is a unit of energy As energy In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, i ...
s and moderate amounts (10–19% DV) of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The ...
for several
dietary mineral In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms ...
s,
riboflavin Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. It is required by the body for cellular respiration. Food sources include egg (food), eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy products, meat, ...

riboflavin
, and
vitamin B6 Vitamin B6 is one of the B vitamins, and thus an essential nutrient. The term refers to a group of chemically similar compounds, " vitamers", which can be interconverted in biological systems. Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves ...
(table).


Toxicity in animals

Raisins can cause
kidney failure Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are functioning at less than 15% of normal levels. Kidney failure is classified as either acute kidney failure, which develops rapidly and may res ...
in dogs. The cause of this is not known.


Gallery

File:Sunmaid-Raisin-Pile.jpg, Common commercial raisins File:Chunche.jpg, , ventilated sheds for drying grapes into raisins in
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
File:Taliparamba grocery.jpg, Raisins offered for sale at a market in
Taliparamba Taliparamba (also known as Perinchelloor and Lakshmipuram) is a Municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as ...
, India


See also

*
Dried fruit Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying (food), drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or food dehydrator, dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradi ...

Dried fruit
* Raisin cake * Snap-dragon, a
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
parlour game A parlour or parlor game is a group game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) '', 1560, Pieter Bruegel the Elder ...
that involved raisins being plucked from a bowl of burning
brandy Brandy is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. The distillation process co ...

brandy
. *
Sun-Maid Sun-Maid Growers of California is an American privately owned cooperative of raisin growers headquartered in Fresno, California Sun-Maid is the largest raisin and dried fruit processor in the world. As a cooperative, Sun-Maid is made up of appro ...
, a popular brand of raisins available in North America and the United Kingdom. * The California Raisins, a fictional music group of anthropomorphized raisins created by CalRAB to promote the food on TV * The chocolate-covered raisin, a candy made by coating the dried fruit in chocolate. * Oatmeal raisin cookie


References

{{Authority control Raisins, Berries