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A metallophone is any
musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. A person ...
in which the sound-producing body is a piece of metal (other than a metal string), consisting of tuned
metal A metal (from ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electrical resistivity and conductivity, e ...
bars, tubes, rods, bowls, or plates. Most frequently the metal body is struck to produce sound, usually with a
mallet A mallet is a tool used for imparting force on another object, often made of rubber or sometimes wood, that is smaller than a Splitting maul, maul or beetle, and usually has a relatively large head. The term is descriptive of the overall ...
, but may also be activated by friction, keyboard action, or other means. Metallophones have been used in music in Asia for thousands of years. There are several different types used in
Bali Bali () is a Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. East of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, ...
nese and
Java Java (; id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 151.6 million people, Java is the world's List ...
nese
gamelan Gamelan () ( jv, ꦒꦩꦼꦭꦤ꧀, su, ᮌᮙᮨᮜᮔ᮪, ban, ᬕᬫᭂᬮᬦ᭄) is the traditional ensemble music of the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese peoples of Indonesia Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indones ...
ensembles, including the gendér, gangsa and saron. These instruments have a single row of bars, tuned to the distinctive
pelog Pelog ( su, ᮕᮦᮜᮧᮌ᮪, translit=Pélog /pelog/, jv, ꦥꦺꦭꦺꦴꦒ꧀, ban, ᬧᬾᬮᭀᬕ᭄, translit=Pélog /pelok/) is one of the essential tuning systems used in gamelan instruments that has heptatonic scale (music), sca ...
or
slendro Slendro ( jv, ꦱ꧀ꦭꦺꦤ꧀ꦢꦿꦺꦴ, ban, slendro, translit=Sléndro) ( su, salendro, translit=Saléndro) is one of the essential tuning systems used in gamelan instruments that have pentatonic scale (music), scale. Based on Javanes ...
scales, or a subset of them. The Western
glockenspiel The glockenspiel ( or , : bells and : set) or bells is a percussion instrument consisting of pitched aluminum or steel bars arranged in a keyboard layout. This makes the glockenspiel a type of metallophone, similar to the vibraphone. The g ...
and
vibraphone The vibraphone is a percussion instrument in the metallophone family. It consists of tuned metal bars and is typically played by using Percussion mallet, mallets to strike the bars. A person who plays the vibraphone is called a ''vibraphonist, ...
are also metallophones: they have two rows of bars, in an imitation of the
piano The piano is a stringed keyboard instrument in which the strings are struck by wooden hammers that are coated with a softer material (modern hammers are covered with dense wool felt; some early pianos used leather). It is played using a musica ...
keyboard, and are tuned to the
chromatic scale The chromatic scale (or twelve-tone scale) is a set of twelve pitch (music), pitches (more completely, pitch classes) used in tonality, tonal music, with notes separated by the Interval (music), interval of a semitone. Diatonic and chromatic#Musi ...
. In music of the 20th century and beyond, the word ''metallophone'' is sometimes applied specifically to a single row of metal bars suspended over a resonator box. Metallophones tuned to the
diatonic scale In music theory, a diatonic scale is any heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps (whole tones) and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, ...
are often used in schools;
Carl Orff Carl Orff (; 10 July 1895 – 29 March 1982) was a German composer and music educator, best known for his cantata ''Carmina Burana (Orff), Carmina Burana'' (1937). The concepts of his Orff Schulwerk, Schulwerk were influential for children's mu ...
used diatonic metallophones in several of his pieces, including his pedagogical '' Schulwerk''. Metallophones with microtonal tunings are used in
Iannis Xenakis Giannis Klearchou Xenakis (also spelled for professional purposes as Yannis or Iannis Xenakis; el, Γιάννης "Ιωάννης" Κλέαρχου Ξενάκης, ; 29 May 1922 in Romania, 1922 – 4 February 2001 in France, 2001) was a Romania ...
' ''Pléïades'' and in the music of
Harry Partch Harry Partch (June 24, 1901 – September 3, 1974) was an American composer, music theory, music theorist, and creator of unique musical instruments. He composed using scales of unequal intervals in just intonation, and was one of the first 20t ...
.


Classification

Metallophones are a subset, made of metal, of Hornbostel-Sachs category 111.22 Percussion plaques, which is a subset of percussion idiophones.


List of metallophones

* Aluphone *
Bell A bell is a struck idiophone, directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator. The strike may be ...
* Bell plate *
Bonang The bonang is an Music of Indonesia, Indonesian musical instrument used in the Javanese people, Javanese gamelan. It is a collection of small gongs (sometimes called "kettles" or "pots") placed horizontally onto strings in a wooden frame (''r ...
*
Celesta The celesta or celeste , also called a bell-piano, is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard instrument, keyboard. It looks similar to an upright piano (four- or five-octave), albeit with smaller keys and a much smaller cabinet, or a lar ...
* Chime bar * Cowbells *
Crotales Crotales (, ), sometimes called antique cymbals, are percussion instruments consisting of small, Tuned percussion, tuned bronze or brass disks. Each is about in diameter with a flat top surface and a nipple on the base. They are commonly playe ...
* Dulcitone *
Fangxiang The ''fangxiang'' (also ''fang xiang'', ''fang hsiang''; wiktionary:方, 方wiktionary:响, 响 or wiktionary:方, 方wiktionary:響, 響 in Chinese language, Chinese, pinyin: fāngxiǎng; also known in the West as the Chinese chang) is an orga ...
* Gangsa * Geger * Gendér *
Glockenspiel The glockenspiel ( or , : bells and : set) or bells is a percussion instrument consisting of pitched aluminum or steel bars arranged in a keyboard layout. This makes the glockenspiel a type of metallophone, similar to the vibraphone. The g ...
*
Gong A gongFrom Indonesian language, Indonesian and ms, gong; jv, ꦒꦺꦴꦁ ; zh, c=鑼, p=luó; ja, , dora; km, គង ; th, ฆ้อง ; vi, cồng chiêng; as, কাঁহ is a percussion instrument originating in East Asia and S ...
*
Hand bells A handbell is a bell A bell is a struck idiophone, directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient reson ...
* Handpan * Jegogan * Jublag * Kulintang a Tiniok/ Sarunay *
Mark tree A mark tree (also known as a nail tree, chime tree, or set of bar chimes) is a percussion instrument used primarily for musical colour. It consists of many small chimes—typically cylinders of solid aluminium or hollow brass tubing 3/8" in di ...
* Orff metallophones *
Ranat ek lek The ''ranat ek lek'' ( th, ระนาดเอกเหล็ก, ) is a metallophone used in the Music of Thailand, classical music of Thailand. It is the smaller of the two sizes of Thailand, Thai metallophone; the larger one is called ''rana ...
*
Ranat thum lek The ''ranat thum lek'' ( th, wikt:ระนาดทุ้มเหล็ก, ระนาดทุ้มเหล็ก, ) is a metallophone used in the Music of Thailand, classical music of Thailand. It is the larger of the two sizes of Thaila ...
*
Rhodes piano The Rhodes piano (also known as the Fender Rhodes piano) is an electric piano invented by Harold Rhodes (inventor), Harold Rhodes, which became popular in the 1970s. Like a conventional piano, the Rhodes generates sound with keys and hammers, b ...
*
Roneat dek Roneat ( km, រនាត) is the generic Khmer word for referring to several types of xylophones used in traditional Cambodian music; the pinpeat The ''Pinpeat'' ( km, ពិណពាទ្យ, ) is the largest Khmer traditional musical ensemb ...
* Roneat thong * Saron * Slentem * Step bell * Steel marimbaphone * Ugal *
Steel drum The steelpan (also known as a pan, steel drum, and sometimes, collectively with other musicians, as a steelband or steel orchestra) is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. I ...
* Tam-tam *
Toy piano The toy piano, also known as the ''kinderklavier'' (child's keyboard), is a small piano-like musical instrument. Most modern toy pianos use round metal rods, as opposed to strings in a regular piano, to produce sound. The U.S. Library of Congress ...
* Triangle * Tubaphone *
Tubular bells Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the Percussion instrument, percussion family. Their sound resembles that of church bells, carillon, or a bell tower; the original tubular bells were made to duplicate the sound o ...
*
Vibraphone The vibraphone is a percussion instrument in the metallophone family. It consists of tuned metal bars and is typically played by using Percussion mallet, mallets to strike the bars. A person who plays the vibraphone is called a ''vibraphonist, ...
* Waterphone


See also

*
Aerophone An aerophone () is a musical instrument that produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes (which are respectively chordophones and membranophones), and without the vibration of the instru ...
*
Lithophone A lithophone is a musical instrument consisting of a rock or pieces of rock which are struck to produce musical notes. Notes may be sounded in combination (producing harmony) or in succession (melody). It is an idiophone comparable to instrumen ...
*
Xylophone The xylophone (; ) is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by Percussion mallet, mallets. Like the glockenspiel (which uses metal bars), the xylophone essentially consists of a set of tuned wooden k ...


External links

{{Authority control Keyboard percussion instruments Percussion idiophones